69 Works

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

Genetic drift does not sufficiently explain patterns of electric signal variation among populations of the mormyrid electric fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae

Jason Gallant, Sophie Picq, Joshua H Sperling, Catherine Cheng & Bruce Carlson
Communication signals serve crucial survival and reproductive functions. In Gabon, the widely distributed mormyrid fish Paramormyrops kingsleyae emits an electric organ discharge (EOD) signal with a dual role in communication and electrolocation that exhibits remarkable variation: populations of P. kingsleyae have either biphasic or triphasic EODs, a feature which characterizes interspecific signal diversity among the Paramormyrops genus. We quantified variation in EODs of 327 P. kingsleyae from 9 populations and compared it to genetic variation...

Wild at heart: programs to diminish negative ecological and evolutionary effects of conservation hatcheries

Megan Osborne, Thomas Dowling, Thomas Turner & Kim Scribner
Hatchery programs are critical for conservation and management of many imperiled fishes. Most traditional aquaculture programs negatively affect ecological performance, genetic, and phenotypic diversity of hatchery-origin fish compared with wild counterparts. Here, we synthesize outcomes of three conservation programs aimed at enhancing ‘wildness’. Each program focuses on a different species: lake sturgeon, razorback sucker, and Rio Grande silvery minnow. These species differ in key life history traits including size and age at sexual maturity, reproductive...

QTL × environment interactions underlie adaptive divergence in switchgrass across a large latitudinal gradient

David Lowry, John Lovell, Li Zhang, Jason Bonnette, Philip Fay, Robert Mitchell, John Lloyd-Reilley, Arvid Boe, Yanqi Wu, Francis Rouquette, Richard Wynia, Xiaoyu Weng, Kathrine Behrman, Adam Healey, Kerrie Barry, Anna Lipzen, Diane Bauer, Aditi Sharma, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Felix B. Fritschi & Thomas E. Juenger
Local adaptation is the process by which natural selection drives adaptive phenotypic divergence across environmental gradients. Theory suggests that local adaptation results from genetic trade-offs at individual genetic loci, where adaptation to one set of environmental conditions results in a cost to fitness in alternative environments. However, the degree to which there are costs associated with local adaptation is poorly understood because most of these experiments rely on two-site reciprocal transplant experiments. Here, we quantify...

Data from: Comparing traditional and Bayesian approaches to ecological meta-analysis

Paula Pappalardo, Kiona Ogle, Elizabeth Hamman, James Bence, Bruce Hungate & Craig Osenberg
1. Despite the wide application of meta-analysis in ecology, some of the traditional methods used for meta-analysis may not perform well given the type of data characteristic of ecological meta-analyses. 2. We reviewed published meta-analyses on the ecological impacts of global climate change, evaluating the number of replicates used in the primary studies (ni) and the number of studies or records (k) that were aggregated to calculate a mean effect size. We used the results...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Switchgrass rhizosphere metabolite chemistry driven by nitrogen availability

Darian Smercina, Alan W Bowsher, Sarah E Evans, Maren L Friesen, Elizabeth K Eder, David W Hoyt & Lisa K Tiemann
Plants and soil microorganisms interact closely in the rhizosphere where plants may exchange carbon (C) for functional benefits from the microbial community. For example, the bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is thought to exchange root-exuded C for nitrogen (N) fixed by diazotrophs (free-living N-fixers). However, this interaction is not well characterized and it is not known how or if switchgrass responds to diazotrophs or their activity. To explore this question, we assessed rhizosphere metabolite chemistry...

Automated analysis of scanning electron microscopic images for assessment of hair surface damage

Fanny Chu, Deon Anex, A. Daniel Jones & Bradley Hart
Mechanical damage of hair can serve as an indicator of health status and its assessment relies on the measurement of morphological features via microscopic analysis, yet few studies have categorized the extent of damage sustained, and instead, have depended on qualitative profiling based on the presence or absence of specific features. We describe the development and application of a novel quantitative measure for scoring hair surface damage in scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images without predefined...

Phenotypic divergence among threespine stickleback that differ in nuptial coloration

Clara Jenck, Whitley Lehto, Brian Ketterman, Lukas Sloan, Aaron Sexton & Robin Tinghitella
By studying systems in their earliest stages of differentiation, we can learn about the evolutionary forces acting within and among populations and how those forces could contribute to reproductive isolation. Such an understanding would help us better discern and predict how selection leads to the maintenance of multiple morphs within a species, rather than speciation. The postglacial adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is one of the best-studied cases of evolutionary diversification and...

Empirical evidence for the potential climate benefits of decarbonizing light vehicle transport in the U.S. with bioenergy from purpose-grown biomass with and without BECCS

Ilya Gelfand, Stephen Hamilton, Alexandra Kravchenko, Randall Jackson, Kurt Thelen & G. Philip Robertson
Climate mitigation scenarios limiting global temperature increases to 1.5 °C rely on decarbonizing vehicle transport with bioenergy production plus carbon capture and storage (BECCS), but climate impacts for producing different bioenergy feedstocks have not been directly compared experimentally nor for ethanol vs. electric light-duty vehicles. A field experiment at two Midwest U.S. sites on contrasting soils revealed that feedstock yields of seven potential bioenergy cropping systems varied substantially within sites but little between. Bioenergy produced...

Data from: Latent developmental and evolutionary shapes embedded within the grapevine leaf

Dan Chitwood, Robert VanBuren, Zoë Migicovsky, Margaret Frank & Jason Londo
Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. In addition, leaf shape varies among individuals, populations and species as a result of evolutionary processes and environmental influences. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically, the effects of distinct developmental and evolutionary processes are separable, even within the shape of a...

The evolution of insect Metallothioneins

Mei Luo, Cedric Finet, Haosu Cong, Hong-Yi Wei & Henry Chung
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins that are important in the chelating and detoxification of toxic heavy metals. Until now, the short length and the low sequence complexity of MTs has hindered the inference of robust phylogenies, hampering the study of their evolution. To address this longstanding question, we applied an iterative BLAST search pipeline that allowed us to build a unique dataset of more than 300 MT sequences in insects. By...

Unraveling the complex hybrid ancestry and domestication history of cultivated strawberry

Michael Hardigan, Anne Lorant, Dominique Pincot, Mitchell Feldmann, Randi Famula, Charlotte Acharya, Seonghee Lee, Sujeet Verma, Vance Whitaker, Nahla Bassil, Jason Zurn, Glenn Cole, Kevin Bird, Patrick Edger & Steven Knapp
Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of our youngest domesticates, originating in early eighteenth-century Europe from spontaneous hybrids between wild allo-octoploid species (F. chiloensis and F. virginiana). The improvement of horticultural traits by 300 years of breeding has enabled the global expansion of strawberry production. Here, we describe the genomic history of strawberry domestication from the earliest hybrids to modern cultivars. We observed a significant increase in heterozygosity among interspecific hybrids and a decrease...

Data from: Niche differentiation of bacterial versus archaeal soil nitrifiers induced by ammonium inhibition along a management gradient

Di Liang, Yang Ouyang, Lisa Tiemann & G. Philip Robertson
Soil nitrification, mediated mainly by ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), converts ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2−) and thence nitrate (NO3−). To better understand ecological differences between AOA and AOB, we investigated the nitrification kinetics of AOA and AOB under eight replicated cropped and unmanaged ecosystems (including two fertilized natural systems) along a long-term management intensity gradient in the upper U.S. Midwest. For five of eight ecosystems, AOB but not AOA exhibited Haldane kinetics...

Identifying hidden biocomplexity and genomic diversity in Chinook salmon, an imperiled species with a history of anthropogenic influence

Mariah Meek, Molly R. Stephens, Alisha Goodbla, Bernie P May & Melinda R. Baerwald
Biocomplexity is an important mechanism for population resilience in changing environments. However, we are just beginning to understand how to identify biocomplexity so that species management efforts promote resilience and stability. Genomic techniques are emerging as an important method for identifying biocomplexity. Central Valley (CV) Chinook salmon are an example of a species at risk of extinction if better methods for identifying and protecting biocomplexity are not employed. To address this knowledge gap, we employed...

Supplemental Online Materials of Trends in Land Surface Phenology across the Conterminous United States (1982-2016) Analyzed by NEON Domains

Liang Liang, Geoffrey Henebry, lingling liu, Xiaoyang Zhang & Li-Chih Hsu
This research investigated land surface phenology trends across the conterminous United States (1982-2016)by National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) domains. The Supplemental Online Materials (SOM) contain two Appendices. Appendix S1 contains NEON domain-specific results, supplemental tables and figures. Appendix S2 contains datasets of the analysis results. Users can utilize these data to perform customized analysis in lieu of the published outcomes.

Afrobarometer Survey South Africa 2008

Haplotype-resolved genome analyses of a heterozygous diploid potato

Qian Zhou, Chunzhi Zhang, Wu Huang, Zhongmin Yang, Yu Zhang, Die Tang, John P. Hamilton, Richard G. F. Visser, Christian W. B. Bachem, C. Robin Buell, Zhonghua Zhang & Sanwen Huang
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the most important tuber crop worldwide. An effort is underway to transform the crop from a clonally propagated tetraploid into a diploid seed-propagated, inbred line-based hybrid, which requires a better understanding of its highly heterozygous genome of potato. Here, we report the 1.67 Gb haplotype-resolved assembly of a diploid potato, RH89-039-16, using the combination of multiple sequencing and mapping strategies, including circular consensus sequencing. Comparison of the two haplotypes revealed...

Novel plant-microbe interactions: rapid evolution of a legume-rhizobium mutualism in restored prairies

Susan Magnoli & Jennifer Lau
1. When plants colonize new habitats, the novel interactions they form with new mutualists or enemies can immediately affect plant performance. These novel interactions also may provoke rapid evolutionary responses and can be ideal scenarios for investigating how species interactions influence plant evolution. 2. To explore how mutualists influence the evolution of colonizing plant populations, we capitalized on an experiment in which two former agricultural fields were seeded with identical prairie seed mixes in 2010....

Data from: Agricultural land-use history and restoration impact soil microbial biodiversity

Nash Turley, Lars Brudvig, Lukas Bell-Dereske & Sarah Evans
Human land uses, such as agriculture, can leave long-lasting legacies as ecosystems recover. As a consequence, active restoration may be necessary to overcome land-use legacies; however, few studies have evaluated the joint effects of agricultural history and restoration on ecological communities. Those that have studied this joint effect have largely focused on plants and ignored other communities, such as soil microbes. We conducted a large-scale experiment to understand how agricultural history and restoration tree thinning...

Generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly of the insect-repellant terpenoid-producing Lamiaceae species, Callicarpa americana

John P. Hamilton, Grant Godden, Emily Lanier, Wajid Waheed Bhat, Taliesin Kinser, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Haiyan Wang, Joshua Wood, Jiming Jiang, Pamela Soltis, Douglas Soltis, Bjoern Hamberger & C. Robin Buell
Background: Plants exhibit wide chemical diversity due to production of specialized metabolites which function as pollinator attractants, defensive compounds, and signaling molecules. Lamiaceae (mints) are known for their chemodiversity and have been cultivated for use as culinary herbs and as sources of insect repellents, health-promoting compounds, and fragrance. Findings: We report the chromosome-scale genome assembly of Callicarpa americana L. (American beautyberry), a species within the early diverging Callicarpoideae clade of the Lamiaceae, known for its...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Michigan State University
  • Ghana Center for Democratic Development
  • University of Florida
  • Binghamton University
  • Wayne State University
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • Cornell University