416 Works

Data from: What determines how we see nature? Perceptions of naturalness in designed urban green spaces

Helen Hoyle, Anna Jorgensen & James D. Hitchmough
The multiple benefits of ‘nature’ for human health and well‐being have been documented at an increasing rate over the past 30 years. A growing body of research also demonstrates the positive well‐being benefits of nature‐connectedness. There is, however, a lack of evidence about how people's subjective nature experience relates to deliberately designed and managed urban green infrastructure (GI) with definable ‘objective’ characteristics such as vegetation type, structure and density. Our study addresses this gap. Site...

Data from: Parental care and the evolution of terrestriality in frogs

Balázs Vági, Zsolt Végvári, András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Frogs and toads (Anura) exhibit some of the most diverse parental strategies in vertebrates. Identifying the evolutionary origins of parenting is fundamental to understanding the relationships between sexual selection, social evolution and parental care systems of contemporary Anura. Moreover, parenting has been hypothesized to allow the invasion of terrestrial habitats by the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates. Using comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of frogs and toads based on data from over 1000 species that represent 46 out...

Data from: Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite

Stephen J. Martin, Andrea C. Highfield, Laura Brettell, Ethel M. Villalobos, Giles E. Budge, Michelle Powell, Scott Nikaido & Declan C. Schroeder
Emerging diseases are among the greatest threats to honey bees. Unfortunately, where and when an emerging disease will appear are almost impossible to predict. The arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite into the Hawaiian honey bee population allowed us to investigate changes in the prevalence, load, and strain diversity of honey bee viruses. The mite increased the prevalence of a single viral species, deformed wing virus (DWV), from ~10 to 100% within honey bee populations,...

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

Data from: The pyriform egg of the Common Murre (Uria aalge) is more stable on sloping surfaces

Tim R. Birkhead, Jamie E. Thompson & Robert Montgomerie
The adaptive significance of avian egg shape is a long-standing problem in biology. For many years, it was widely believed that the pyriform shape of the Common Murre (Uria aalge) egg allowed it to either “spin like a top” or “roll in an arc,” thereby reducing its risk of rolling off the breeding ledge. There is no evidence in support of either mechanism. Two recent alternative hypotheses suggest that a pyriform egg confers mechanical strength...

Data from: Selection from parasites favors immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations

Michael Tobler, Martin Plath, Rüdiger Riesch, Ingo Schlupp, Anna Grasse, Gopi K. Munimanda, Claudia Setzer, Dustin J. Penn & Yoshan Moodley
The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and...

Data from: Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds

Vojtěch Kubelka, Miroslav Šálek, Pavel Tomkovich, Zsolt Végvári, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, there existed a latitudinal gradient in nest predation, with...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Interacting livestock and fire may both threaten and increase viability of a fire-adapted Mediterranean carnivorous plant

Maria Paniw, Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Fernando Ojeda & Roberto Salguero-Gomez
1. Quantifying interactive effects of environmental drivers on population dynamics can be critical for a robust analysis of population viability. Fire regimes, among the most widespread disturbances driving population dynamics, are increasingly modified by and interact with human activities. However, viability of fire-adapted species is typically assessed overlooking disturbance interactions, potentially resulting in suboptimal management actions. 2. We investigated whether increasing human disturbances in fire-prone ecosystems may pose a threat or an opportunity to improve...

Testing the effectiveness of the Forest Integrity Assessment: A field-based tool for estimating the condition of tropical forest

Andrew Suggitt, Kok Yeong, Anders Lindhe, Agnes Agama, Keith Hamer, Glen Reynolds, Jane Hill & Jennifer Lucey
1. Global targets to halt biodiversity losses and mitigate climate change will require protecting rainforest beyond current protected area networks, necessitating responsible forest stewardship from a diverse range of companies, communities and private individuals. Robust assessments of forest condition are critical for successful forest management, but many existing techniques are highly technical, time-consuming, expensive, or require specialist knowledge. 2. To make assessment of tropical forests accessible to a wide range of actors, many of whom...

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Plant traits of grass and legume species for flood resilience and N2O mitigation

Natalie J. Oram, Yan Sun, Diego Abalos, Jan-Willem Van Groenigen, & Gerlinde De Deyn
Flooding threatens the functioning of managed grasslands by decreasing primary productivity and increasing nitrogen losses, notably as the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Sowing species with traits that promote flood resilience and mitigate flood-induced N2O emissions within these grasslands could safeguard their productivity while mitigating nitrogen losses. We tested how plant traits and resource acquisition strategies could predict flood resilience and N2O emissions of 12 common grassland species (eight grasses and four legumes) grown...

Interactions between silicon and alkaloid defences in endophyte-infected grasses and the consequences for a folivore

Ximena Cibils-Stewart, Wade J. Mace, Alison J. Popay, Fernando A. Lattanzi, Susan E. Hartley, Casey R. Hall, Jeff R. Powell & Scott N. Johnson
1. Grasses have developed a wide range of morphological and physiological mechanisms to resist herbivory. For instance, they accumulate silicon (Si) in tissue, as physical defence, and associate symbiotically with foliar Epichloë-endophytes that provide chemical defence via antiherbivore alkaloids. Recent evidence showed that some Epichloë-endophytes increase foliar Si in forage grasses; however, it is unknown whether this impacts insect herbivores. Furthermore, while Si is primarily a physical defence, it also affects production of plant defensive...

NanoString nCounter copy number variation assay

Thea Rogers & Alison Wright
The sex chromosomes often follow unusual evolutionary trajectories. In particular, the sex-limited Y and W chromosomes frequently exhibit a small but unusual gene content in numerous species, where many genes have undergone massive gene amplification. The reasons for this remain elusive with a number of recent studies implicating meiotic drive, sperm competition, genetic drift and gene conversion in the expansion of gene families. However, our understanding is primarily based on Y chromosome studies, and the...

Long-term cloud forest response to climate warming revealed by insect speciation history

Antonia Salces-Castellano, Sean Stankowski, Paula Arribas, Jairo Patiño, Dirk N. Karger, Roger Butlin & Brent C. Emerson
Montane cloud forests are areas of high endemism, and are one of the more vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Thus, understanding how they both contribute to the generation of biodiversity, and will respond to ongoing climate change, are important and related challenges. The widely accepted model for montane cloud forest dynamics involves upslope forcing of their range limits with global climate warming. However, limited climate data provides some support for an alternative model, where...

The role of evolutionary time, diversification rates and dispersal in determining the global diversity of a large radiation of passerine birds

Tianlong Cai, Shimiao Shao, Jonathan Kennedy, Per Alström, Robert Moyle, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei & Jon Fjeldså
Aim: Variation in species diversity among different geographic areas may result from differences in speciation and extinction rates, immigration and time for diversification. An area with high species diversity may be the result of a high net diversification rate, multiple immigration events from adjacent regions,anda long time available for the accumulation of species (know as the “time-for-speciation effect”). Here, we examine the relative importance of the three aforementionedprocesses in shaping the geographic diversity patterns of...

Ocean warming reduces gastropod survival despite maintenance of feeding and oxygen consumption rates

Kathryn Anderson, Laura Falkenberg & Dina-Leigh Simons
Short-term, sub-lethal response variables are increasingly used to provide rapid indications of whole organism responses to future climate conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests, however, that these response variables may not consistently reflect whole organism responses which manifest over longer time scales. Here, we consider the effect of moderate warming on longer-term whole organism fitness, as reflected by survival, as well as two shorter-term response variables, feeding rate and oxygen consumption, for two tropical gastropod species. We...

Individual differences determine the strength of ecological interactions

Jason I. Griffiths, Dylan Z. Childs, Ronald D. Bassar, Tim Coulson, David N Reznick & Mark Rees
Biotic interactions are central to both ecological and evolutionary dynamics. In the vast majority of empirical studies, the strength of intraspecific interactions is estimated by using simple mea- sures of population size. Biologists have long known that these are crude metrics, with experiments and theory suggesting that interactions between individuals should depend on traits, such as body size. Despite this, it has been difficult to estimate the impact of traits on competitive ability from ecological...

Fast and furious: Early differences in growth rate drive short-term plant dominance and exclusion under eutrophication

Yann Hautier, Zhang Pengfei, Mariet Hefting, Merel Soons, George Kowalchuk, Mark Rees, Andrew Hector, Lindsay Turnbull, Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Chengjin Chu, Guozhen Du & Yann Hautier
1. The reduction of plant diversity following eutrophication threatens many ecosystems worldwide. Yet, the mechanisms by which species are lost following nutrient enrichment are still not completely understood, nor are the details of when such mechanisms act during the growing season, which hampers understanding and the development of mitigation strategies. 2. Using a common garden competition experiment, we found that early-season differences in growth rates among five perennial grass species measured in monoculture predicted short-term...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Data from: Unhatched eggs represent the invisible fraction in two wild bird populations

Nicola Hemmings & Simon Evans
Prenatal mortality is typically overlooked in population studies, which biases evolutionary inference by confounding selection and inheritance. Birds represent an opportunity to include this ‘invisible fraction’ if each egg contains a zygote but whether hatching failure is caused by fertilisation failure versus prenatal mortality is largely unknown. We quantified fertilisation failure rates in two bird species that are popular systems for studying evolutionary dynamics in the wild. over three years, finding that overwhelming majorities (99.9%)...

Hybridisation boosts dispersal of two contrasted ecotypes in a grass species

Emma Curran
Genetic exchanges between closely related groups of organisms with different adaptations have well-documented beneficial and detrimental consequences. In plants, pollen-mediated exchanges affect the sorting of alleles across physical landscapes, and influence rates of hybridisation. How these dynamics affect the emergence and spread of novel ecological strategies remains only partially understood. Here, we use phylogenomics and population genomics to retrace the origin and spread of two geographically overlapping ecotypes of the African grass Alloteropsis angusta. Besides...

Drought exposure leads to rapid acquisition and inheritance of herbicide resistance in the weed Alopecurus myosuroides

Vian Mohammad, Colin Osborne & Robert Freckleton
This dataset contains data from two-part greenhouse experiments described in the paper: “Vian H. Mohammad, Colin P. Osborne & Robert P. Freckleton (2022) Drought exposure leads to rapid acquisition and inheritance of herbicide resistance in the weed Alopecurus myosuroides”. Globally, herbicide resistance in weeds poses a threat to food security. Resistance evolves rapidly through the co-option of a suite of physiological mechanisms that evolved to allow plants to survive environmental stress. Consequently, we hypothesize that...

Data from: The evolution of egg shape in birds: Evolutionary constraints and adaptations

Robert Montgomerie, Tim Birkhead, James Thompson & Nicola Hemmings
Using accurate measures of size and shape, we studied the eggs of 955 extant species across the avian phylogeny, including 39 of the 40 orders, and 78% of the 249 families. We show that the elongation component of egg shape is largely the result of constraints imposed by the female’s anatomy during egg formation, whereas asymmetry is mainly an adaptation to conditions during the incubation period. Thus, egg elongation is related to the size of...

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