50 Works

Data from: Social cues trigger differential immune investment strategies in a non-social insect, Tenebrio molitor

Joe D. Gallagher, Michael T. Siva-Jothy, Sophie E.F. Evison & Sophie E. F. Evison
Social immunisation is a horizontal transfer of immunity which protects naïve hosts against infection following exposure to infected nestmates. Whilst mainly documented in eusocial insects, non-social species also share similar ecological features which favour the development of group-level immunity. Here we investigate social immunisation in Tenebrio molitor, by pairing naïve females with a pathogen-challenged conspecific for 72 h before measuring a series of immune and fitness traits. We found no evidence for social immunisation, as...

Data from: Sperm morphology and the evolution of intracellular sperm-egg interactions

Helen M. Southern, Mitchell A. Berger, Philippe G. Young & Rhonda R. Snook
Sperm morphology is incredibly diverse, even among closely related species, yet the coevolution between males and females of fertilization recognition systems is necessary for successful karyogamy (male and female pronuclear fusion). In most species, the entire sperm enters the egg during fertilization so sperm morphological diversity may impact the intra-cellular sperm-egg interactions necessary for karyogamy. We quantified morphological variation of sperm inside eggs prior to and following karyogamy in several species of Drosophila to understand...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure and helping decisions in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy E. Leedale, Stuart P. Sharp, Michelle Simeoni, Elva J.H. Robinson, Ben J. Hatchwell & Elva J. H. Robinson
In animal societies, characteristic demographic and dispersal patterns may lead to genetic structuring of populations, generating the potential for kin selection to operate. However, even in genetically structured populations, social interactions may still require kin discrimination for cooperative behaviour to be directed towards relatives. Here, we use molecular genetics and long-term field data to investigate genetic structure in an adult population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus, a cooperative breeder in which helping occurs within extended...

Data from: What can mixed-species flock movement tell us about the value of Amazonian secondary forests? insights from spatial behavior

Karl Mokross, Jonathan R. Potts, Cameron L. Rutt & Philip C. Stouffer
The value of secondary forest for rainforest species remains an important question for conservation in the 21st century. Here, we describe the spatial behavior of understory mixed-species flocks in a heterogeneous landscape in central Amazonia. Understory mixed-species flocks represent a diverse, highly organized component of the rich Amazonian avifauna. We recorded movements within 26 flock home ranges in primary forest, secondary forest, interfaces between forest types, and forest fragments. We describe frequency and movement orientation...

Data from: Whisker touch sensing guides locomotion in small, quadrupedal mammals

Robyn A. Grant, Vicki Breakell & Tony J. Prescott
All small mammals have prominent facial whiskers that they employ as tactile sensors to guide navigation and foraging in complex habitats. Nocturnal, arboreal mammals tend to have the longest and most densely-packed whiskers, and semi-aquatic mammals have the most sensitive. Here we present evidence to indicate that many small mammals use their whiskers to tactually guide safe foot positioning. Specifically, in eleven, small, non-flying mammal species we demonstrate that forepaw placement always falls within the...

Data from: Plasmid stability is enhanced by higher-frequency pulses of positive selection

Cagla H. Stevenson, James P. J. Hall, Michael A. Brockhurst, Ellie Harrison & Cagla Stevenson
Plasmids accelerate bacterial adaptation by sharing ecologically important traits between lineages. However, explaining plasmid stability in bacterial populations is challenging due to their associated costs. Previous theoretical and experimental studies suggest that pulsed positive selection may explain plasmid stability by favouring gene mobility and promoting compensatory evolution to ameliorate plasmid cost. Here we test how the frequency of pulsed positive selection affected the dynamics of a mercury resistance plasmid, pQBR103, in experimental populations of Pseudomonas...

Measurements of nutrient cycling within grassland mycorrhizal mycelial networks [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, J.R. Leake & D.J. Read
This dataset includes data collected during two related experiments measuring nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) in roots and shoots. The measurements enable functional studies of natural communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) mycelia in soil. The experiment was carried out at the University of Sheffield using soil from the NERC Soil Biodiversity site at Sourhope in Scotland. The work was part of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme, which was established in 1999 and was centred upon...

Data from: Strong responses from weakly interacting species

Sean Tuck, Janielle Porter, Mark Rees, Lindsay A. Turnbull & Sean L. Tuck
The impact of species loss from competitive communities partly depends on how populations of the surviving species respond. Predicting the response should be straightforward using models that describe population growth as a function of competitor densities; but these models require accurate estimates of interaction strengths. Here, we quantified how well we could predict responses to competitor removal in a community of annual plants, using a combination of observation and experiment. It was straightforward to fit...

Data from: Does 1,8-Diiodooctane affect the aggregation state of PC71BM in solution?

Gabriel Bernardo, Adam L. Washington, Yiwei Zhang, Stephen M. King, Daniel T. W. Toolan, Michael P. Weir, Alan D. F. Dunbar, Jonathan R. Howse, Rajeev Dattani, John Patrick A. Fairclough, Andrew J. Parnell, Daniel. T. W. Toolan & Adam. L. Washington
1,8-Diiodooctane (DIO) is an additive used in the processing of organic photovoltaics and has previously been reported, on the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, to deflocculate nano-aggregates of [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) in chlorobenzene. We have critically re-examined this finding in a series of scattering measurements using both X-rays and neutrons. With SAXS, we find that the form of the background solvent scattering is influenced by the presence of DIO, that there...

Data from: Standing geographic variation in eclosion time and the genomics of host race formation in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies

Meredith M. Doellman, Scott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, Patrik Nosil, Jeff L. Feder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
Taxa harboring high levels of standing variation may be more likely to adapt to rapid environmental shifts and experience ecological speciation. Here, we characterize geographic and host-related differentiation for 10,241 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies to infer if standing genetic variation in adult eclosion time in the ancestral hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)-infesting host race, as opposed to new mutations, contributed substantially to its recent shift to earlier fruiting apple (Malus domestica). Allele frequency...

Data from: C4 anatomy can evolve via a single developmental change

Marjorie R. Lundgren, Luke T. Dunning, Jill K. Olofsson, Jose J. Moreno Villena, Jacques W. Bouvier, Tammy L. Sage, Roxana Khosravesh, Stefanie Sultmanis, Matt Stata, Brad S. Ripley, Maria S. Vorontsova, Guillaume Besnard, Claire Adams, Nicholas Cuff, Anthony Mapaura, Matheus E. Bianconi, Christine M. Long, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Colin P. Osborne, Roxana Khoshravesh & Jose J. Moreno-Villena
C4 photosynthesis boosts productivity in warm environments. Paradoxically, this complex physiological process evolved independently in numerous plant lineages, despite requiring specialized leaf anatomy. The anatomical modifications underlying C4 evolution have previously been evaluated through interspecific comparisons, which capture numerous changes besides those needed for C4 functionality. Here, we quantify the anatomical changes accompanying the transition between non-C4 and C4 phenotypes by sampling widely across the continuum of leaf anatomical traits in the grass Alloteropsis semialata....

Data from: Individual variation and the source-sink group dynamics of extra-group paternity in a social mammal

Paula H. Marjamaki, Hannah L. Dugdale, Deborah A. Dawson, Robbie A. McDonald, Richard Delahay, Terry Burke & Alastair J. Wilson
Movement of individuals, or their genes, can influence eco-evolutionary processes in structured populations. We have limited understanding of the extent to which spatial behaviour varies among groups and individuals within populations. Here we use genetic pedigree reconstruction in a long-term study of European badgers (Meles meles) to characterise the extent of extra-group paternity, occurring as a consequence of breeding excursions, and to test hypothesised drivers of variation at multiple levels. We jointly estimate parentage and...

Data from: An endemic flora of dispersed spores from the Middle Devonian of Iberia

Alexander J. Askew & Charles H. Wellman
Diverse assemblages of dispersed spores have been recovered from Middle Devonian rocks in northern Spain, revealing a significant endemism in the flora. Middle Devonian Iberia was part of a relatively isolated island complex (Armorican Terrane Assemblage), separated by considerable tracts of ocean from Laurussia to the northwest and Gondwana to the southeast. The Middle Devonian deposits of the Cantabrian Zone of northern Spain are entirely marine and comprise a thick clastic unit sandwiched between extensive...

Data from: Genomic associations with bill length and disease reveal drift and selection across island bird populations

Claire Armstrong, David S. Richardson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Clemens Kuepper, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Matt Clark, Terry Burke & Lewis G. Spurgin
Island species provide excellent models for investigating how selection and drift operate in wild populations, and for determining how these processes act to influence local adaptation and speciation. Here, we examine the role of selection and drift in shaping genomic and phenotypic variation across recently separated populations of Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii), a passerine bird endemic to three archipelagos in the Atlantic. We first characterised genetic diversity and population structuring, which supported previous inferences of...

Data from: Natural selection and the predictability of evolution in Timema stick insects

Patrik Nosil, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa F. De Carvalho, Tim E. Farkas, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeff L. Feder, Bernard J. Crespi & Zachariah Gompert
Predicting evolution remains difficult. We studied the evolution of cryptic body coloration and pattern in a stick insect using 25 years of field data, experiments, and genomics. We found that evolution is more difficult to predict when it involves a balance between multiple selective factors and uncertainty in environmental conditions than when it involves feedback loops that cause consistent back-and-forth fluctuations. Specifically, changes in color-morph frequencies are modestly predictable through time (r2 = 0.14) and...

Data from: Impact of urbanization on abundance and phenology of caterpillars and consequences for breeding in an insectivorous bird

Gábor Seress, Tamás Hammer, Veronika Bókony, Ernő Vincze, Bálint Preiszner, Ivett Pipoly, Csenge Sinkovics, Karl Evans, András Liker & Karl L. Evans
Urbanization can have marked effects on plant and animal populations’ phenology, population size, predator-prey interactions and reproductive success. These aspects are rarely studied simultaneously in a single system, and some are rarely investigated, e.g. how insect phenology responds to urban development. Here, we study a tri-trophic system of trees – phytophagous insects (caterpillars) – insectivorous birds (great tits) to assess how urbanization influences i) the phenology of each component of this system, ii) insect abundance...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate & J.-M. Kim
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

Data from: Multi-modal signal evolution in birds: re-examining a standard proxy for sexual selection

Christopher R. Cooney, Hannah E.A. MacGregor, Nathalie Seddon, Joseph A. Tobias & Hannah E. A. MacGregor
Sexual selection is proposed to be an important driver of speciation and phenotypic diversification in animal systems. However, previous phylogenetic tests have produced conflicting results, perhaps because they have focused on a single signalling modality (visual ornaments), whereas sexual selection may act on alternative signalling modalities (e.g. acoustic ornaments). Here we compile phenotypic data from 259 avian sister species pairs to assess the relationship between visible plumage dichromatism—a standard index of sexual selection in birds—and...

Data from: Inbreeding intensifies sex- and age-dependent disease in a wild mammal

Clare H. Benton, Richard J. Delahay, Freya A.P. Smith, Andrew Robertson, Robbie A. McDonald, Andrew J. Young, Terry A. Burke, Dave Hodgson & Freya A. P. Smith
1. The mutation accumulation theory of senescence predicts that age-related deterioration of fitness can be exaggerated when inbreeding causes homozygosity for deleterious alleles. A vital component of fitness, in natural populations, is the incidence and progression of disease. 2. Evidence is growing for natural links between inbreeding and ageing; between inbreeding and disease; between sex and ageing; and between sex and disease. However, there is scant evidence, to date, for links among age, disease, inbreeding...

Data from: Riparian reserves help protect forest bird communities in oil palm dominated landscapes

Simon L. Mitchell, David P. Edwards, Henry Bernard, David Coomes, Tommaso Jucker, Zoe G. Davies & Matthew J. Struebig
1. Conversion of forest to oil palm agriculture is a significant and continuing threat to tropical biodiversity. Despite this, little is known about the value of riparian reserves in oil palm and how these conservation set-asides might best be managed to maintain biodiversity. 2. We characterised bird communities of 28 sites in an oil palm-forest mosaic in Sabah, Malaysia using 6104 encounters from 840 point counts. Sites included oil palm riparian reserves of various vegetation...

Data from: A trade-off between thickness and length in the zebra finch sperm mid-piece

Tania Mendonca, Timothy R. Birkhead, Ashley J. Cadby, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Nicola Hemmings & Tim R. Birkhead
The sperm mid-piece has traditionally been considered to be the engine that powers sperm. Larger mid-pieces have therefore been assumed to provide greater energetic capacity. However, in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata, a recent study showed a surprising negative relationship between mid-piece length and sperm energy content. Using a multidimensional approach to study mid-piece structure, we tested whether this unexpected relationship can be explained by a trade-off between mid-piece length and mid-piece thickness and/or cristae...

Data from: Inter- and intra-specific genomic divergence in Drosophila montana shows evidence for cold adaptation

Darren J. Parker, R. Axel W. Wiberg, Urmi Trivedi, Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Karim Gharbi, Roger K. Butlin, Anneli Hoikkala, Maaria Kankare & Michael G. Ritchie
D. montana gff fileGenome annotation file for D. montana genome (Accession number: LUVX00000000)D.mont_freeze_v1.4.gff.txt

Data from: Ancient plants with ancient fungi: liverworts associate with early-diverging arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

William R. Rimington, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G. Duckett, Katie J. Field, David J. Read & Martin I. Bidartondo
Arbuscular mycorrhizas are widespread in land plants including liverworts, some of the closest living relatives of the first plants to colonise land 500 MYA. Previous investigations reported near-exclusive colonisation of liverworts by the most recently evolved arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the Glomeraceae, indicating a recent acquisition from flowering plants at odds with the widely-held notion that arbuscular mycorrhizal-like associations in liverworts represent the ancestral symbiotic condition in land plants. We performed an analysis of symbiotic fungi...

Data from: Local and system-wide adaptation is influenced by population connectivity

Patrik Nosil, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffery L. Feder, Samuel M. Flaxman, Zachariah Gompert, Jeffrey L. Feder & Zach Gompert
Complex systems can be conceptualized and studied as networks of nodes with varying connectivity between nodes. In well-connected systems, local disturbance of individual nodes can be countered by input from neighbouring nodes, buffering the system against local change. Thus, pronounced change in a well-connected system may not occur until the system hits a threshold or ‘tipping point’ that drives a shift to an alternative, system-wide state. In contrast, poorly connected systems are more prone to...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    50

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    50

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    50
  • University of Notre Dame
    4
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    4
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • University of Gothenburg
    3
  • University of Leeds
    3
  • University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
    3
  • University of York
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • VU University Amsterdam
    2