13 Works

Data from: Forest snail faunas from Crimea (Ukraine), an isolated and incomplete Pleistocene refugium

Robert A. D. Cameron, Beata M. Pokryszko & Michal Horsák
The land snail faunas of 26 forest sites and two open rocky sites in the Crimean Mountains were sampled in 2011. Of the 40 species found within the forests (about half the known fauna of Crimea as a whole), 28 were species with wide western Palaearctic distributions, and only eight were endemic to Crimea. While there were significant differences in the faunas of different sampling areas, these seemed to be a consequence of ecological differences...

Data from: Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite

Stephen J. Martin, Andrea C. Highfield, Laura Brettell, Ethel M. Villalobos, Giles E. Budge, Michelle Powell, Scott Nikaido & Declan C. Schroeder
Emerging diseases are among the greatest threats to honey bees. Unfortunately, where and when an emerging disease will appear are almost impossible to predict. The arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite into the Hawaiian honey bee population allowed us to investigate changes in the prevalence, load, and strain diversity of honey bee viruses. The mite increased the prevalence of a single viral species, deformed wing virus (DWV), from ~10 to 100% within honey bee populations,...

Data from: Detecting genes for variation in parasite burden and immunological traits in a wild population: testing the candidate gene approach

Emily A. Brown, Jill G. Pilkington, Dan H. Nussey, Kathryn A. Watt, Adam D. Hayward, Rachel Tucker, Andrea L. Graham, Steve Paterson, Dario Beraldi, Josephine M. Pemberton & Jon Slate
Identifying the genes underlying phenotypic variation in natural populations can provide novel insight into the evolutionary process. Here we test the candidate gene approach to identifying loci involved in variation in gastrointestinal parasite burden, in a wild population of Soay sheep. A comprehensive literature review, Gene Ontology databases, and comparative genomics resources were used to generate a list of candidate genes. In a pilot study these candidates, along with 50 random genes, were then sequenced...

Data from: Selection and microevolution of coat pattern are cryptic in a wild population of sheep

Jacob Gratten, Jill G. Pilkington, Emily A. Brown, Timothy H. Clutton-Brock, Josephine M. Pemberton & Jon Slate
Understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations is a core aim of evolutionary genetics. Insight can be gained by quantifying selection at the level of the genotype, as opposed to the phenotype. Here, we show that in a natural population of Soay sheep which is polymorphic for coat pattern, recessive genetic variants at the causal gene, agouti signalling protein (ASIP), are associated with reduced lifetime fitness. This was due primarily to a reduction...

Data from: Telomere length and dynamics predict mortality in a wild longitudinal study

Emma L. B. Barrett, Terry A. Burke, Martijn Hammers, Jan Komdeur & David S. Richardson
Explaining variation in life expectancy between individuals of the same age is fundamental to our understanding of population ecology and life-history evolution. Variation in the length and rate of loss of the protective telomere chromosome caps has been linked to cellular lifespan. Yet, the extent to which telomere length and dynamics predict organismal lifespan in nature is still contentious. Using longitudinal samples taken from a closed population of Acrocephalus sechellensis (Seychelles warblers) studied for over...

Data from: High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal Pezizales

Rosanne A. Healy, Matthew E. Smith, Gregory M. Bonito, Donald H. Pfister, Gonzalo G. Guevara, Caroline Hobart, Leticia Kumar, Thai Lee, Katherine Stafford, Zai-Wei Ge, Rytas Vilgalys, Gwendolyn Williams, James Trappe, David J. McLaughlin &
Fungal mitospores may function as dispersal units and/ or spermatia and thus play a role in distribution and/or mating of species that produce them. Mitospore production in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) Pezizales is rarely reported, but here we document mitospore production by a high diversity of EcM Pezizales on three continents, in both hemispheres. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA from 292 spore mats (visible mitospore clumps) collected in...

Data from: Anatomical enablers and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in grasses

Pascal-Antoine Christin, Colin P. Osborne, David S. Chatelet, J. Travis Columbus, Guillaume Besnard, Trevor R. Hodkinson, Laura M. Garrison, Maria S. Vorontsova & Erika J. Edwards
C4 photosynthesis is a series of anatomical and biochemical modifications to the typical C3 pathway that increases the productivity of plants in warm, sunny, and dry conditions. Despite its complexity, it evolved more than 62 times independently in flowering plants. However, C4 origins are absent from most plant lineages and clustered in others, suggesting that some characteristics increase C4 evolvability in certain phylogenetic groups. The C4 trait has evolved 22–24 times in grasses, and all...

Data from: Adaptive evolution of C4 photosynthesis through recurrent lateral gene transfer

Pascal-Antoine Christin, Erika J. Edwards, Guillaume Besnard, Susanna F. Boxall, Richard Gregory, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Colin P. Osborne & James Hartwell
C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait that confers higher productivity under warm and arid conditions. It has evolved more than 60 times via the co-option of genes present in C3 ancestors followed by alteration of the patterns and levels of expression, and adaptive changes in the coding sequences, but the evolutionary path to C4 photosynthesis is still poorly understood. The grass lineage Alloteropsis offers unparalleled opportunities for studying C4 evolution, because it includes a C3...

Data from: Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal among seabird populations: implications for colony persistence

Anthony W. J. Bicknell, Mairi E. Knight, David Bilton, James B. Reid, Terry Burke & Stephen C. Votier
Dramatic local population decline brought about by anthropogenic-driven change is an increasingly common threat to biodiversity. Seabird life history traits that make them particularly vulnerable to such change, therefore understanding population connectivity and dispersal dynamics is vital for successful management. Our study used a 360 base-pair mitochondrial control region locus sequenced for 103 individuals and 18 nuclear microsatellite loci genotyped for 245 individuals to investigate population structure in the Atlantic and Pacific populations of the...

Data from: Progressive genome-wide introgression in agricultural Campylobacter coli

Samuel K. Sheppard, Xavier Didelot, Keith A. Jolley, Aaron E. Darling, David J. Kelly, Alison Cody, Frances M. Colles, Norval J.C. Strachan, Iain D. Ogden, Ken Forbes, Nigel P. French, Philip Carter, William G. Miller, Noel D. McCarthy, Robert Owen, Eva Litrup, Michael Egholm, Stephen D. Bentley, Julian Parkhill, Martin C. J. Maiden, Daniel Falush, Jason P. Affourtit, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ben Pascoe & Guillaume Meric
Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation to novel environments, but is potentially constrained by epistatic fitness interactions among cell components. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other by around 15% at the nucleotide level, corresponding to an average of nearly 40 amino acids per protein-coding gene. Using whole genome sequencing, we show that a single C. coli lineage, which has successfully colonized an agricultural niche, has been...

Data from: High gene flow on a continental scale in the polyandrous Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus

Clemens Kuepper, Scott V. Edwards, András Kosztolányi, Monif AlRashidi, Terry Burke, Phillipp Herrmann, Araceli Argüelles Tico, Juan A. Amat, Mohamed Amezian, Afonso Rocha, Hermann Hötker, Anton Ivanov, Joseph Chernicko & Tamas Szekely
Gene flow promotes genetic coherence of species in time and space. It can be modulated by sex-biased dispersal which links population genetics to mating systems. We investigated the phylogeography of the widely distributed Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. This small shorebird has a large breeding range spanning from Western Europe to Japan, and exhibits an unusually flexible mating system with high female breeding dispersal. We analyzed genetic structure and gene flow using a 427 bp fragment...

Data from: Change and stability in a steep morph-frequency cline in the snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) over 43 years.

Robert A. D. Cameron, Laurence M. Cook & Jeremy J. D. Greenwood
Populations of the polymorphic land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) from Deepdale, Derbyshire, UK, sampled in 1965-67, showed a pattern of area effects, with steep clines among groups of populations differing in shell colour and banding morph frequencies. In 2010 most of these populations were resampled. In particular a continuous transect made in 1967 of 42 18.34m x 18.34m quadrats across a steep cline in several morph frequencies was completely resampled. In the dale as a...

Data from: Sexual selection and experimental evolution of chemical signals in Drosophila pseudoobscura

John Hunt, Rhonda R. Snook, Christopher Mitchell, Helen S. Crudgington & Allen J. Moore
Our expectations for the evolution of chemical signals in response to sexual selection are uncertain. How are chemical signals elaborated? Does sexual selection result in complexity of the composition or in altered quantities of expression? We addressed this in Drosophila pseudoobscura by examining male and female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) after 82 generations of elevated (E) sexual selection or relaxed sexual selection through monogamy (M). The CH profile consisted of 18 different components. We extracted three...

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