137 Works

Data from: Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs

Rachel L. Jacobs, Tammie S. MacFie, Amanda N. Spriggs, Andrea L. Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T. Irwin, Richard R. Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Peter M. Kappeler, Patricia C. Wright, Edward E. Louis, Nicholas I. Mundy & Brenda J. Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red–green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity...

Data from: Hovering in the heat: effects of environmental temperature on heat regulation in foraging hummingbirds

Donald R. Powers, Kathleen M. Langland, Susan M. Wethington, Sean D. Powers, Catherine H. Graham & Bret W. Tobalske
At high temperature (>40 ºC) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction, and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed (Cynanthus latirostris, 3.0g), black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri, 3.0g), Rivoli’s (Eugenes fulgens, 7.5g), and blue-throated...

Supporting Data To: Shark tooth collagen stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) as ecological proxies

Oliver Shipley, Gregory Henkes, James Gelsleichter, Clark Morgan, Eric Schneider, Brendan Talwar & Michael Frisk
The isotopic composition of tooth-bound collagen has long been used to reconstruct dietary patterns of animals in extant and paleoecological systems. For sharks that replace teeth rapidly in a conveyor-like system, stable isotopes of tooth collagen (δ13Ctooth & δ15Ntooth) are poorly understood and lacking in ecological context relative to other non-lethally sampled tissues. This tissue holds promise, because shark jaws may preserve isotopic chronologies from which to infer individual-level ecological patterns across a range of...

Differential activation of c-Fos and Egr1 during development of the mouse visual cortex

Alexander Lazutkin, Anna Ivanova, Pavel Rogozin, Grigori Enikolopov & Konstantin Anokhin
Critical periods (CP) in brain development are associated with profound changes in gene expression cascades. Here we examine the expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Egr1 at different stages of mouse visual cortex (VC) development. Mice 11, 25, and 50 days of age were maintained under standard light-dark conditions, deprived of light for 5 days, or deprived of light for 5 days and then exposed to light for 90 min. Their brains were...

Using 2D dental geometric morphometrics to identify modern Perognathus and Chaetodipus specimens (Rodentia, Heteromyidae)

Megan R Wyatt, Samantha S B Hopkins & Edward B Davis
The Heteromyidae (pocket mice and kangaroo rats) are a group of extant small rodents abundant in western North America, as well as in fossil assemblages over the last 20 million years. Two genera of heteromyids, Chaetodipus and Perognathus, share similar tooth morphology and teeth are the primary fossil remains. Previous genetic studies show these extant sister genera likely diverged in the middle Miocene (~16 million years ago); however, the Chaetodipus fossil record starts in the...

Diversity in lac Operon Regulation among Diverse Escherichia coli Isolates Depends on the Broader Genetic Background but Is Not Explained by Genetic Relatedness

Tim Cooper, Kelly Phillips, Scott Widmann, Jennifer Nguyen, Christian Ray, Gabor Balazsi & Huei-Yi Lai
Transcription of bacterial genes is controlled by the coordinated action of cis- and trans-acting regulators. The activity and mode of action of these regulators can reflect different requirements for gene products in different environments. A well-studied example is the regulatory function that integrates the environmental availability of glucose and lactose to control the Escherichia coli lac operon. Most studies of lac operon regulation have focused on a few closely related strains. To determine the range...

Structure-from-motion-generated imagery, nest location coordinates and counts for Adelie, chinstrap, gentoo and macaroni penguins on the South Sandwich Islands, from December to February, 2019-2020.

Tom Hart, Sarah Manthorpe, Gemma Clucas & Heather Lynch
This dataset contains penguin survey data and imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) across the South Sandwich Islands, from December 2019 to February 2020. It comprises orthotiff images (orthotiffs) and digital elevation models (DEMS) of surveyed sites, geographic penguin colony outlines, nest coordinates for individual species, mixed species' sub-colonies and groups where species-level identification was not possible. Finally, it also includes the total count for these different categories for each individual site, alongside an estimate...

Why the long teeth? Morphometric analysis suggests different selective pressures on functional occlusal traits in Plio-Pleistocene African suids

Deming Yang, Asli Pisano, Joan Kolasa, Tea Jashashvili, Job Kibii, Ana Gomez Cano, Laurent Viriot, Frederick Grine & Antoine Souron
Neogene and Pleistocene African suids displayed convergent evolutionary trends in the third molar (M3) morphology, with increasingly elongated and higher crowns through time. While these features can prevent premature loss of masticatory functionality and potentially increase long-term reproductive success, changes in dental occlusal traits such as enamel complexity and thickness can also improve chewing efficiency and increase short-term energetic return. While both long-term and short-term benefits can contribute to the thriving of a lineage, the...

Data from: Evolutionary novelties and losses in geometric morphometrics: a practical approach through hominin molar morphology

Aida Gómez-Robles, Anthony Jay Olejniczak, María Martinón-Torres, Leyre Prado-Simón & José María Bermúdez De Castro
Geometric morphometric techniques may offer a promising methodological approach to analyse evolutionary novelties in a quantitative framework. Nevertheless, and despite continuous improvements to this methodology, the inclusion of novel features in these studies presents some difficulties. In the present study, different methods to explicitly include novel traits in geometric morphometric analyses are compared, including homology-free approaches, landmark-based approaches, and combinations of both techniques. The 2D occlusal morphology of the lower second molar in multiple hominin...

Data from: Divergence time estimation using fossils as terminal taxa and the origins of Lissamphibia

Robert Alexander Pyron, Robert Alexander Pyron & R. Alexander Pyron
Were molecular data available for extinct taxa, questions regarding the origins of many groups could be settled in short order. As this is not the case, various strategies have been proposed to combine paleontological and neontological datasets. The use of fossil dates as node age calibrations for divergence time estimation from molecular phylogenies is commonplace. In addition, simulations suggest that the addition of morphological data from extinct taxa may improve phylogenetic estimation when combined with...

Data from: A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians

Robert Alexander Pyron, John J. Wiens & R. Alexander Pyron
The extant amphibians are one of the most diverse radiations of terrestrial vertebrates (>6800 species). Despite much recent focus on their conservation, diversification, and systematics, no previous phylogeny for the group has contained more than 522 species. However, numerous studies with limited taxon sampling have generated large amounts of partially overlapping sequence data for many species. Here, we combine these data and produce a novel estimate of extant amphibian phylogeny, containing 2871 species (40% of...

Data from: Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles

J. Matthew Hoch
Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases towards an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus...

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