48 Works

Data from: Egg shape mimicry in parasitic cuckoos

Marie R.G. Attard, Iliana Medina, Naomi E. Langmore, Emma Sherratt & M. R. G. Attard
Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this...

Data from: Speciation over the edge: gene flow among non-human primate species across a formidable biogeographic barrier

Ben J. Evans, Anthony J. Tosi, Kai Zeng, Jonathan Dushoff, André Corvelo & Don J. Melnick
Many genera of terrestrial vertebrates diversified exclusively on one or the other side of Wallace’s Line, which lies between Borneo and Sulawesi islands in Southeast Asia, and demarcates one of the sharpest biogeographic transition zones in the world. Macaque monkeys are unusual among vertebrate genera in that they are distributed on both sides of Wallace‘s Line, raising the question of whether dispersal across this barrier was an evolutionary one-off or a more protracted exchange—and if...

Data from: A genomic footprint of hybrid zone movement in crested newts

Ben Wielstra, Terry Burke, Roger K. Butlin, Aziz Avcı, Nazan Üzüm, Emin Bozkurt, Kurtuluş Olgun & Jan W. Arntzen
Speciation typically involves a stage in which species can still exchange genetic material. Interspecific gene flow is facilitated by the hybrid zones that such species establish upon secondary contact. If one member of a hybridizing species pair displaces the other, their hybrid zone would move across the landscape. Although theory predicts that moving hybrid zones quickly stagnate, hybrid zones tracked over one or a few decades do not always follow such a limitation. This suggests...

Data from: The chemical signatures underlying host plant discrimination by aphids

David P. Hopkins, Duncan D. Cameron & Roger K. Butlin
The diversity of phytophagous insects is largely attributable to speciation involving shifts between host plants. These shifts are mediated by the close interaction between insects and plant metabolites. However, there has been limited progress in understanding the chemical signatures that underlie host preferences. We use the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) to address this problem. Host-associated races of pea aphid discriminate between plant species in race-specific ways. We combined metabolomic profiling of multiple plant species with...

Data from: A sex-linked supergene controls sperm morphology and swimming speed in a songbird

Kang-Wook Kim, Clair Bennison, Nicola Hemmings, Lola Brookes, Laura L. Hurley, Simon C. Griffith, Terry Burke, Tim R. Birkhead & Jon Slate
Sperm are perhaps the most diverse cells in the animal kingdom, with enormous morphological variation between taxa, between species, between males and within an ejaculate. Considerable interest in sperm diversity has arisen following the realisation that sperm competition (post-copulatory sexual selection) is a powerful selective force in many organisms, and that sperm morphology has co-evolved with female reproductive tract morphology. However, the relationship between sperm morphology, sperm motility and fertilisation success is only partially understood....

Data from: Body length of bony fishes was not a selective factor during the biggest mass extinction of all time

Mark N. Puttick, Jürgen Kriwet, Wen Wen, Shixue Hu, Gavin H. Thomas & Michael J. Benton
The Permo-Triassic mass extinction devastated life on land and in the sea, but it is not clear why some species survived and others went extinct. One explanation is that lineage loss during mass extinctions is a random process in which luck determines which species survive. Alternatively, a phylogenetic signal in extinction may indicate a selection process operating on phenotypic traits. Large body size has often emerged as an extinction risk factor in studies of modern...

Data from: The triangular seed mass-leaf area relationship holds for annual plants and is determined by habitat productivity

Bianca A. Santini, John G. Hodgson, Ken Thompson, Peter J. Wilson, Stuart R. Band, Glynis Jones, Mike Charles, Amy Boogard, Carol Palmer, Mark Rees & Amy Bogaard
Plant allometries help us to understand resource allocation in plants and provide insight into how communities are structured. For woody species, a triangular allometric relationship between seed size and leaf size occurs in which all combinations are all possible, except for species with big seeds and small leaves (Cornelissen 1999). This relationship is thought to be a consequence of between habitat variation in abiotic conditions. In this study, we tested if the triangular relationship between...

Data from: Differential sperm storage by female zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata

Nicola Hemmings, Timothy Birkhead & Tim Birkhead
When females mate promiscuously, female sperm storage provides scope to bias the fertilization success towards particular males via the non-random acceptance and utilization of sperm. The difficulties observing post-copulatory processes within the female reproductive tract mean that the mechanisms underlying cryptic female choice remain poorly understood. Here, we use zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, selected for divergent sperm lengths, combined with a novel technique for isolating and extracting sperm from avian sperm storage tubules (SSTs), to...

Data from: Still armed after domestication? Impact of domestication and agronomic selection on silicon defences in cereals

Kimberley J. Simpson, Ruth N. Wade, Mark Rees, Colin P. Osborne & Sue E. Hartley
1. Plant phenotypes reflect trade-offs between competing resource-intensive physiological processes. A shift in resource allocation, away from anti-herbivore defences and towards growth and reproduction, is predicted through plant domestication, such that crops are faster growing and higher yielding than their wild ancestors. These changes are hypothesized to have come at the cost of defence investment, leaving crops ‘disarmed by domestication’. Silicon is the principal anti-herbivore defence in grasses, including many of our most important staple...

Data from: Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm

Mauricio J. Carter, Martin I. Lind, Stuart R. Dennis, William Hentley & Andrew P. Beckerman
Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the micro-evolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge...

Data from: Widespread gene flow between oceans in a pelagic seabird species complex

Claire Raisin, Deborah A. Dawson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Jim J. Groombridge, Stefanie M.H. Ismar, Paul Sweet, Carl G. Jones, Vikash Tatayah, Kevin Ruhomaun, Norris Ken, Katherine A. Booth Jones, Malcolm A.C. Nicoll, Malcolm A. C. Nicoll, Ken Norris & Stefanie M. H. Ismar
Global-scale gene flow is an important concern in conservation biology as it has the potential to either increase or decrease genetic diversity in species and populations. Although many studies focus on the gene flow between different populations of a single species, the potential for gene flow and introgression between species is understudied, particularly in seabirds. The only well-studied example of a mixed-species, hybridizing population of petrels exists on Round Island, in the Indian Ocean. Previous...

Data from: Predation drives local adaptation of phenotypic plasticity

Julia Reger, Martin I. Lind, Matthew R. Robinson & Andrew P. Beckerman
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual genotype to alter aspects of its phenotype depending on the current environment. It is central to the persistence, resistance and resilience of populations facing variation in physical or biological factors. Genetic variation in plasticity is pervasive, which suggests its local adaptation is plausible. Existing studies on the adaptation of plasticity typically focus on single traits and a few populations, while theory about interactions among genes (for example,...

Data from: Contrasting impacts of land use change on phylogenetic and functional diversity of tropical forest birds

Phillip M. Chapman, Joseph A. Tobias, David P. Edwards, Richard G. Davies & Philip M. Chapman
1.Biodiversity conservation strategies increasingly target maintaining evolutionary history and the resilience of ecosystem function, not just species richness (SR). This has led to the emergence of two metrics commonly proposed as tools for decision making: phylogenetic diversity (PD) and functional diversity (FD). Yet the extent to which they are interchangeable remains poorly understood. 2.We explore shifts in and relationships between FD and PD of bird communities across a disturbance gradient in Borneo, from old-growth tropical...

Data from: Is bigger better? The relationship between size and reproduction in female Asian elephants

J. A. H. Crawley, H. S. Mumby, S. N. Chapman, M. Lahdenperä, K. U. Mar, W. Htut, A. Thura Soe, H. H. Aung & V. Lummaa
The limited availability of resources is predicted to impose trade-offs between growth, reproduction and self-maintenance in animals. However, although some studies have shown that early reproduction suppresses growth, reproduction positively correlates with size in others. We use detailed records from a large population of semi-captive elephants in Myanmar to assess the relationships between size (height and weight), reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants, a species characterized by slow, costly life history. Although female height...

Data from: Incorporating intraspecific trait variation into functional diversity: impacts of selective logging on birds in Borneo

Samuel R. P-J. Ross, Christopher Hassall, William J. E. Hoppitt, Felicity A. Edwards, David P. Edwards, Keith C. Hamer & Samuel R. P.-J. Ross
As conservation increasingly recognizes the importance of species’ functional roles in ecosystem processes, studies are shifting away from measuring species richness towards measures that account for the functional differences between species in a community. These functional diversity (FD) indices have received much recent attention and refinement, but their greatest limitation remains their inability to incorporate information about intraspecific trait variation (ITV). We use an individual-based model to account for ITV when calculating the functional diversity...

Data from: Widespread hybridization within mound-building wood ants in Southern Finland results in cytonuclear mismatches and potential for sex-specific hybrid breakdown

Jack Beresford, Marianne Elias, Lucy Pluckrose, Liselotte Sundström, Roger K. Butlin, Pekka Pamilo & Jonna Kulmuni
Hybridization and gene flow between diverging lineages is increasingly recognized as a common evolutionary process and its consequences can vary from hybrid breakdown to adaptive introgression. We have previously found a population of wood ant hybrids between Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena that shows antagonistic effects of hybridization: females with introgressed alleles show hybrid vigour, whereas males with the same alleles show hybrid breakdown. Here we investigate whether hybridization is a general phenomenon in this...

Data from: Allopreening in birds is associated with parental cooperation over offspring care and stable pair bonds across years

Elspeth Kenny, Tim.R. Birkhead, Jonathan P. Green & Tim R Birkhead
Individuals of many species form bonds with their breeding partners, yet the mechanisms maintaining these bonds are poorly understood. In birds, allopreening is a conspicuous feature of interactions between breeding partners and has been hypothesized to play a role in strengthening and maintaining pair bonds within and across breeding attempts. Many avian species, however, do not allopreen and the relationship between allopreening and pair bonding across species remains unexplored. In a comparative analysis of allopreening...

Data from: Interpreting the genomic landscape of speciation: a road map for finding barriers to gene flow

Mark Ravinet, Rui Faria, Roger K. Butlin, Juan Galindo, Nicolas Bierne, Marina Rafajlović, Mohamed A. F. Noor, Bernhard Mehlig & Anja M. Westram
Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation amongst populations, is continuous, complex, and involves multiple, interacting barriers. Until it is complete, the effects of this process vary along the genome and can lead to a heterogeneous genomic landscape with peaks and troughs of differentiation and divergence. When gene flow occurs during speciation, barriers restricting migration locally in the genome lead to patterns of heterogeneity. However, genomic heterogeneity can also be produced or modified by variation in...

Data from: Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine

Isabel S. Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre J. Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli & Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and...

Data from: Linking intra-specific trait variation to community abundance dynamics improves ecological predictability by revealing a growth-defence trade-off

Jason I. Griffiths, Owen L. Petchey, Frank Pennekamp & Dylan Z. Childs
1.Intraspecific trait change, including altered behaviour or morphology, can drive temporal variation in inter-specific interactions and population dynamics. In turn, variation in species’ interactions and densities can alter the strength and direction of trait change. The resulting feedback between species′ traits and abundance permits a wide range of community dynamics that would not be expected from ecological theories purely based on species abundances. Despite the theoretical importance of these interrelated processes, unambiguous experimental evidence of...

Data from: Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 diodes with extremely weak temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown

Xinxin Zhou, Chee Hing Tan, Shiyong Zhang, Manuel Moreno, Shiyu Xie, Salman Abdullah & Jo Shien Ng
When using avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in applications, temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown voltage is one of the performance parameters to be considered. Hence, novel materials developed for APDs require dedicated experimental studies. We have carried out such a study on thin Al1–xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 p–i–n diode wafers (Ga composition from 0 to 0.15), plus measurements of avalanche gain and dark current. Based on data obtained from 77 to 297 K, the alloys Al1−xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 exhibited weak temperature dependence...

Data from: Does sex matter? Gender-specific responses to forest fragmentation in Neotropical bats

Ricardo Rocha, Diogo F. Ferreira, Adrià López-Baucells, Fabio Z. Farneda, Joao M.B. Carreiras, Jorge M. Palmeirim & Christoph F. J. Meyer
Understanding the consequences of habitat modification on wildlife communities is central to the development of conservation strategies. However, albeit male and female individuals of numerous species are known to exhibit differences in habitat use, sex-specific responses to habitat modification remain little explored. Here, we used a landscape-scale fragmentation experiment to assess, separately for males and females, the effects of fragmentation on the abundance of Carollia perspicillata and Rhinophylla pumilio, two widespread Neotropical frugivorous bats. We...

Data from: Defining conservation units with enhanced molecular tools to reveal fine scale structuring among Mediterranean green turtle rookeries

Phil J. Bradshaw, Annette C. Broderick, Carlos Carreras, Wayne Fuller, Robin T.E. Snape, Lucy I. Wright, Brendan J. Godley, A.C. Broderick, R.T.E. Snape, B.J. Godley, P.J. Bradshaw & L.I. Wright
Understanding the connectivity among populations is a key research priority for species of conservation concern. Genetic tools are widely used for this purpose, but the results can be limited by the resolution of the genetic markers in relation to the species and geographic scale. Here, we investigate natal philopatry in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from four rookeries within close geographic proximity (~ 200km) on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. We genotyped hypervariable mtSTRs, a mtDNA...

Data from: Polygamy slows down population divergence in shorebirds

Josephine D'Urban Jackson, Natalie Dos Remedios, Kathryn H. Maher, Sama Zefania, Susan Haig, Sara Oyler-McCance, Donald Blomqvist, Terry Burke, Mike W. Bruford, Tamas Szekely, Clemens Küpper & Michael W. Bruford
Sexual selection may act as a promotor of speciation since divergent mate choice and competition for mates can rapidly lead to reproductive isolation. Alternatively, sexual selection may also retard speciation since polygamous individuals can access additional mates by increased breeding dispersal. High breeding dispersal should hence increase gene flow and reduce diversification in polygamous species. Here we test how polygamy predicts diversification in shorebirds using genetic differentiation and subspecies richness as proxies for population divergence....

Data from: Repeatable and heritable behavioural variation in a wild cooperative breeder

Hannah A. Edwards, Terry Burke & Hannah L. Dugdale
Quantifying consistent differences in behaviour among individuals is vital to understanding the ecological and evolutionary significance of animal personality. To quantify personality, the phenotypic variation of a behavioural trait is partitioned to assess how it varies among individuals, which is also known as repeatability. If pedigree data are available, the phenotypic variation can then be further partitioned to estimate the additive genetic variance and heritability. Assessing the repeatability and heritability of personality traits therefore allows...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    48

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    48

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    48
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    5
  • University of Oxford
    5
  • University of Gothenburg
    4
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • University of Bath
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2