182 Works

Data from: Food makes you a target: disentangling genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects determining susceptibility to infection

Otto Seppälä, Anssi Karvonen, Maarit Haataja, Marja Kuosa & Jukka Jokela
Genetics, physiology and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design and long- and short-term food deprivation treatments to test the role of family-level genetic variation, body condition, physiological state and foraging behavior on the susceptibility...

Data from: Recent speciation and secondary contact in endemic ants

Michael J. Jowers, Fernando Amor, Patrocinio Ortega, Alain Lenoir, Raphaël R. Boulay, Xim Cerdá & Juan A. Galarza
Gene flow is the main force opposing divergent selection, and its effects are greater in populations in close proximity. Thus, complete reproductive isolation between parapatric populations is not expected, particularly in the absence of ecological adaptation and sharp environmental differences. Here, we explore the biogeographical patterns of an endemic ant species, Cataglyphis floricola, for which two colour morphs (black and bicolour) coexist in parapatry throughout continuous sandy habitat in southern Spain. Discriminant analyses of six...

Data from: Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana

Malgorzata Lagisz, Shuo-Yang Wen, Jarkko Routtu, Kirsten Klappert, Dominique Mazzi, Ramiro Morales-Hojas, Jorge Vieira, Anneli Hoikkala, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin, Martin A Schäfer & S-Y Wen
Acoustic signals often play a significant role in pair formation and in species recognition. Determining the genetic basis of signal divergence will help to understand signal evolution by sexual selection and its role in the speciation process. An earlier study investigated QTL for male courtship song carrier frequency in Drosophila montana using microsatellite markers. We refined this study by adding to the linkage map markers for ten candidate genes known to affect song production in...

Data from: Fluctuating temperature leads to evolution of thermal generalism and preadaptation to novel environments

Tarmo Ketola, Lauri Mikonranta, Ji Zhang, Kati Saarinen, Ville-Petri Friman, Anni-Maria Örmälä, Johanna Mappes & Jouni Laakso
Environmental fluctuations can select for generalism, which is also hypothesized to increase organisms’ ability to invade novel environments. Here, we show that across a range of temperatures, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens that evolved in fluctuating temperature (daily variation between 24°C and 38°C, mean 31°C) outperforms the strains that evolved in constant temperature (31°C). The growth advantage was also evident in novel environments in the presence of parasitic viruses and predatory protozoans, but less clear...

Data from: Interspecific interactions influence contrasting spatial genetic structures in two closely related damselfly species

Aapo Kahilainen, Inka Keränen, Katja Kuitunen, Janne S. Kotiaho & K. Emily Knott
Spatial genetic structure (SGS) is largely determined by colonization history, landscape and ecological characteristics of the species. Therefore, sympatric and ecologically similar species are expected to exhibit similar SGSs, potentially enabling prediction of the SGS of one species from that of another. On the other hand, due to interspecific interactions, ecologically similar species could have different SGSs. We explored the SGSs of the closely related Calopteryx splendens and C. virgo within Finland and related the...

Data from: Experimental reduction of intromittent organ length reduces male reproductive success in a bug

Liam R. Dougherty, Imran A. Rahman, Emily R. Burdfield-Steel, E. V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
It is now clear in many species that male and female genital evolution has been shaped by sexual selection. However, it has historically been difficult to confirm correlations between morphology and fitness, as genital traits are complex and manipulation tends to impair function significantly. In this study, we investigate the functional morphology of the elongate male intromittent organ (or processus) of the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, in two ways. We first use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...

Data from: Predator–vole interactions in northern Europe: the role of small mustelids revised

Katri Korpela, Pekka Helle, Heikki Henttonen, Erkki Korpimäki, Esa Koskela, Otso Ovaskainen, Hannu Pietiäinen, Janne Sundell, Jari Valkama, Otso Huitu, H. Pietiainen & E. Korpimaki
The cyclic population dynamics of vole and predator communities is a key phenomenon in northern ecosystems, and it appears to be influenced by climate change. Reports of collapsing rodent cycles have attributed the changes to warmer winters, which weaken the interaction between voles and their specialist subnivean predators. Using population data collected throughout Finland during 1986–2011, we analyse the spatio-temporal variation in the interactions between populations of voles and specialist, generalist and avian predators, and...

Data from: Intensive aquaculture selects for increased virulence and interference competition in bacteria

Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Tarmo Ketola, Elina Laanto, Hanna Kinnula, Reetta Penttinen, Jaana K. H. Bamford & Johanna Mappes
Although increased disease severity driven by intensive farming practices is problematic in food production, the role of evolutionary change in disease is not well understood in these environments. Experiments on parasite evolution are traditionally conducted using laboratory models, often unrelated to economically important systems. We compared how the virulence, growth and competitive ability of a globally important fish pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare, change under intensive aquaculture. We characterized bacterial isolates from disease outbreaks at fish farms...

Data from: Carry-over effects of conditions at the wintering grounds on breeding plumage signals in a migratory bird: roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection

Pauliina E. Järvistö, Sara Calhim, Wiebke Schuett, Päivi Maria Sirkiä, William Velmala & Toni Laaksonen
To understand the consequences of ever-changing environment on the dynamics of phenotypic traits, distinguishing between selection processes and individual plasticity is crucial. We examined individual consistency/plasticity in several male secondary sexual traits expressed during the breeding season (white wing and forehead patch size, UV reflectance of white wing patch and dorsal melanin colouration) in a migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population over an 11-year period. Furthermore, we studied carry-over effects of three environmental variables (NAO,...

Data from: Food limitation constrains host immune responses to nematode infections

Kristian M. Forbes, Tapio Mappes, Tarja Sironen, Tomas Strandin, Peter Stuart, Seppo Meri, Olli Vapalahti, Heikki Henttonen & Otso Huitu
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs the ability of wild field voles (Microtus agrestis) to mount an immune response against parasite infections. We conducted a replicated experiment on vole populations maintained in large outdoor enclosures during boreal...

Data from: Gene flow from an adaptively divergent source causes rescue through genetic and demographic factors in two wild populations of Trinidadian guppies

Sarah W. Fitzpatrick, Jill C. Gerberich, Lisa M. Angeloni, Larissa L. Bailey, Emily Dale Broder, Julian Torres-Dowdall, Corey A. Handelsman, Andrés López-Sepulcre, David N. Reznick, Cameron K. Ghalambor & W. Chris Funk
Genetic rescue, an increase in population growth owing to the infusion of new alleles, can aid the persistence of small populations, but its use as a management tool is limited by a lack of empirical data geared towards predicting effects of gene flow on local adaptation and demography. Experimental translocations provide an ideal opportunity to monitor the demographic consequences of gene flow. In this study we take advantage of two experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies...

Data from: Simultaneous age-dependent and age-independent sexual selection in the lekking black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix)

Matti Kervinen, Christophe Lebigre & Carl D. Soulsbury
Individuals' reproductive success is often strongly associated with their age, with typical patterns of early-life reproductive improvement and late-life senescence. These age-related patterns are due to the inherent trade-offs between life-history traits competing for a limited amount of resources available to the organisms. In males, such trade-offs are exacerbated by the resource requirements associated with the expression of costly sexual traits, leading to dynamic changes in trait expression throughout their life span. Due to the...

Data from: Different food sources elicit fast changes to bacterial virulence

Tarmo Ketola, L. Mikonranta, Jouni Laakso & Johanna Mappes
Environmentally transmitted, opportunistic bacterial pathogens have a life cycle that alternates between hosts and environmental reservoirs. Resources are often scarce and fluctuating in the outside-host environment, whereas overcoming the host immune system could allow pathogens to establish a new, resource abundant and stable niche within the host. We tested if shortterm exposure to different outside-host resource types and concentrations affect Serratia marcescens—(bacterium)’s virulence in Galleria mellonella (moth). As expected, virulence was mostly dictated by the...

Data from: Host infection history modifies co-infection success of multiple parasite genotypes

Ines Klemme, Katja-Riikka Louhi & Anssi Karvonen
1. Co-infections by multiple parasite genotypes are common and have important implications for host-parasite ecology and evolution through within-host interactions. Typically, these infections take place sequentially and therefore, the outcome of co-infection may be shaped by host immune responses triggered by previous infections. For example, in vertebrates specific immune responses play a central role in protection against disease over the course of life, but co-infection research has mostly focused on previously uninfected individuals. 2. Here,...

Data from: Higher resource level promotes virulence in an environmentally transmitted bacterial fish pathogen

Hanna Kinnula, Johanna Mappes, Janne K. Valkonen, Katja Pulkkinen & Lotta-Riina Sundberg
Diseases have become a primary constraint to sustainable aquaculture, but remarkably little attention has been paid to a broad class of pathogens: the opportunists. Opportunists often persist in the environment outside the host and their pathogenic features are influenced by changes in the environment. To test how environmental nutrient levels influence virulence, we used strains of Flavobacterium columnare, an environmentally transmitted fish pathogen, to infect rainbow trout and zebra fish in two different nutrient concentrations....

Data from: Genomic evolution of bacterial populations under co-selection by antibiotics and phage

Johannes Cairns, Jens Frickel, Matti Jalasvuori, Teppo Hiltunen & Lutz Becks
Bacteria live in dynamic systems where selection pressures can alter rapidly, forcing adaptation to the prevailing conditions. In particular, bacteriophages and antibiotics of anthropogenic origin are major bacterial stressors in many environments. We previously observed that populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 exposed to the lytic bacteriophage SBW25Φ2 and a non-inhibitive concentration of the antibiotic streptomycin (co-selection) achieved higher levels of phage resistance compared to populations exposed to the phage alone. In addition, the...

Data from: Daphnia females adjust sex allocation in response to current sex ratio and density

Isobel Booksmythe, Nina Gerber, Dieter Ebert & Hanna Kokko
Cyclical parthenogenesis presents an interesting challenge for the study of sex allocation, as individuals’ allocation decisions involve both the choice between sexual and asexual reproduction, and the choice between sons and daughters. Male production is therefore expected to depend on ecological and evolutionary drivers of overall investment in sex, and those influencing male reproductive value during sexual periods. We manipulated experimental populations, and made repeated observations of natural populations over their growing season, to disentangle...

Data from: De novo synthesis of chemical defences in an aposematic moth

Emily Burdfield-Steel, Hannu Pakkanen, Bibiana Rojas, Juan A. Galarza & Johanna Mappes
Many animals protect themselves from predation with chemicals, both self-made or sequestered from their diet. The potential drivers of the diversity of these chemicals have been long studied, but our knowledge them, and their acquisition mode, is heavily based on specialist herbivores that sequester their defences. The wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis, Linnaeus, 1758) is a well-studied aposematic species, but the nature of its chemical defences has not been fully described. Here we report the...

Data from: How to fight multiple enemies: target-specific chemical defences in an aposematic moth

Bibiana Rojas, Emily Burdfield-Steel, Hannu Pakkanen, Kaisa Suisto, Michael Maczka, Stefan Schulz & Johanna Mappes
Animals have evolved different defensive strategies to survive predation, among which chemical defences are particularly widespread and diverse. Here we investigate the function of chemical defence diversity, hypothesising that such diversity has evolved as a response to multiple enemies. The aposematic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) displays conspicuous hindwing colouration and secretes two distinct defensive fluids, from their thoracic glands and abdomen. We presented fluids from lab-reared moths to two biologically relevant predators, birds and...

Data from: Stabilising selection on microsatellite allele length at arginine vasopressin 1a receptor and oxytocin receptor loci

Phillip C. Watts, Eva R. Kallio, Esa Koskela, Eija Lonn, Tapio Mappes & Mikael Mokkonen
The loci arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor (oxtr) have evolutionarily conserved roles in vertebrate social and sexual behavior. Allelic variation at a microsatellite locus in the 5’ regulatory region of these genes is associated with fitness in the bank vole Myodes glareolus. Given the low frequency of long and short alleles at these microsatellite loci in wild bank voles, we used breeding trials to determine whether selection acts against long and short...

Data from: Divergent parasite infections in sympatric cichlid species in Lake Victoria

Anssi Karvonen, Catherine E. Wagner, Oliver M. Selz & Ole Seehausen
Parasitism has been proposed as a factor in host speciation, as an agent affecting coexistence of host species in species rich communities, and as a driver of post-speciation diversification. Young adaptive radiations of closely related host species of varying ecological and genomic differentiation provide interesting opportunities to explore interactions between patterns of parasitism, divergence and coexistence of sympatric host species. Here, we explored patterns in ectoparasitism in a community of 16 fully sympatric cichlid species...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of density-dependent dispersal during a population colonisation

Sebastiano De Bona, Matthieu Bruneaux, Alex E.G. Lee, David N. Reznick, Paul Bentzen & Andrés López-Sepulcre
Predicting population colonisations requires understanding how spatio-temporal changes in density affect dispersal. Density can inform on fitness prospects, acting as a cue for either habitat quality, or competition over resources. However, when escaping competition, high local density should only increase emigration if lower-density patches are available elsewhere. Few empirical studies on dispersal have considered the effects of density at the local and landscape scale simultaneously. To explore this, we analyze 5 years of individual-based data...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

Data from: Environmentally-induced noise dampens and reddens with increasing trophic level in a complex food web

Anna Kuparinen, Tommi Perälä, Neo D. Martinez & Fernanda S. Valdovinos
Stochastic variability of key abiotic factors including temperature, precipitation and the availability of light and nutrients greatly influences species’ ecological function and evolutionary fate. Despite such influence, ecologists have typically ignored the effect of abiotic stochasticity on the structure and dynamics of ecological networks. Here we help to fill that gap by advancing the theory of how abiotic stochasticity, in the form of environmental noise, affects the population dynamics of species within food webs. We...

Need for speed: Short lifespan selects for increased learning ability - Data

Jannis Liedtke & Lutz Fromhage
The first dataset provides the R code for the simualiton. The other datasets give trait values of "learning speed" ("L") for each Individual in each generation (1-200) for different lifespans (season length). From season length 1 to 800. One dataframe ("Metapop") provide results of all 10 runs and give the mean trait value ("L") for a given sl (1-800) for each run. One dataframe ("Meta118") provide results of all 10 runs and give the individual...

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Affiliations

  • University of Jyväskylä
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