413 Works

Data from: What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis

Paul E. Bourdeau, Roger K. Butlin, Christer Brönmark, Timothy C. Edgell, Jason T. Hoverman & Johan Hollander
There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced...

Data from: High gene flow on a continental scale in the polyandrous Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus

Clemens Kuepper, Scott V. Edwards, András Kosztolányi, Monif AlRashidi, Terry Burke, Phillipp Herrmann, Araceli Argüelles Tico, Juan A. Amat, Mohamed Amezian, Afonso Rocha, Hermann Hötker, Anton Ivanov, Joseph Chernicko & Tamas Szekely
Gene flow promotes genetic coherence of species in time and space. It can be modulated by sex-biased dispersal which links population genetics to mating systems. We investigated the phylogeography of the widely distributed Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. This small shorebird has a large breeding range spanning from Western Europe to Japan, and exhibits an unusually flexible mating system with high female breeding dispersal. We analyzed genetic structure and gene flow using a 427 bp fragment...

Data from: Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm

Mauricio J. Carter, Martin I. Lind, Stuart R. Dennis, William Hentley & Andrew P. Beckerman
Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the micro-evolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge...

Data from: Widespread gene flow between oceans in a pelagic seabird species complex

Claire Raisin, Deborah A. Dawson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Jim J. Groombridge, Stefanie M.H. Ismar, Paul Sweet, Carl G. Jones, Vikash Tatayah, Kevin Ruhomaun, Norris Ken, Katherine A. Booth Jones, Malcolm A.C. Nicoll, Malcolm A. C. Nicoll, Ken Norris & Stefanie M. H. Ismar
Global-scale gene flow is an important concern in conservation biology as it has the potential to either increase or decrease genetic diversity in species and populations. Although many studies focus on the gene flow between different populations of a single species, the potential for gene flow and introgression between species is understudied, particularly in seabirds. The only well-studied example of a mixed-species, hybridizing population of petrels exists on Round Island, in the Indian Ocean. Previous...

Data from: The colour of paternity: extra-pair paternity in the wild Gouldian finch does not appear to be driven by genetic incompatibility between morphs

Peri E. Bolton, Lee Ann Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Kang-Wook Kim, Terry Burke, Simon C. Griffith & K-W. Kim
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph...

Data from: Is bigger better? The relationship between size and reproduction in female Asian elephants

J. A. H. Crawley, H. S. Mumby, S. N. Chapman, M. Lahdenperä, K. U. Mar, W. Htut, A. Thura Soe, H. H. Aung & V. Lummaa
The limited availability of resources is predicted to impose trade-offs between growth, reproduction and self-maintenance in animals. However, although some studies have shown that early reproduction suppresses growth, reproduction positively correlates with size in others. We use detailed records from a large population of semi-captive elephants in Myanmar to assess the relationships between size (height and weight), reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants, a species characterized by slow, costly life history. Although female height...

Data from: Introgression and the fate of domesticated genes in a wild mammal population

Philine G. D. Feulner, Jacob Gratten, James W. Kijas, Peter M. Visscher, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jon Slate & Jon. Slate
When domesticated species are not reproductively isolated from their wild relatives, the opportunity arises for artificially selected variants to be re-introduced into the wild. However, the evolutionary consequences of introgression of domesticated genes back into the wild are poorly understood. By combining high-throughput genotyping with 25 years of long-term ecological field data, we describe the occurrence and consequences of admixture between a primitive sheep breed, the free-living Soay sheep of St Kilda, and more modern...

Data from: Natural selection and the predictability of evolution in Timema stick insects

Patrik Nosil, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa F. De Carvalho, Tim E. Farkas, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeff L. Feder, Bernard J. Crespi & Zachariah Gompert
Predicting evolution remains difficult. We studied the evolution of cryptic body coloration and pattern in a stick insect using 25 years of field data, experiments, and genomics. We found that evolution is more difficult to predict when it involves a balance between multiple selective factors and uncertainty in environmental conditions than when it involves feedback loops that cause consistent back-and-forth fluctuations. Specifically, changes in color-morph frequencies are modestly predictable through time (r2 = 0.14) and...

Data from: Genetic hitchhiking and the dynamic buildup of genomic divergence during speciation with gene flow

Samuel Melvin Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
A major issue in evolutionary biology is explaining patterns of differentiation observed in population genomic data, as divergence can be due to both direct selection on a locus and genetic hitchhiking. “Divergence hitchhiking” (DH) theory postulates that divergent selection on a locus reduces gene flow at physically linked sites, facilitating the formation of localized clusters of tightly linked, diverged loci. “Genome hitchhiking” (GH) theory emphasizes genome-wide effects of divergent selection. Past theoretical investigations of DH...

Data from: Genomic dissection of variation in clutch size and egg mass in a wild great tit (Parus major) population

Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jocelyn Poissant, Matthew R. Robinson, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Clutch size and egg mass are life history traits that have been extensively studied in wild bird populations, as life history theory predicts a negative trade-off between them, either at the phenotypic or genetic level. Here, we analyse the genomic architecture of these heritable traits in a wild great tit (Parus major) population, using three marker-based approaches - chromosome partitioning, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The variance explained by...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate & J.-M. Kim
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

Data from: Multivariate selection and intersexual genetic constraints in a wild bird population

Jocelyn Poissant, Micheal B. Morrissey, Andrew G. Gosler, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
When traits are genetically correlated between the sexes, the response to selection in one sex can be altered by indirect selection in the other sex, a type of genetic constraint commonly referred to as intralocus sexual conflict (ISC). While potentially common, ISC has rarely been studied in wild populations. In this study, we applied a multivariate framework to quantify the microevolutionary impacts of ISC over a set of morphological traits (wing length, tarsus length, bill...

Data from: Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species

Ainhoa Magrach, Rebecca A. Senior, Andrew Rogers, Deddy Nurdin, Suzan Benedick, William F. Laurance, Luis Santamaría & David P. Edwards
Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the ‘health’ and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more...

Data from: Widespread hybridization within mound-building wood ants in Southern Finland results in cytonuclear mismatches and potential for sex-specific hybrid breakdown

Jack Beresford, Marianne Elias, Lucy Pluckrose, Liselotte Sundström, Roger K. Butlin, Pekka Pamilo & Jonna Kulmuni
Hybridization and gene flow between diverging lineages is increasingly recognized as a common evolutionary process and its consequences can vary from hybrid breakdown to adaptive introgression. We have previously found a population of wood ant hybrids between Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena that shows antagonistic effects of hybridization: females with introgressed alleles show hybrid vigour, whereas males with the same alleles show hybrid breakdown. Here we investigate whether hybridization is a general phenomenon in this...

Data from: InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche diode for 1550 nm photons

Xiao Meng, Shiyu Xie, Xinxin Zhou, Niccolò Calandri, Mirko Sanzaro, Alberto Tosi, Chee Hing Tan & Jo Shien Ng
A single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with an InGaAs absorption region, and an InAlAs avalanche region was designed and demonstrated to detect 1550 nm wavelength photons. The characterization included leakage current, dark count rate and single photon detection efficiency as functions of temperature from 210 to 294 K. The SPAD exhibited good temperature stability, with breakdown voltage dependence of approximately 45 mV K−1. Operating at 210 K and in a gated mode, the SPAD achieved...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure reflects sex-specific dispersal strategies in a population of sociable weavers (Philetairus socius)

René E. Van Dijk, Rita Covas, Claire Doutrelant, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Ben J. Hatchwell
Dispersal is a critical driver of gene flow, with important consequences for population genetic structure, social interactions and other biological processes. Limited dispersal may result in kin-structured populations in which kin selection may operate, but it may also increase the risk of kin competition and inbreeding. Here, we use a combination of long-term field data and molecular genetics to examine dispersal patterns and their consequences for the population genetics of a highly social bird, the...

Data from: Extremophile Poeciliidae: multivariate insights into the complexity of speciation along replicated ecological gradients

Rüdiger Riesch, Michael Tobler, Hannes Lerp, Jonas Jourdan, Tess Doumas, Patrik Nosil, R. Brian Langerhans & Martin Plath
Background: Replicate population pairs that diverge in response to similar selective regimes allow for an investigation of (a) whether phenotypic traits diverge in a similar and predictable fashion, (b) whether there is gradual variation in phenotypic divergence reflecting variation in the strength of natural selection among populations, (c) whether the extent of this divergence is correlated between multiple character suites (i.e., concerted evolution), and (d) whether gradual variation in phenotypic divergence predicts the degree of...

Data from: Experimental evidence for ecological selection on genome variation in the wild

Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Jeffery L. Feder, Thomas L. Parchman, Alex C. Buerkle, Patrik Nosil & Jeffrey L. Feder
Understanding natural selection's effect on genetic variation is a major goal in biology, but the genome-scale consequences of contemporary selection are not well known. In a release and recapture field experiment we transplanted stick insects to native and novel host plants and directly measured allele frequency changes within a generation at 186 576 genetic loci. We observed substantial, genome-wide allele frequency changes during the experiment, most of which could be attributed to random mortality (genetic...

Data from: Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe, San-Marie Joliffe, Jock Henwood & David S. Richardson
Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses...

Data from: Widespread correlations between climatic niche evolution and species diversification in birds

Christopher R. Cooney, Nathalie Seddon & Joseph A. Tobias
The adaptability of species’ climatic niches can influence the dynamics of colonisation and gene flow across climatic gradients, potentially increasing the likelihood of speciation, or reducing extinction in the face of environmental change. However, previous comparative studies have tested these ideas using geographically, taxonomically and ecologically restricted samples, yielding mixed results, and thus the processes linking climatic niche evolution with diversification remain poorly understood. Focusing on birds, the largest and most widespread class of terrestrial...

Data from: Incorporating intraspecific trait variation into functional diversity: impacts of selective logging on birds in Borneo

Samuel R. P-J. Ross, Christopher Hassall, William J. E. Hoppitt, Felicity A. Edwards, David P. Edwards, Keith C. Hamer & Samuel R. P.-J. Ross
As conservation increasingly recognizes the importance of species’ functional roles in ecosystem processes, studies are shifting away from measuring species richness towards measures that account for the functional differences between species in a community. These functional diversity (FD) indices have received much recent attention and refinement, but their greatest limitation remains their inability to incorporate information about intraspecific trait variation (ITV). We use an individual-based model to account for ITV when calculating the functional diversity...

Data from: Inbreeding intensifies sex- and age-dependent disease in a wild mammal

Clare H. Benton, Richard J. Delahay, Freya A.P. Smith, Andrew Robertson, Robbie A. McDonald, Andrew J. Young, Terry A. Burke, Dave Hodgson & Freya A. P. Smith
1. The mutation accumulation theory of senescence predicts that age-related deterioration of fitness can be exaggerated when inbreeding causes homozygosity for deleterious alleles. A vital component of fitness, in natural populations, is the incidence and progression of disease. 2. Evidence is growing for natural links between inbreeding and ageing; between inbreeding and disease; between sex and ageing; and between sex and disease. However, there is scant evidence, to date, for links among age, disease, inbreeding...

Data from: Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

Patricia Brekke, John G. Ewen, Gemma Clucas & Anna W. Santure
Floating males are usually thought of as non-breeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders’ sex-ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: A trade-off between thickness and length in the zebra finch sperm mid-piece

Tania Mendonca, Timothy R. Birkhead, Ashley J. Cadby, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Nicola Hemmings & Tim R. Birkhead
The sperm mid-piece has traditionally been considered to be the engine that powers sperm. Larger mid-pieces have therefore been assumed to provide greater energetic capacity. However, in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata, a recent study showed a surprising negative relationship between mid-piece length and sperm energy content. Using a multidimensional approach to study mid-piece structure, we tested whether this unexpected relationship can be explained by a trade-off between mid-piece length and mid-piece thickness and/or cristae...

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