404 Works

Data from: Comparative phylogeography reveals a shared impact of Pleistocene environmental change in shaping genetic diversity within nine Anopheles mosquito species across the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot

Katy Morgan, Samantha M. O’Loughlin, Bin Chen, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Damrongpan Thongwat, Pradya Somboon, Mun Yik Fong, Roger Butlin, Robert Verity, Anil Prakash, Thaung Hlaing, Simone Nambanya, Duong Socheat, Trung Ho Dinh & Catherine Walton
Southeast Asia is one of the world’s richest regions in terms of biodiversity. An understanding of the distribution of diversity and the factors shaping it is lacking, yet essential for identifying conservation priorities for the region’s highly threatened biodiversity. Here we take a large scale comparative approach, combining data from nine forest associated Anopheles mosquito species and using statistical phylogeographic methods to disentangle the effects of environmental history, species specific ecology, and random coalescent effects....

Data from: Costly infidelity: low lifetime fitness of extra-pair offspring in a passerine bird

Yu-Hsun Hsu, Julia Schroeder, Isabel Winney, Terry A. Burke, Shinichi Nakagawa & Terry Burke
Extra-pair copulation (EPC) is widespread in socially monogamous species, but its evolutionary benefits remain controversial. Indirect genetic benefit hypotheses postulate that females engage in EPC to produce higher quality extra-pair offspring (EPO) than within-pair offspring (WPO). In contrast, the sexual conflict hypothesis posits that EPC is beneficial to males but not to females. Thus, under the sexual conflict hypothesis, EPO are predicted to be no fitter than WPO. We tested these two hypotheses with a...

Data from: Replicated high-density genetic maps of two great tit populations reveal fine-scale genomic departures from sex-equal recombination rates

Kees Van Oers, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Nikkie E. M. Van Bers, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Ben C. Sheldon, Marcel E. Visser, Jon Slate & Martien A. M. Groenen
Linking variation in quantitative traits to variation in the genome is an important, but challenging task in the study of life-history evolution. Linkage maps provide a valuable tool for the unravelling of such trait-gene associations. Moreover, they give insight into recombination landscapes and between- species karyotype evolution. Here we used genotype data, generated from a 10k SNP-chip, of over 2000 individuals to produce high-density linkage maps of the great tit (Parus major), a passerine bird,...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Advancing population ecology with integral projection models: a practical guide

Cory Merow, Johan P. Dalgren, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Dylan Z. Childs, M. E. K. Evans, Eelke Jongejans, Sydne Record, Mark Rees, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Sean M. McMahon, Margaret E.K. Evans & Johan P. Dahlgren
Integral Projection Models (IPMs) use information on how an individual's state influences its vital rates - survival, growth and reproduction - to make population projections. IPMs are constructed from regression models predicting vital rates from state variables (e.g., size or age) and covariates (e.g., environment). By combining regressions of vital rates, an IPM provides mechanistic insight into emergent ecological patterns such as population dynamics, species geographic distributions, or life history strategies. Here, we review important...

Data from: Multiple aspects of plasticity in clutch size vary among populations of a globally distributed songbird

David F. Westneat, Veronika Bókony, Terry Burke, Olivier Chastel, Henrik Jensen, Thomas Kvalnes, Ádám Z. Lendvai, András Liker, Douglas Mock, Julia Schroeder, P. L. Schwagmeyer, Gabriele Sorci & Ian R. K. Stewart
1. Plasticity in life-history characteristics can influence many ecological and evolutionary phenomena, including how invading organisms cope with novel conditions in new locations or how environmental change affects organisms in native locations. Variation in reaction norm attributes is a critical element to understanding plasticity in life history, yet we know relatively little about the ways in which reaction norms vary within and among populations. 2. We amassed data on clutch size from marked females in...

Data from: Forest snail faunas from Crimea (Ukraine), an isolated and incomplete Pleistocene refugium

Robert A. D. Cameron, Beata M. Pokryszko & Michal Horsák
The land snail faunas of 26 forest sites and two open rocky sites in the Crimean Mountains were sampled in 2011. Of the 40 species found within the forests (about half the known fauna of Crimea as a whole), 28 were species with wide western Palaearctic distributions, and only eight were endemic to Crimea. While there were significant differences in the faunas of different sampling areas, these seemed to be a consequence of ecological differences...

Data from: A comparative analysis of the mechanisms underlying speciation on Lord Howe Island

Alexander S. T. Papadopulos, Zuzana Price, Celine Devaux, Helen Hipperson, Carole M. Smadja, Ian Hutton, William J. Baker, Roger K. Butlin & Vincent Savolainen
On Lord Howe Island, speciation is thought to have taken place in situ in a diverse array of distantly related plant taxa (Metrosideros, Howea and Coprosma; Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 2011, 13188). We now investigate whether the speciation processes were driven by divergent natural selection in each genus by examining the extent of ecological and genetic divergence. We present new and extensive, ecological and genetic data for all three genera. Consistent with ecologically...

Training on dsRNA bio manufacturing and management of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus on stored cowpea in Kano, Nigeria

Abou TOGOLA, Alison Nwokeoji & Boukar Ousmane
The proposed is a multidisciplinary project for development of a novel RNA-based crop protection strategy for managing cowpea pests. The RNA biopesticides have the potential for use in the management of a wide range of insect pests and pathogens but we will focus on the design and biomanufacturing of novel RNA based pesticides to target the cowpea pod borer (Maruca vitrata). Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) the most damaging pest of cowpea at podding stage....

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Data from: Unhatched eggs represent the invisible fraction in two wild bird populations

Nicola Hemmings & Simon Evans
Prenatal mortality is typically overlooked in population studies, which biases evolutionary inference by confounding selection and inheritance. Birds represent an opportunity to include this ‘invisible fraction’ if each egg contains a zygote but whether hatching failure is caused by fertilisation failure versus prenatal mortality is largely unknown. We quantified fertilisation failure rates in two bird species that are popular systems for studying evolutionary dynamics in the wild. over three years, finding that overwhelming majorities (99.9%)...

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity lowers rather than increases host-parasite specialization

Elze Hesse, Alex Best, Michael Boots, Alex R. Hall & Angus Buckling
Abiotic environmental heterogeneity can promote the evolution of diverse resource specialists, which in turn may increase the degree of host-parasite specialization. We coevolved Pseudomonas fluorescens and lytic phage ϕ2 in spatially structured populations, each consisting of two interconnected subpopulations evolving in the same or different nutrient media (homogeneous and heterogeneous environments, respectively). Counter to the normal expectation, host-parasite specialization was significantly lower in heterogeneous compared with homogeneous environments. This result could not be explained by...

Data from: Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species

Kimberley J. Simpson, Brad S. Ripley, Pascal-Antione Christin, Claire M. Belcher, Caroline E. R. Lehmann, Gavin H. Thomas, Colin P. Osborne & Pascal-Antoine Christin
1. Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this...

Data from: Low-smoke chulha in Indian slums: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Megha Thakur, Esther A. Boudewijns, Giridhara R. Babu, Bjorn Winkens, Luc P. De Witte, Jeroen Gruiskens, Preeti Sushama, Cristian T. Ghergu & Onno C. P. Van Schayck
Background: Biomass fuel is used as a primary cooking source by more than half of the world’s population, contributing to a high burden of disease. Although cleaner fuels are available, some households continue using solid fuels because of financial constraints and absence of infrastructure, especially in non-notified slums. The present study documents a randomised controlled study investigating the efficacy of improved cookstove on the personal exposure to air pollution and the respiratory health of women...

Data from: Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement?

Johan Hollander, Mauricio Montaño-Rendón, Giuseppe Bianco, Xi Yang, Anja M. Westram, Ludovic Duvaux, David G. Reid & Roger K. Butlin
The evolution of assortative mating is a key part of the speciation process. Stronger assortment, or greater divergence in mating traits, between species pairs with overlapping ranges is commonly observed, but possible causes of this pattern of reproductive character displacement are difficult to distinguish. We use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a rare example where it is possible to distinguish among hypotheses concerning the evolution of reproductive character displacement. We build on an earlier comparative...

Data from: What determines how we see nature? Perceptions of naturalness in designed urban green spaces

Helen Hoyle, Anna Jorgensen & James D. Hitchmough
The multiple benefits of ‘nature’ for human health and well‐being have been documented at an increasing rate over the past 30 years. A growing body of research also demonstrates the positive well‐being benefits of nature‐connectedness. There is, however, a lack of evidence about how people's subjective nature experience relates to deliberately designed and managed urban green infrastructure (GI) with definable ‘objective’ characteristics such as vegetation type, structure and density. Our study addresses this gap. Site...

Data from: Parental care and the evolution of terrestriality in frogs

Balázs Vági, Zsolt Végvári, András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Frogs and toads (Anura) exhibit some of the most diverse parental strategies in vertebrates. Identifying the evolutionary origins of parenting is fundamental to understanding the relationships between sexual selection, social evolution and parental care systems of contemporary Anura. Moreover, parenting has been hypothesized to allow the invasion of terrestrial habitats by the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates. Using comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of frogs and toads based on data from over 1000 species that represent 46 out...

Data from: Testing an hypothesis of hybrid zone movement for toads in France

Isolde Van Riemsdijk, Roger K. Butlin, Ben Wielstra, Jan W. Arntzen & Isolde Riemsdijk
Hybrid zone movement may result in substantial unidirectional introgression of selectively neutral material from the local to the advancing species, leaving a genetic footprint. This genetic footprint is represented by a trail of asymmetric tails and displaced cline centres in the wake of the moving hybrid zone. A peak of admixture linkage disequilibrium is predicted to exist ahead of the centre of the moving hybrid zone. We test these predictions of the movement hypothesis in...

Data from: C4 savanna grasses fail to maintain assimilation in drying soil under low CO2 compared with C3 trees despite lower leaf water demand

Joe Quirk, Chandra Bellasio, David A. Johnson, Colin P. Osborne & David J. Beerling
1) C4 photosynthesis evolved when grasses migrated out of contracting forests under a declining atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]a) and drying climate around 30 million years ago. C4 grasses are hypothesised to benefit from improved plant–water relations in open habitats like savannas, giving advantages over C3 plants under low [CO2]a. But experimental evidence in a low CO2 environment is limited and comparisons with C3 trees are needed to understand savanna vegetation patterns. 2) To test whether...

Data from: Species-habitat relationships and ecological correlates of butterfly abundance in a transformed tropical landscape

Anuj Jain, Felix K. S. Lim & Edward L. Webb
Tropical butterfly conservation strategies often focus on total and/or common species richness to assess the conservation value of a patch or habitat. However, such a strategy overlooks the unique dynamics of rare species. We evaluated the species-habitat relationships of 209 common, intermediate, and rare butterfly species (including morphospecies) across four habitat types (mature, degraded, or fragmented forest, and urban parks) and two patch sizes (<400 ha, ≥400 ha) in Singapore. Common species richness was consistent...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Individual differences determine the strength of ecological interactions

Jason I. Griffiths, Dylan Z. Childs, Ronald D. Bassar, Tim Coulson, David N Reznick & Mark Rees
Biotic interactions are central to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In the vast majority of empirical studies, the strength of intraspecific interactions is estimated by using simple mea- sures of population size. Biologists have long known that these are crude metrics, with experiments and theory suggesting that interactions between individuals should depend on traits, such as body size. Despite this, it has been difficult to estimate the impact of traits on competitive ability from ecological...

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