28 Works

Data from: Genomic pedigree reconstruction identifies predictors of mating and reproductive success in an invasive vertebrate

Brenna A Levine, Marlis R Douglas, Amy A Yackel Adams, Bjorn Lardner, Robert N Reed, Julie A Savidge & Michael E Douglas
The persistence of an invasive species is influenced by its reproductive ecology, and a successful control program must operate on this premise. However, the reproductive ecology of invasive species may be enigmatic due to factors that also limit their management, such as cryptic coloration and behavior. We explored the mating and reproductive ecology of the invasive Brown Treesnake (BTS: Boiga irregularis) by reconstructing a multigenerational genomic pedigree based on 654 single nucleotide polymorphisms for a...

Data from: A role for the local environment in driving species-specific parasitism in a multi-host parasite system

Adam Hasik & Adam Siepielski
The extent and magnitude of parasitism often vary among closely related host species and across populations within species. Determining the ecological basis for this species and population-level variation in parasitism is critical for understanding infection dynamics in multi-host-parasite systems. To investigate such ecological underpinnings of variation in parasitism, we studied Enallagma damselflies host species and their water mite (Arrenurus spp.) ectoparasites in lakes. We first evaluated how host identity and density could shape parasitism. To...

Selection on phenotypic plasticity favors thermal canalization

Erik Svensson, Miguel Gomez-Llano & John Waller
Climate change affects organisms worldwide with profound ecological and evolutionary consequences, often increasing population extinction risk. Climatic factors can increase the strength, variability or direction of natural selection on phenotypic traits, potentially driving adaptive evolution. Phenotypic plasticity in relation to temperature can allow organisms to maintain fitness in response to increasing temperatures, thereby “buying time” for subsequent genetic adaptation and promoting evolutionary rescue. Although many studies have shown that organisms respond plastically to increasing temperatures,...

Incubation temperature as a constraint on clutch size evolution

Sydney Hope, Sarah DuRant, John Hallagan, Michelle Beck, Robert Kennamer & William Hopkins
1. Elucidating factors that limit the number of offspring produced is fundamental to understanding life-history evolution. Here, we examine the hypothesis that parental ability to maintain an optimal physical developmental environment for all offspring constrains clutch size via effects on offspring quality. 2. Experimental laboratory studies of birds have shown that a <1°C difference in average incubation temperature has diverse effects on fitness-related post-hatching offspring phenotypes. Thus, the inability of parents to maintain optimal incubation...

The choices we make and the impacts they have: Machine learning and species delimitation in North American box turtles (Terrapene spp.)

Bradley T. Martin, Tyler K. Chafin, Marlis R. Douglas, John S. Placyk, Roger D. Birkhead, Christopher A. Phillips & Michael E. Douglas
Model-based approaches that attempt to delimit species are hampered by computational limitations as well as the unfortunate tendency by users to disregard algorithmic assumptions. Alternatives are clearly needed, and machine-learning (M-L) is attractive in this regard as it functions without the need to explicitly define a species concept. Unfortunately, its performance will vary according to which (of several) bioinformatic parameters are invoked. Herein, we gauge the effectiveness of M-L-based species-delimitation algorithms by parsing 64 variably-filtered...

Population‐level variation of digestive physiology costs of mounting an immune response in damselflies

Simon P. Tye, Benjamin K. Blaske & Adam M. Siepielski
1. Trade‐offs are often predicted to occur between energetically costly activities, such as somatic growth and eliciting immune responses to parasites. Although parasitism frequently reduces growth via lowered consumption, it remains unclear if the energetic demands of generating immune responses also affect the digestive physiological processes necessary for growth. Moreover, as local environmental conditions affect energetic investment towards growth and immune responses, the extent of any digestive–immune response trade‐offs may vary among populations and not...

Data from: Crop production in the USA is frequently limited by a lack of pollinators

James Reilly, Derek Artz, David Biddinger, Kyle Bobiwash, Natalie Boyle, Claire Brittain, Julia Brokaw, Josh Campbell, Jaret Daniels, Elizabeth Elle, Jamie Ellis, Shelby Fleischer, Jason Gibbs, Robert Gillespie, Knute Gundersen, Larry Gut, George Hoffman, Neelendra Joshi, Ola Lundin, Keith Mason, Carley McGrady, Steve Peterson, Theresa Pitts-Singer, Sujaya Rao, Nikki Rothwell … & Rachael Winfree
Most of the world’s crops depend on pollinators, so declines in both managed and wild bees raise concerns about food security. However, the degree to which insect pollination is actually limiting current crop production is poorly understood, as is the role of wild species (as opposed to managed honey bees) in pollinating crops, particularly in intensive production areas. We established a nation-wide study to assess the extent of pollinator limitation in seven crops at 131...

Data from: Predators weaken prey intraspecific competition through phenotypic selection

Adam Siepielski
Predators have a key role shaping competitor dynamics in food webs. Perhaps the most obvious way this occurs is when predators reduce competitor densities. However, consumption could also generate phenotypic selection on prey that determines the strength of competition, thus coupling consumptive and trait-based effects of predators. In a mesocosm experiment simulating fish predation on damselflies, we found that selection against high damselfly activity rates – a phenotype mediating predation and competition – weakened the...

Defining Relictual Biodiversity: Conservation Units in Speckled Dace (Leuciscidae: Rhinichthys osculus) of the Greater Death Valley Ecosystem

Steven Mussmann, Marlis Douglas, David Oakey & Michael Douglas
The tips in the tree of life serve as foci for conservation and management, yet clear delimitations are masked by inherent variance at the species-population interface. Analyses using thousands of nuclear loci can potentially sort inconsistencies, yet standard categories applied to this parsing are themselves potentially conflicting and/or subjective [e.g., DPS (distinct population segments); DUs (Diagnosable Units-Canada); MUs (management units); SSP (subspecies); ESUs (Evolutionarily Significant Units); UIEUs (uniquely identified evolutionary units)]. One potential solution for...

ClinePlotR: Visualizing genomic clines and detecting outliers in R

Bradley T. Martin, Tyler K. Chafin, Marlis R. Douglas & Michael E. Douglas
Patterns of multi-locus differentiation (i.e., genomic clines) often extend broadly across hybrid zones and their quantification can help diagnose how species boundaries are shaped by adaptive processes, both intrinsic and extrinsic. In this sense, the transitioning of loci across admixed individuals can be contrasted as a function of the genome-wide trend, in turn allowing an expansion of clinal theory across a much wider array of biodiversity. However, computational tools that serve to interpret and consequently...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial homogenization of microbial habitats: a multivariate index of headwater wetland complex condition

Jessica B. Moon, Denice H. Wardrop, Erica A.H. Smithwick, Kusum J. Naithani & Erica A. H. Smithwick
With growing public awareness that wetlands are important to society, there are intensifying efforts to understand the ecological condition of those wetlands that remain, and to develop indicators of wetland condition. Indicators based on soils are not well developed and are absent in some current assessment protocols; these could be advantageous, particularly for soils, which are complex habitats for plants, invertebrates, and microbial communities. In this study, we examine whether multivariate soil indicators, correlated with...

Data from: Genetic rescue, the greater prairie chicken and the problem of conservation reliance in the Anthropocene

Steven M. Mussmann, Marlis R. Douglas, Whitney J.B. Anthonysamy, Mark A. Davis, Scott A. Simpson, Wade Louis, Michael E. Douglas & W. J. B. Anthonysamy
A central question in conservation is how best to manage biodiversity, despite human domination of global processes (= Anthropocene). Common responses (i.e. translocations, genetic rescue) forestall potential extirpations, yet have an uncertain duration. A textbook example is the greater prairie chicken (GRPC: Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus), where translocations (1992–1998) seemingly rescued genetically depauperate Illinois populations. We re-evaluated this situation after two decades by genotyping 21 microsatellite loci from 1831 shed feathers across six leks in two...

Data from: Endothermic mosasaurs? Possible thermoregulation of Late Cretaceous mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata) indicated by stable oxygen isotopes in fossil bioapatite in comparison with coeval marine fish and pelagic seabirds

, Alberto Pérez-Huerta & Celina A. Suarez
The thermoregulatory style of Late Cretaceous mosasaurs has become a highly controversial subject in vertebrate palaeontology. These extinct marine reptiles have previously been described as poikilothermic, endothermic or gigantothermic. Here we analyse three genera of mosasaurs from the Mooreville Chalk in Alabama (USA) of differing body mass, and compare their δ18OPO4 derived body temperatures (Tb) with those of coeval poikilothermic fish (Enchodus) and endothermic pelagic seabirds (Ichthyornis). Results show that all mosasaurs, Clidastes (Tb =...

Data from: Sora (Porzana carolina) autumn migration habitat use

Auriel M.V. Fournier, Doreen C. Mengel, David G. Krementz & Auriel M. V. Fournier
Palustrine wetland management across the United States is often conducted under a moist soil management framework aimed at providing energetic resources for non-breeding waterfowl. Moist soil management techniques typically include seasonal water-level manipulations and mechanical soil disturbance to create conditions conducive to germination and growth of early successional, seed-producing wetland plants. The assumption is that providing stopover and wintering habitat for non-breeding waterfowl will also accommodate life history needs of a broader suite of migratory...

Ambient temperature and female body condition are related to night incubation behavior in wood ducks (Aix sponsa)

Alexander Grimaudo, Sydney Hope, Sarah DuRant, Robert Kennamer, John Hallagan & William Hopkins
For many animals, parental care behavior is an important aspect of their life history that affects both parents and offspring. In birds, one of the most important parental care behaviors is incubation, which is costly to the parent but directly influences embryonic development and fitness of offspring. Some birds exhibit the intriguing behavior of partially incubating their eggs prior to clutch completion for only a portion of each day. This partial incubation is characterized by...

Children across cultures respond emotionally to the acoustic environment

Weiyi Ma, Peng Zhou & William Thompson
Among human and non-human animals, the ability to respond rapidly to biologically significant events in the environment is essential for survival and development. Research has confirmed that human adult listeners respond emotionally to environmental sounds just as they understand the emotional connotations of speech prosody and music. However, it is unknown whether young children also respond emotionally to environmental sounds. Here, we report that changes in pitch, rate (i.e., playback speed), and intensity (i.e., amplitude)...

A common measure of prey immune function is not constrained by the cascading effects of predators

Adam Hasik, Simon Tye, Taylor Ping & Adam Siepielski
Simultaneously defending against predators, stymieing competitors, and generating immune responses can impose conflicting demands for host species caught in the entanglement of a food web. Host immunity is not only shaped by direct interactions among species, but also many indirect cascading effects. By reducing competition, predators in particular can affect resource acquisition necessary for hosts to mount energetically costly immune responses. However, identifying the links between predators and host immune responses determined by resource acquisition...

Behavioral data for: Effect of experience on mating behaviour in male Heliconius melpomene butterflies

Erica Westerman, Peyton Rather, Abigail Herzog & David Ernst
This is the data file that corresponds to "Effect of experience on mating behavior in male Heliconius melpomene butterflies" by P.A. Rather, A.E. Herzog, D.A. Ernst, & E.L. Westerman, published in Animal Behaviour. It contains two spreadsheets, one with all the mating outcome data, and one with the corresponding behavioral data for the training and testing assays. Due to electrical issues with the data recording device during some of our assays, we do not have...

Data from: Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hyrdocarbon expression in response to different host plants

William J. Etges & Cassia C. Oliveira
Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never...

Comparative analyses of phenotypic sequences using phylogenetic trees

Daniel S. Caetano & Jeremy M. Beaulieu
Phenotypic sequences are a type of multivariate trait organized structurally, such as teeth distributed along the dental arch, or temporally, such as the stages of an ontogenetic series. Unlike other multivariate traits, the elements of a phenotypic sequence are distributed along an ordered set, which allows for distinct evolutionary patterns between neighboring and distant positions. In fact, sequence traits share many characteristics with molecular sequences, although important distinctions pose challenges to current comparative methods. We...

Lack of sibling avoidance during mate selection in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

Deonna Robertson, Timothy Sullivan & Erica Westerman
Species susceptible to inbreeding depression are hypothesized to combat this problem through a number of different mechanisms, including kin recognition. For species with kin recognition, it is unknown if filial recognition is innate or due to prior juvenile experience with siblings. Here, we first test for the presence of kin recognition, and then test these two hypotheses for the development of filial recognition, in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that suffers from inbreeding depression...

Contrasting signatures of introgression in North American box turtle (Terrapene spp.) contact zones

Bradley T. Martin, Marlis R. Douglas, Tyler K. Chafin, John S. Placyk, Roger D. Birkhead, Christopher A. Phillips & Michael E. Douglas
Hybridization occurs differentially across the genome in a balancing act between selection and migration. With the unprecedented resolution of contemporary sequencing technologies, selection and migration can now be effectively quantified such that researchers can identify genetic elements involved in introgression. Furthermore, genomic patterns can now be associated with ecologically relevant phenotypes, given availability of annotated reference genomes. We do so in North American box turtles (Terrapene) by deciphering how selection affects hybrid zones at the...

Data from: Parasite have variable effects on the outcomes of host species interactions

Adam Hasik & Adam Siepielski
Despite the ubiquitous nature of parasitism, the general effects of how parasitism alters the outcome of host species interactions such as competition, mutualism, predation, and reproduction remain unknown. Using a meta-analysis of 178 studies, we examined how the outcomes of diverse species interactions differed between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. We also evaluated how the effects of parasitism on species interactions varied geographically with latitude. Overall, parasitism had relatively large deleterious effects on the outcome of...

Data from: Building communities of teaching practice and data-driven open education resources with NEON faculty mentoring networks

Kusum Naithani, Megan Jones & Kristine Grayson
With the growing availability and accessibility of big data in ecology, we face an urgent need to train the next generation of scientists in data science practices and tools. One of the biggest barriers for implementing a data-driven curriculum in undergraduate classrooms is the lack of training and support for educators to develop their own skills and time to incorporate these principles into existing courses or develop new ones. Alongside the research goals of the...

A flexible method for estimating tip diversification rates across a range of speciation and extinction scenarios

Thais Vasconcelos, Brian O'Meara & Jeremy Beaulieu
Estimates of diversification rates at the tips of a phylogeny provide a flexible approach for correlation analyses with multiple traits and to map diversification rates in space, while also avoiding the uncertainty of deep time rate reconstructions. Available methods for tip rate estimation make different assumptions, and thus their accuracy usually depends on characteristics of the underlying model generating the tree. Here we introduce MiSSE, a trait-free, state-dependent speciation and extinction approach that can be...

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