57 Works

Data from: InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche diode for 1550 nm photons

Xiao Meng, Shiyu Xie, Xinxin Zhou, Niccolò Calandri, Mirko Sanzaro, Alberto Tosi, Chee Hing Tan & Jo Shien Ng
A single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with an InGaAs absorption region, and an InAlAs avalanche region was designed and demonstrated to detect 1550 nm wavelength photons. The characterization included leakage current, dark count rate and single photon detection efficiency as functions of temperature from 210 to 294 K. The SPAD exhibited good temperature stability, with breakdown voltage dependence of approximately 45 mV K−1. Operating at 210 K and in a gated mode, the SPAD achieved...

Data from: Differential gene expression according to race and host plant in the pea aphid

Isobel Eyres, Julie Jaquiéry, Akiko Sugio, Ludovic Duvaux, Karim Gharbi, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Fabrice Legeai, Michaela Nelson, Jean-Christophe Simon, Carole M. Smadja, Roger Butlin & Julia Ferrari
Host-race formation in phytophagous insects is thought to provide the opportunity for local adaptation and subsequent ecological speciation. Studying gene expression differences amongst host races may help to identify phenotypes under (or resulting from) divergent selection and their genetic, molecular and physiological bases. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) comprises host races specializing on numerous plants in the Fabaceae and provides a unique system for examining the early stages of diversification along a gradient of genetic...

Data from: Multi-alternative decision making with non-stationary inputs

Luana F. Nunes & Kevin Gurney
One of the most widely implemented models for multi-alternative decision-making is the multihypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT). It is asymptotically optimal, straightforward to implement, and has found application in modelling biological decision-making. However, the MSPRT is limited in application to discrete (‘trial-based’), non-time-varying scenarios. By contrast, real world situations will be continuous and entail stimulus non-stationarity. In these circumstances, decision-making mechanisms (like the MSPRT) which work by accumulating evidence, must be able to discard...

Data from: The colour of paternity: extra-pair paternity in the wild Gouldian finch does not appear to be driven by genetic incompatibility between morphs

Peri E. Bolton, Lee Ann Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Kang-Wook Kim, Terry Burke, Simon C. Griffith & K-W. Kim
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph...

Data from: Energy benefits and emergent space use patterns of an empirically parameterized model of memory-based patch selection

Jerod A. Merkle, Jonathan R. Potts & Daniel Fortin
Many species frequently return to previously visited foraging sites. This bias towards familiar areas suggests that remembering information from past experience is beneficial. Such a memory-based foraging strategy has also been hypothesized to give rise to restricted space use (i.e. a home range). Nonetheless, the benefits of empirically derived memory-based foraging tactics and the extent to which they give rise to restricted space use patterns are still relatively unknown. Using a combination of stochastic agent-based...

Data from: The stable isotope ecology of mycalesine butterflies: implications for plant-insect co-evolution

Erik Van Bergen, Henry S. Barlow, Oskar Brattström, Howard Griffiths, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Colin P. Osborne & Paul M. Brakefield
One of the most dramatic examples of biome shifts in the geological record is the rapid replacement of C3 vegetation by C4 grasses in (sub-) tropical regions during the Late Miocene–Pliocene. Climate-driven biome shifts of this magnitude are expected to have a major impact on diversification and ecological speciation, especially in grazing taxa. Mycalesine butterflies are excellent candidates to explore the evolutionary impact of these C3/C4 shifts on insect grazer communities. Mycalesine butterflies feed on...

Data from: Widespread correlations between climatic niche evolution and species diversification in birds

Christopher R. Cooney, Nathalie Seddon & Joseph A. Tobias
The adaptability of species’ climatic niches can influence the dynamics of colonisation and gene flow across climatic gradients, potentially increasing the likelihood of speciation, or reducing extinction in the face of environmental change. However, previous comparative studies have tested these ideas using geographically, taxonomically and ecologically restricted samples, yielding mixed results, and thus the processes linking climatic niche evolution with diversification remain poorly understood. Focusing on birds, the largest and most widespread class of terrestrial...

Data from: Color phenotypes are under similar genetic control in two distantly related species of Timema stick insect

Aaron Arthur Comeault, Clarissa Ferreira Carvalho, Stuart R. Dennis, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Patrik Nosil & Stuart Dennis
Ecology and genetics are both of general interest to evolutionary biologists as they can influence the phenotypic and genetic response to selection. The stick insects Timema podura and T. cristinae exhibit a green/melanistic body color polymorphism that is subject to different ecologically-based selective regimes in the two species. Here we describe aspects of the genetics of this color polymorphism in T. podura, and compare this to previous results in T. cristinae. We first show that...

Data from: A universal mechanism generating clusters of differentiated loci during divergence-with-migration

Marina Rafajlović, Anna Emanuelsson, Kerstin Johannesson, Roger K. Butlin & Bernhard Mehlig
Genome-wide patterns of genetic divergence reveal mechanisms of adaptation under gene flow. Empirical data show that divergence is mostly concentrated in narrow genomic regions. This pattern may arise because differentiated loci protect nearby mutations from gene flow, but recent theory suggests this mechanism is insufficient to explain the emergence of concentrated differentiation during biologically realistic timescales. Critically, earlier theory neglects an inevitable consequence of genetic drift: stochastic loss of local genomic divergence. Here, we demonstrate...

Data from: Conserved genetic architecture underlying recombination rate variation in a wild population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries)

Susan E. Johnston, Camillo Bérénos, Jon Slate & Josephine M. Pemberton
Meiotic recombination breaks down linkage disequilibrium and forms new haplotypes, meaning that it is an important driver of diversity in eukaryotic genomes. Understanding the causes of variation in recombination rate is important in interpreting and predicting evolutionary phenomena and for understanding the potential of a population to respond to selection. However, despite attention in model systems, there remains little data on how recombination rate varies at the individual level in natural populations. Here, we used...

Data from: Multivariate selection and intersexual genetic constraints in a wild bird population

Jocelyn Poissant, Micheal B. Morrissey, Andrew G. Gosler, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
When traits are genetically correlated between the sexes, the response to selection in one sex can be altered by indirect selection in the other sex, a type of genetic constraint commonly referred to as intralocus sexual conflict (ISC). While potentially common, ISC has rarely been studied in wild populations. In this study, we applied a multivariate framework to quantify the microevolutionary impacts of ISC over a set of morphological traits (wing length, tarsus length, bill...

Data from: Extremophile Poeciliidae: multivariate insights into the complexity of speciation along replicated ecological gradients

Rüdiger Riesch, Michael Tobler, Hannes Lerp, Jonas Jourdan, Tess Doumas, Patrik Nosil, R. Brian Langerhans & Martin Plath
Background: Replicate population pairs that diverge in response to similar selective regimes allow for an investigation of (a) whether phenotypic traits diverge in a similar and predictable fashion, (b) whether there is gradual variation in phenotypic divergence reflecting variation in the strength of natural selection among populations, (c) whether the extent of this divergence is correlated between multiple character suites (i.e., concerted evolution), and (d) whether gradual variation in phenotypic divergence predicts the degree of...

Methane fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

M.A. Cooper, C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset contains methane fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Methane fluxes were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus and thawing features of peatland plateaus.

Soil dates using 210Pb in profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of soils dated using 210Pb in profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil cores were sampled during early summer in 2013 and 2014 from peatland plateaus, thawing peatland plateaus, burnt and unburnt black spruce forests in Yukon and Northwest Territories. The upper part of the soil profile was dated using 210Pb to quantify recent carbon accumulation rates.

Bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content in soil profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of measurements of bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content in soil profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil cores were sampled during early summer in 2013 and 2014. Soil cores were sampled from a peatland plateau and thawing features of the peatland plateau, and from an unburnt and burnt black spruce forest, and additional sites in Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Soil respired radiocarbon as CO2 and CH4 from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset contains measures of soil respired radiocarbon as CO2 and CH4 from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. The radiocarbon content of soil respired CO2 and CH4 was measured during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus and unburnt and burnt black spruce forests.

Data from: A demographic ménage à trois: interactions between disturbances both amplify and dampen population dynamics of an endemic plant

Matthew R. Tye, Eric S. Menges, Carl Weekley, Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Roberto Salguero-Gómez & Matthew Tye
Natural and anthropogenic disturbances co-occur in most systems, but how they interact to shape demographic outcomes remains poorly understood. Such interactions may alter dynamics of populations in non-additive ways, making demographic predictions challenging when focusing on only one disturbance. Thus, understanding the interactive effects of such disturbances is critically important to determine the population viability of most species under a diversity of stressors. We used a hierarchical integral projection model (IPM), parameterized with 13 years...

Data from: Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans

Adam Hayward, Francesca L. Rigby & Virpi Lummaa
A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component...

Data from: Sex allocation conflict between queens and workers in Formica pratensis wood ants predicts seasonal sex ratio variation

Heikki Helanterä, Jonna Kulmuni & Pekka Pamilo
Sex allocation theory predicts parents should adjust their investment in male and female offspring in a way that increases parental fitness. This has been shown in several species and selective contexts. Yet, seasonal sex ratio variation within species and its underlying causes are poorly understood. Here we study sex allocation variation in the wood ant Formica pratensis. This species displays conflict over colony sex ratio as workers and queens prefer different investment in male and...

Data from: Homeostasis of metabolites in Escherichia coli on transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions and the transient secretion of pyruvate

Nur Adeela Yasid, Matthew D. Rolfe, Jeffrey Green & Mike P. Williamson
We have developed a method for rapid quenching of samples taken from chemostat cultures of Escherichia coli that gives reproducible and reliable measurements of extracellular and intracellular metabolites by 1H NMR and have applied it to study the major central metabolites during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic growth. Almost all metabolites showed a gradual change after perturbation with air, consistent with immediate inhibition of pyruvate formate-lyase, dilution of overflow metabolites and induction of aerobic...

Data from: Effects of landscape configuration and composition on phylogenetic diversity of trees in a highly fragmented tropical forest

Fabio Antonio R. Matos, Luiz Fernando S. Magnago, Markus Gastauer, João M. B. Carreiras, Marcelo Simonelli, João Augusto A. Meira-Neto & David P. Edwards
Fragmentation of tropical forests is a major driver of the global extinction crisis. A key question is understanding how fragmentation impacts phylogenetic diversity, which summarizes the total evolutionary history shared across species within a community. Conserving phylogenetic diversity decreases the potential of losing unique ecological and phenotypic traits and plays important roles in maintaining ecosystem function and stability. Our study was conducted in landscapes within the highly fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest. We sampled living trees...

Data from: Tissue culture as a source of replicates in non-model plants: variation in cold response in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea

Tanaka Kenta, Jessica E. M. Edwards, Roger K. Butlin, Terry Burke, W. Paul Quick, Peter Urwin & Matthew P. Davey
Whilst genotype-environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates-a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could potentially be overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and "somaclonal" variation. Here we examined the somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of the photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm' and ΦPSII, representing...

Data from: Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow

Scott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Lauren Assour, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Glen R. Hood, Scott Emrich, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H.Q. Powell
Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect effects due to correlations among loci, is critical to understanding speciation. Here, we measure the genome-wide impacts of host-associated selection between hawthorn and apple...

Data from: Is the Danube crested newt Triturus dobrogicus polytypic? A review and new nuclear DNA data

Ben Wielstra, Judit Vörös & Jan W. Arntzen
The Danube crested newt Triturus dobrogicus has been proposed to comprise two subspecies: T. d. dobrogicus and T. d. macrosoma. Uncertainty exists in the literature over their distribution and diagnosability. We conduct a multilocus phylogeographical survey and review published data to determine whether a two taxon treatment is warranted. Newly produced and published nuclear DNA data suggest intraspecific variation in the Pannonian Plain part of the range, but with extensive genetic admixture, whereas mitochondrial DNA...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    57

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    57

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    57
  • University of Edinburgh
    12
  • University of Exeter
    12
  • University of Sussex
    11
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    3
  • University of Gothenburg
    3
  • University of Oxford
    3
  • Rice University
    2
  • University of Notre Dame
    2
  • University of Queensland
    2