50 Works

Data from: Stress‐induced secondary leaves of a boreal deciduous shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) overwinter then regain activity the following growing season

Jarle W. Bjerke, Grzegorz Wierzbinski, Hans Tømmervik, Gareth K. Phoenix & Stef Bokhorst
The ericoid shrub Vaccinium myrtillus is one of several deciduous boreal plants that respond to larval defoliation by compensatory production of a new set of leaves within the same growing season soon after defoliation. This new set is termed as ‘secondary leaves’. The physiological performance and longevity of secondary leaves is poorly understood. Following a multi‐year larval outbreak in boreal Norway, we therefore monitored the fate of the secondary leaves from 2014 to 2016. We...

Data from: A diet rich in C3 plants reveals the sensitivity of an alpine mammal to climate change

Sabuj Bhattacharyya, Deborah A. Dawson, Helen Hipperson & Farah Ishtiaq
Plant-herbivore interactions provide critical insights into the mechanisms that govern the spatiotemporal distributions of organisms. These interactions are crucial to understanding the impacts of climate change, which are likely to have an effect on the population dynamics of alpine herbivores. The Royle’s pika (Ochotona roylei, hereafter pika) is a lagomorph found in the western Himalaya, and is dependent on alpine plants that are at risk from climate change. As the main prey of many carnivores...

Data from: Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, dominance drive, and sex-chromosome introgression at secondary contact zones: a simulation study

Luca Sciuchetti, Christophe Dufresnes, Elisa Cavoto, Alan Brelsford & Nicolas Perrin
Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) incompatibilities involving sex chromosomes have been proposed to account for Haldane’s rule (lowered fitness among hybrid offspring of the heterogametic sex) as well as Darwin’s corollary (asymmetric fitness costs with respect to the direction of the cross). We performed simulation studies of a hybrid zone to investigate the effects of different types of DM incompatibilities on cline widths and positions of sex-linked markers. From our simulations, X-Y incompatibilities generate steep clines for both...

Data from: Large and fast human pyramidal neurons associate with intelligence

Natalia A Goriounova, Djai B Heyer, René Wilbers, Matthijs B Verhoog, Michele Giugliano, Christophe Verbist, Joshua Obermayer, Amber Kerkhofs, Harriët Smeding, Maaike Verberne, Sander Idema, Johannes C Baayen, Anton W Pieneman, Christiaan PJ De Kock, Martin Klein & Huibert D Mansvelder
It is generally assumed that human intelligence relies on efficient processing by neurons in our brain. Although gray matter thickness and activity of temporal and frontal cortical areas correlate with IQ scores, no direct evidence exists that links structural and physiological properties of neurons to human intelligence. Here, we find that high IQ scores and large temporal cortical thickness associate with larger, more complex dendrites of human pyramidal neurons. We show in silico that larger...

Data from: Accurately quantifying the shape of birds' eggs

John D. Biggins, Jamie E. Thompson & Tim R. Birkhead
Describing the range of avian egg shapes quantitatively has long been recognised as difficult. A variety of approaches has been adopted, some of which aim to capture the shape accurately and some to provide intelligible indices of shape. The objectives here are to show that a (four-parameter) method proposed by Preston (1953) is the best option for quantifying egg shape, to provide and document an R program for applying this method to suitable photographs of...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity data from a grassland microcosm experiment [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, P.J. Vandenkoornhuyse, J.R. Leake, L. Gilbert, , J.P Grime, J.P.W. Young & D.J. Read
These arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi diversity data were collected in 2000 as part of an investigation in an unfertilized limestone grassland soil supporting different synthesized vascular plant assemblages that had developed for three years. The experimental treatments comprised: bare soil; monocultures of the non mycotrophic sedge Carex flacca; monocultures of the mycotrophic grass Festuca ovina; and a species-rich mixture of four forbs, four grasses and four sedges. The experiment was undertaken in microcosms, set up...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: The pyriform egg of the Common Murre (Uria aalge) is more stable on sloping surfaces

Tim R. Birkhead, Jamie E. Thompson & Robert Montgomerie
The adaptive significance of avian egg shape is a long-standing problem in biology. For many years, it was widely believed that the pyriform shape of the Common Murre (Uria aalge) egg allowed it to either “spin like a top” or “roll in an arc,” thereby reducing its risk of rolling off the breeding ledge. There is no evidence in support of either mechanism. Two recent alternative hypotheses suggest that a pyriform egg confers mechanical strength...

Modelled potential carbon storage based on land cover and published carbon storage values in urban landscapes of the South Midlands

D.R. Grafius, R. Corstanje & J. A. Harris
This dataset shows potential carbon storage as modelled for the urban areas of Milton Keynes/Newport Pagnell, Bedford, and Luton/Dunstable, UK. The modelling approach used the ‘InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) 3.1.0’ ecosystem service model suite, raster land cover maps at two spatial resolutions (5 m and 25 m) and published literature values for carbon storage by land cover. The resulting data are presented in the form of two ‘GeoTIFF’ raster map files...

Data from: Low-smoke chulha in Indian slums: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Megha Thakur, Esther A. Boudewijns, Giridhara R. Babu, Bjorn Winkens, Luc P. De Witte, Jeroen Gruiskens, Preeti Sushama, Cristian T. Ghergu & Onno C. P. Van Schayck
Background: Biomass fuel is used as a primary cooking source by more than half of the world’s population, contributing to a high burden of disease. Although cleaner fuels are available, some households continue using solid fuels because of financial constraints and absence of infrastructure, especially in non-notified slums. The present study documents a randomised controlled study investigating the efficacy of improved cookstove on the personal exposure to air pollution and the respiratory health of women...

Data from: Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds

Vojtěch Kubelka, Miroslav Šálek, Pavel Tomkovich, Zsolt Végvári, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, there existed a latitudinal gradient in nest predation, with...

Data from: Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement?

Johan Hollander, Mauricio Montaño-Rendón, Giuseppe Bianco, Xi Yang, Anja M. Westram, Ludovic Duvaux, David G. Reid & Roger K. Butlin
The evolution of assortative mating is a key part of the speciation process. Stronger assortment, or greater divergence in mating traits, between species pairs with overlapping ranges is commonly observed, but possible causes of this pattern of reproductive character displacement are difficult to distinguish. We use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a rare example where it is possible to distinguish among hypotheses concerning the evolution of reproductive character displacement. We build on an earlier comparative...

Data from: C4 savanna grasses fail to maintain assimilation in drying soil under low CO2 compared with C3 trees despite lower leaf water demand

Joe Quirk, Chandra Bellasio, David A. Johnson, Colin P. Osborne & David J. Beerling
1) C4 photosynthesis evolved when grasses migrated out of contracting forests under a declining atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]a) and drying climate around 30 million years ago. C4 grasses are hypothesised to benefit from improved plant–water relations in open habitats like savannas, giving advantages over C3 plants under low [CO2]a. But experimental evidence in a low CO2 environment is limited and comparisons with C3 trees are needed to understand savanna vegetation patterns. 2) To test whether...

Data from: Verbalizing phylogenomic conflict: representation of node congruence across competing reconstructions of the neoavian explosion

Nico M. Franz, Lukas J. Musher, Joseph W. Brown, Yu Shizhuo & Bertram Ludäscher
Phylogenomic research is accelerating the publication of landmark studies that aim to resolve deep divergences of major organismal groups. Meanwhile, systems for identifying and integrating the products of phylogenomic inference–such as newly supported clade concepts–have not kept pace. However, the ability to verbalize node concept congruence and conflict across multiple, in effect simultaneously endorsed phylogenomic hypotheses, is a prerequisite for building synthetic data environments for biological systematics and other domains impacted by these conflicting inferences....

Data from: Correlates of rate heterogeneity in avian ecomorphological traits

Angela M. Chira, Christopher R. Cooney, Jen A. Bright, Elliot J.R. Capp, Emma C. Hughes, Chris J.A. Moody, Lara O. Nouri, Zoe K. Varley, Gavin H. Thomas, E. J. R. Capp & C. J. A. Moody
Heterogeneity in rates of trait evolution is widespread, but it remains unclear which processes drive fast and slow character divergence across global radiations. Here, we test multiple hypotheses for explaining rate variation in an ecomorphological trait (beak shape) across a globally distributed group (birds). We find low support that variation in evolutionary rates of species is correlated with life history, environmental mutagenic factors, range size, number of competitors, or living on islands. Indeed, after controlling...

Data from: Clines on the seashore: the genomic architecture underlying rapid divergence in the face of gene flow

Anja Marie Westram, Marina Rafajlovic, Pragya Chaube, Rui Faria, Tomas Larsson, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Anders Blomberg, Bernhard Mehlig, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Adaptive divergence and speciation may happen despite opposition by gene flow. Identifying the genomic basis underlying divergence with gene flow is a major task in evolutionary genomics. Most approaches (e.g. outlier scans) focus on genomic regions of high differentiation. However, not all genomic architectures potentially underlying divergence are expected to show extreme differentiation. Here, we develop an approach that combines hybrid zone analysis (i.e. focuses on spatial patterns of allele frequency change) with system-specific simulations...

Data from: Persistent postmating, prezygotic reproductive isolation between populations

Martin D. Garlovsky & Rhonda R. Snook
Studying reproductive barriers between populations of the same species is critical to understand how speciation may proceed. Growing evidence suggests postmating, prezygotic (PMPZ) reproductive barriers play an important role in the evolution of early taxonomic divergence. However, the contribution of PMPZ isolation to speciation is typically studied between species in which barriers that maintain isolation may not be those that contributed to reduced gene flow between populations. Moreover, in internally fertilizing animals, PMPZ isolation is...

Data from: Using an integral projection model to assess the effect of temperature on the growth of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata

Freddie J. Heather, Dylan Z. Childs, Audrey M. Darnaude & Julia L. Blanchard
Accurate information on the growth rates of fish is crucial for fisheries stock assessment and management. Empirical life history parameters (von Bertalanffy growth) are widely fitted to cross-sectional size-at-age data sampled from fish populations. This method often assumes that environmental factors affecting growth remain constant over time. The current study utilized longitudinal life history information contained in otoliths from 412 juveniles and adults of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, a commercially important species fished and farmed...

Data from: Multiple chromosomal rearrangements in a hybrid zone between Littorina saxatilis ecotypes

Rui Faria, Pragya Chaube, Hernan E. Morales, Tomas Larsson, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Marina Rafajlovic, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Kerstin Johannesson, Anja M. Westram & Roger K. Butlin
Both classical and recent studies suggest that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are important in adaptation and speciation. However, biases in discovery and reporting of inversions make it difficult to assess their prevalence and biological importance. Here, we use an approach based on linkage disequilibrium among markers genotyped for samples collected across a transect between contrasting habitats to detect chromosomal rearrangements de novo. We report 17 polymorphic rearrangements in a single locality for the coastal marine snail,...

Data from: Predictability of the impact of multiple stressors on the keystone species Daphnia

Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Hollie Marshall, Luc De Meester, Thomas Alexander Davidson, Andrew P. Beckerman & Luisa Orsini
Eutrophication and climate change are two of the most pressing environmental issues affecting up to 50% of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of environmental change are complicated by inherent difficulties of predicting the long-term impact of multiple stressors on natural populations. Here, we investigated the impact of temperature, food levels and carbamate insecticides, in isolation and in combination, on current and historical populations of the freshwater grazer Daphnia. We used common...

Data from: Rewilding in the English Uplands: policy and practice

Christopher J. Sandom, Benedict Dempsey, David Bullock, Adrian Ely, Paul Jepson, Stefan Jimenez-Wisler, Adrian Newton, Nathalie Pettorelli & Rebecca A. Senior
Rewilding is gaining momentum as a new approach to restore and conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services, despite being imprecisely defined, controversial, and with limited explicit empirical supporting evidence (Lorimer et al., 2015; Pettorelli et al., 2018; Svenning et al., 2016). In a case study region (the English uplands), we discuss what rewilding means to practitioners and policy makers; the risks, opportunities, and barriers to implementation, and potential paths for policy and practice.

Microbial biomass measurements from an upland grassland liming experiment [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, J.R. Leake & D.J. Read
These measurements of soil microbial biomass carbon, soil basal respiration rate and metabolic quotient were taken from an experiment set up at the University of Sheffield, using soil from the NERC Soil Biodiversity site at Sourhope. The work was part of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme, which was established in 1999 and was centred upon the intensive study of a large field experiment located at the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (now the James...

Measurements of carbon-14 transfer from plants to soil within mesh cores [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, J.R. Leake & D.J. Read
This dataset includes measurements of carbon-14 transfer from plants to soil within mesh cores. Measurements were taken in roots, shoots, soil and from respiration. Mesh cores were either static or rotated to provide plus and minus mycorrhizal mycelial systems. Carbon-14 was traced through cores as respiration using KOH (Potassium hydroxide) traps. The experiment was carried out at the University of Sheffield using soil from the NERC Soil Biodiversity site in Scotland. The work was part...

Data from: Analyzing contentious relationships and outlier genes in phylogenomics

Joseph F. Walker, Joseph W. Brown & Stephen A. Smith
Recent studies have demonstrated that conflict is common among gene trees in phylogenomic studies, and that less than one percent of genes may ultimately drive species tree inference in supermatrix analyses. Here, we examined two datasets where supermatrix and coalescent-based species trees conflict. We identified two highly influential “outlier” genes in each dataset. When removed from each dataset, the inferred supermatrix trees matched the topologies obtained from coalescent analyses. We also demonstrate that, while the...

Data from: Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups

Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A. Kingma, Martijn Hammers, Hannah L. Dugdale, Terry Burke, David S. Richardson & Jan Komdeur
1. In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group (“subordinate between-group” dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2. We...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    50

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    50

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    50
  • University of Notre Dame
    4
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    4
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • University of Gothenburg
    3
  • University of Leeds
    3
  • University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
    3
  • University of York
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • VU University Amsterdam
    2