24 Works

Multidimensional trophic niche revealed by complementary approaches: gut content, digestive enzymes, fatty acids and stable isotopes in Collembola

Anton Potapov, Melanie Pollierer, Sandrine Salmon, Vladimír Šustr & Ting-Wen Chen
Trophic niche differentiation may explain coexistence and shape functional roles of species. In complex natural food webs, however, trophic niche parameters depicted by single and isolated methods may simplify the multidimensional nature of consumer trophic niches, which includes feeding processes such as food choice, ingestion, digestion, assimilation and retention. Here we explore the correlation and complementarity of trophic niche parameters tackled by four complementary methodological approaches, i.e., visual gut content-, digestive enzyme-, fatty acid- and...

Cranial kinesis facilitates quick retraction of stuck woodpecker beaks

Sam Van Wassenbergh, Tim Andries, Evy Pauly & Anick Abourachid
Much like nails that are hammered into wood, the beaks of woodpeckers regularly get stuck upon impact. A kinematic video analysis of pecking by black woodpeckers shows how they manage to quickly withdraw their beaks, revealing a two-phase pattern: first a few degrees of nose-down rotation about the nasofrontal hinge causes the tip of the upper beak to be retruded while its proximal end is lifted. Next, the head is lifted, causing nose-up rotation about...

Data from: Ovipositor and mouthparts in a fossil insect support a novel ecological role for early orthopterans in 300 million years old forests

Lu Chen, Alexander Blanke, Jun-Jie Gu, Qiang Yang, Dong Ren & Olivier Béthoux
A high portion of the earliest known, Pennsylvanian, insect fauna is composed of the so-called ‘lobeattid insects’, which systematic affinities and role as foliage feeders remain debated. We investigated hundreds of samples of a new lobeattid species from the Xiaheyan locality using a combination of photographic techniques, including Reflectance Transforming Imaging, and geometric morphometrics, to document its morphology, and infer its phylogenetic position and ecological role. Ctenoptilus frequens sp. nov. possessed a sword-shaped ovipositor whose...

Trait-habitat associations explain novel bird assemblages mixing native and alien species across New-Zealand landscapes

Jean-Yves Barnagaud, Eckehard Brockerhoff, Raphael Mossion, Paul Dufour, Sandrine Pavoine, Marc Deconchat & Luc Barbaro
Aim: Species introductions have reshaped island faunas for the last 200 years, often threatening native biodiversity. Approximately equal numbers of native and alien species currently co-occur in the New Zealand avifauna, but they show distinct habitat use. Antagonistic interactions, habitat affinities and legacies of introduction history may concur to explain their segregation along habitat gradients. To investigate these processes, we explored how habitat, ecological traits and introduction history relate with the current composition of bird...

Glucocorticoids link forest type to local abundance in tropical birds

Simone Messina, David Edwards, Valeria Marasco, Virginie Canoine, Cindy Cosset, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, Marcel Eens & David Costantini
Selective logging is a major driver of environmental changes in the tropics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in understanding which traits make bird species resilient or vulnerable to such changes. Physiological stress mediated by the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) might underlie changes in local abundance of species because it regulates a range of body functions and behaviours to maintain homeostasis in changing environments. We conducted a three-year study to assess: (i) the variation in...

Evolution of body size and wing shape trade-offs in arsenurine silkmoths

Chris Hamilton, Nathalie Winiger, Juliette Rubin, Jesse Breinholt, Rodolphe Rougerie, Ian Kitching, Jesse Barber & Akito Kawahara
One of the key objectives in biological research is understanding how evolutionary processes have produced Earth's diversity. A critical step towards revealing these processes is an investigation of evolutionary tradeoffs – that is, the opposing pressures of multiple selective forces. For millennia, nocturnal moths have had to balance successful flight, as they search for mates or host plants, with evading bat predators. However, the potential for evolutionary trade-offs between wing shape and body size are...

Beta redundancy for functional ecology

Carlo Ricotta, Evsey Kosman, Fabien Laroche & Sandrine Pavoine
Functional beta redundancy has been recently defined as the fraction of species dissimilarity between two plots not expressed by functional dissimilarity. As such, it summarizes to what degree the compositional differences between two plots mirror their functional differences. A fundamental condition to obtain an appropriate measure of functional beta redundancy is that the functional dissimilarity between the plots is always lower (or at least not higher) than the corresponding species dissimilarity. However, many of the...

Data from: Proximate and ultimate drivers of variation in bite force in the insular lizards Podarcis melisellensis and Podarcis sicula

Maxime Taverne, Nina King-Gillies, Marija Krajnovic, Duje Lisicic, Oscar Mira, Donat Petricioli, Iva Sabolic, Anamaria Stambuk, Zoran Tadic, Chloé Vigliotti, Beck Wehrle & Anthony Herrel
Bite force is a key performance trait in lizards since biting is involved in many ecologically relevant tasks, including foraging, fighting, and mating. Several factors have been previously suggested to impact bite force in lizards, such as head morphology (proximate factors), or diet, intraspecific competition, and habitat characteristics (ultimate factors). However, these have been generally investigated separately and mostly at the interspecific level. We tested which factors drive variation in bite force at the population...

Data from: Historical invasion records can be misleading: genetic evidence for multiple introductions of invasive raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany

Marietta L. Fischer, Axel Hochkirch, Mike Heddergott, Christoph Schulze, Helena E. Anheyer-Behmenburg, Johannes Lang, Frank-Uwe Michler, Ulf Hohmann, Hermann Ansorge, Lothar Hoffmann, Roland Klein & Alain C. Frantz
Biological invasions provide excellent study systems to understand evolutionary, genetic and ecological processes during range expansions. There is strong evidence for positive effects of high propagule pressure and the associated higher genetic diversity on invasion success, but some species have become invasive despite small founder numbers. The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is often considered as a typical example for such a successful invasion resulting from a small number of founders. The species’ largest non-native population in...

Supplementary Data - The Paris Biota decapod (Arthropoda) fauna and the diversity of Triassic decapods

Christopher Smith, Charbonnier Sylvain, James Jenks, Kevin Bylund, Gilles Escarguel, Nicolas Olivier, Emmanuel Fara & Arnaud Brayard
We describe here the early Spathian (Early Triassic) Paris Biota decapod fauna from the western USA basin. This fauna contains two taxa of Aegeridae (Dendobranchiata), namely Anisaeger longirostrus n. sp. and Aeger sp. that are the oldest known representatives of their family, thus extending its temporal range by 5 Myr back into the Early Triassic. This fauna also includes two representatives of Glypheida (Pleocyemata) with Litogaster turnbullensis Schram, 1971 and Pemphix krumenackeri n. sp., comforting...

Photosynthesis from stolen chloroplasts can support sea slug reproductive fitness

Paulo Cartaxana, Felisa Rey, Charlotte LeKieffre, Diana Lopes, Cedric Hubas, Jorge E. Spangenberg, Stéphane Escrig, Bruno Jesus, Gonçalo Calado, Rosário Domingues, Michael Kühl, Ricardo Calado, Anders Meibom & Sónia Cruz
Some sea slugs are able to steal functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their algal food sources, but the role and relevance of photosynthesis to the animal host remain controversial. While some researchers claim that kleptoplasts are slowly digestible ‘snacks’, others advocate that they enhance the overall fitness of sea slugs much more profoundly. Our analysis show light-dependent incorporation of 13C and 15N in the albumen gland and gonadal follicles of the sea slug Elysia timida, representing...

Data from: Ostracods from the end-Permian mass extinction in the Aras Valley section (Northwest Iran)

Jana Gliwa, Marie-Béatrice Forel, Sylvie Crasquin, Abbas Ghaderi & Dieter Korn
The Aras Valley section (NW Iran) exposes a sedimentary succession that allows to study ostracod diversity patterns during/across the end-Permian mass extinction because of its ubiquitous fossil record. For the present study, 59 samples were investigated for their ostracod abundances, which ranged from 4 to 31500 specimens per 500 g. In 45 sample horizons, the ostracods were identified to the species-level. In total, 3,425 specimens were determined and 62 species were identified, of which one...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Data from: Ups and downs of belemnite diversity in the Early Jurassic of Western Tethys

Pascal Neige, Pascal Neige, Robert Weis & Emmanuel Fara
Although belemnites form a major clade of extinct cephalopods, the early stage of their diversification remains poorly known in time and space. Here we investigate the first diversification episodes of belemnites (order Belemnitida) using a new species-level database encompassing the Hettangian-Aalenian interval (Early Jurassic-earliest Middle Jurassic) and covering the Western Tethys. Rarefied richness shows a four-fold increase from the Planorbis chronozone to the Ibex chronozone, a strong decrease between the Margaritatus and Spinatum chronozones, followed...

Data from: Genetic structure and effective population sizes in European red deer (Cervus elaphus) at a continental scale: insights from microsatellite DNA

Frank E. Zachos, Alain C. Frantz, Ralph Kuehn, Sabine Bertouille, Marc Colyn, Magdalena Niedzialkowska, Javier Pérez-González, Anna Skog, Nikica Šprem & Marie-Christine Flamand
We analysed more than 600 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from large parts of its European distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. Populations were clearly differentiated (overall FST = 0.166, Jost’s Dest = 0.385), and the BAPS clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. When forced into only three genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as previously...

Phylogenomics of scorpions reveal a co-diversification of scorpion mammalian predators and mammal-specific sodium channel toxins

Carlos Santibanez, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Ballesteros, Guilherme Gainett, Caitlin Baker, Edmundo González-Santillán, Mark Harvey, Mohamed Hassans, Ali Abu-Almaaty, Shorouk Aldeyarbi, Lionel Monod, Andrés Ojanguren-Affilastro, Robert Raven, Ricardo Pinto Da Rocha, Yoram Zvik, Efrat Gavish-Regev & Prashant Sharma
Scorpions constitute a charismatic lineage of arthropods and comprise more than 2,500 described species. Found throughout various tropical and temperate habitats, these predatory arachnids have a long evolutionary history, with a fossil record that began in the Silurian. While all scorpions are venomous, the asymmetrically diverse family Buthidae harbors nearly half the diversity of extant scorpions, and all but one of the 58 species that are medically significant to humans. Many aspects of scorpion evolutionary...

Data from: Homogenous population genetic structure of the non-native raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a result of rapid population expansion

Frank Drygala, Николай Кораблев, Hermann Ansorge, Joerns Fickel, Marja Isomursu, Morten Elmeros, Rafal Kowalczyk, Laima Baltrunaite, Linas Balciauskas, Urmas Saarma, Christoph Schulze, Peter Borkenhagen, Alain C. Frantz & Rafał Kowalczyk
The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species’...

Morpho butterflies eyespot data

Vincent Debat
This data set contains (1) the presence absence data of each eyespot at each of the different putative locations (eyespot_nb.txt); (2) the coordinates of the 4 landmarks used to assess eyespot positions plus landmarks depicting wing shape for wing shape/eyespot covariation (Moyen-post-final.txt); (3) the coordinates of the semilandmarks and landmarks used to assess eyespot shape variation (Ocelles-contour-final BE.txt).

Maternal and genetic correlations between morphology and physical performance traits in a small captive primate, Microcebus murinus

Pauline Zablocki-Thomas, Simon Lailvaux, Fabienne Aujard, Emmanuelle Pouydebat & Anthony Herrel
Physical performance traits are key components of fitness and direct targets of selection. Maternal effects are important components of integrated phenotypes in a variety of species. Yet their contribution to variation in performance, and phenotypes closely associated with performance, remains poorly understood. We used an animal model approach to quantify the contribution of maternal effects to performance trait variation (in bite force and pull strength) and the relationships between performance and the relevant underlying morphology...

Data from: Kin relationships in cultural species of the marine realm: case study of a matrilineal social group of sperm whales off Mauritius Island, Indian Ocean

Jean-Luc Jung, François Sarano, Justine Girardet, Véronique Sarano, Hugues Vitry, Axel Preud'homme, René Heuzey, Ana Maria Garcia Cegarra, Bénédicte Madon, Fabienne Delfour, Hervé Glotin & Olivier Adam
Understanding the organization and dynamics of social groups of marine mammals through the study of kin relationships is particularly challenging. Here we studied a stable social group of sperm whales off Mauritius, using underwater observations, individual-specific identification, non-invasive sampling, and genetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequencing and microsatellite profiling. Twenty-four sperm whales were sampled between 2017 and 2019. All individuals except one adult female shared the same mtDNA haplotype—one that is rare in the Western...

Linking micro and macroevolution of head shape in an island radiation

Maxime Taverne, Hugo Dutel, Michael Fagan, Anamaria Štambuk, Duje Lisičić, Zoran Tadić, Anne-Claire Fabre & Anthony Herrel
Phenotypic traits have been shown to evolve in response to variation in the environment. However, the evolutionary processes underlying the emergence of phenotypic diversity can typically only be understood at the population level. Consequently, how subtle phenotypic differences at the intraspecific level can give rise to larger-scale changes in performance and ecology remains poorly understood. We here tested for the covariation between ecology, bite force, jaw muscle architecture, and the three-dimensional shape of the cranium...

Checklists of endemic tracheophytes and bryophytes to the French Overseas Territories

Simon Veron, Carlos Rodrigues-Vaz, Elise Lebreton, Claudine Ah-Peng, Vincent Boullet, Hervé Chevillotte, Stephan Robbert Gradstein, Joël Jérémie, Elisabeth Lavocat-Bernard, Marc Lebouvier, Jean-Yves Meyer, Jérôme Munzinger, Odile Poncy, Louis Thouvenot, Guillaume Viscardi, Guillaume Léotard, Olivier Gargominy, Sébastien Leblond, Marc Pignal, Germinal Rouhan, Sandrine Tercerie, Vanessa Invernon & Serge Muller
A broad range of climatic and biogeographical conditions are represented in the French Overseas Territories, from sub-polar to equatorial, resulting in a high diversity of endemic species. We mobilized data from herbaria, floras, checklists, literature, the expertise of botanists and plant ecologists to compile the most complete dataset on endemic vascular plants and bryophytes in the 15 French Overseas Territories. To date, 3748 spermatophytes (seed plants), 244 pteridophytes (ferns and lycophytes) and 448 bryophytes are...

Phenotypic integration in feliform carnivores: covariation patterns and disparity in hypercarnivores versus generalists

Margot Michaud
The skeleton is a complex arrangement of anatomical structures that covary to various degrees depending on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among the Feliformia, many species are characterized by predator lifestyles providing a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of highly specialised hypercarnivorous diet on phenotypic integration and shape diversity. To do so, we compared the shape of the skull, mandible, humerus, and femur of species in relation to their feeding strategies (hypercarnivorous versus generalist...

Genetic diversity and differentiation of populations of Anthyllis vulneraria along elevational and latitudinal gradients

Laura Daco, Diethart Matthies, Sylvie Hermant & Guy Colling
The abundant centre model (ACM) predicts that the suitability of environmental conditions for a species decreases from the centre of its distribution towards its range periphery and consequently its populations will become scarcer, smaller and more isolated, resulting in lower genetic diversity and increased differentiation. However, little is known about whether genetic diversity shows similar patterns along elevational and latitudinal gradients with similar changes in important environmental conditions. Using microsatellite markers we studied the genetic...

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