16 Works

Data from: Correlates of extinction risk in squamate reptiles: the relative importance of biology, geography, threat and range size

Monika Böhm, Rhiannon Williams, Huw R. Bramhall, Kirsten M. McMillan, Ana D. Davidson, Andrés Garcia, Lucie M. Bland, Jon Bielby & Ben Collen
Aim Evaluating the relative roles of biological traits and environmental factors that predispose species to an elevated risk of extinction is of fundamental importance to macroecology. Identifying species that possess extinction-promoting traits allows targeted conservation action before precipitous declines occur. Such analyses have been carried out for several vertebrate groups, with the notable exception of reptiles. We identify traits correlating with high extinction risk in squamate reptiles, assess whether these differ with geography, taxonomy and...

Data from: Laetoli footprints reveal bipedal gait biomechanics different from those of modern humans and chimpanzees

Kevin G. Hatala, Brigitte Demes & Brian G. Richmond
Bipedalism is a key adaptation that shaped human evolution, yet the timing and nature of its evolution remain unclear. Here we use new experimentally based approaches to investigate the locomotor mechanics preserved by the famous Pliocene hominin footprints from Laetoli, Tanzania. We conducted footprint formation experiments with habitually barefoot humans and with chimpanzees to quantitatively compare their footprints to those preserved at Laetoli. Our results show that the Laetoli footprints are morphologically distinct from those...

Data from: Community functional trait composition at the continental scale: the effects of non-ecological processes

A. Michelle Lawing, Jussi T. Eronen, Jessica L. Blois, Catherine H. Graham & P. David Polly
Ecological communities and their response to environmental gradients are increasingly being described by measures of trait composition at the community level – the trait-based approach. Whether ecological or non-ecological processes influence trait composition between communities has been debated. Understanding the processes that influence trait composition is important for reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions from fossil deposits and for understanding changes in community functionality through time. Here, we assess the influence of ecological and non-ecological processes on the...

Data from: Mek1 down regulates Rad51 activity during yeast meiosis by phosphorylation of Hed1

Tracy L. Callender, Raphaelle Laureau, Lihong Wan, Xiangyu Chen, Rima Sandhu, Saif Laljee, Sai Zhou, Ray T. Suhandynata, Evelyn Prugar, William A. Gaines, YoungHo Kwon, G. Valentin Börner, Alain Nicolas, Aaron M. Neiman & Nancy M. Hollingsworth
During meiosis, programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired preferentially between homologs to generate crossovers that promote proper chromosome segregation at Meiosis I. In many organisms, there are two strand exchange proteins, Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1, required for interhomolog (IH) bias. This bias requires the presence, but not the strand exchange activity of Rad51, while Dmc1 is responsible for the bulk of meiotic recombination. How these activities are regulated is less well established. In...

Data from: Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) challenge a recent origin of extant neotropical diversity

Danny Rojas, Omar M. Warsi & Liliana M. Dávalos
The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data...

Data from: Recent extinctions disturb path to equilibrium diversity in Caribbean bats

Luis Valente, Rampal Etienne & Liliana Dávalos
Islands are ideal systems to reconstruct changes in biodiversity and reveal the influence of humans on natural communities. While theory predicts biodiversity on islands tends towards equilibrium, the recent extinction of large proportions of island biotas complicates testing this model. The well-preserved subfossil record of Caribbean bats provides a rare opportunity to model diversity dynamics in an insular community. Here we reconstruct the diversity trajectory in noctilionoid bats of the Greater Antilles by applying a...

Data from: Effects of hummingbird morphology on specialization in pollination networks vary with resource availability

Boris A. Tinoco, Catherine H. Graham, Juan M. Aguilar & Matthias Schleuning
Specialization of species in interaction networks influences network stability and ecosystem functioning. Spatial and temporal variation in resource availability may provide insight into how ecological factors, such as resource abundance, and evolutionary factors, such as phylogenetically conserved morphological traits, influence specialization within mutualistic networks. We used independent measures of hummingbird abundance and resources (nectar), information on hummingbird traits and plant–hummingbird interactions to examine how resource availability and species' morphology influence the specialization of hummingbirds in...

Data from: Independent reversals to terrestriality in squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) support ecologically mediated modes of adaptation

R.G. Rocha, Yuri L.R. Leite, Leonora P. Costa & Danny Rojas
The family Sciuridae is one of the most widespread and ecologically diverse lineage of rodents and represents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of locomotion modes and the historical biogeography of terrestrial mammals. We used a comprehensive database on locomotion modes, an updated phylogeny and novel biogeographic comparative methods to re-assess the evolution of locomotion of squirrels and to investigate if these locomotion modes evolved convergently in different continents. We found that locomotion changes...

Data from: Quantitative ornithology with a commercial marine radar: standard-target calibration, target detection and tracking, and measurement of echoes from individuals and flocks

Samuel S. Urmy & Joseph D. Warren
Marine surveillance radars are commonly used for radar ornithology, but they are rarely calibrated. This prevents them from measuring the radar cross-sections (RCS) of the birds under study. Furthermore, if the birds are aggregated too closely for the radar to resolve them individually, the bulk volume reflectivity cannot be translated into a numerical density. We calibrated a commercial off-the-shelf marine radar using a standard spherical target of known RCS. Once calibrated, the radar was used...

Data from: Continuum of vasodilator stress from rest to contrast medium to adenosine hyperemia for fractional flow reserve assessment

Nils P. Johnson, Allen Jeremias, Frederik M. Zimmermann, Julien Adjedj, Nils Witt, Barry Hennigan, Bon-Kwon Koo, Akiko Maehara, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Emanuele Barbato, Giovanni Esposito, Bruno Trimarco, Gilles Rioufol, Seung-Jung Park, Hyoung-Mo Yang, Sérgio B. Baptista, George S. Chrysant, Antonio M. Leone, Colin Berry, Bernard De Bruyne, K. Lance Gould, Richard L. Kirkeeide, Keith G. Oldroyd, Nico H. J. Pijls, William F. Fearon … & Nico H.J. Pijls
OBJECTIVES: We compared the diagnostic performance with adenosine-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) #0.8 of contrast-based FFR (cFFR), resting distal pressure (Pd)/aortic pressure (Pa), and the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR). BACKGROUND: FFR objectively identifies lesions that benefit from medical therapy versus revascularization. However, FFR requires maximal vasodilation, usually achieved with adenosine. Radiographic contrast injection causes submaximal coronary hyperemia. Therefore, intracoronary contrast could provide an easy and inexpensive tool for predicting FFR. METHODS: We recruited patients undergoing...

Data from: Constitutive turnover of histone H2A.Z at yeast promoters requires the preinitiation complex

Michael Tramantano, Lu Sun, Christy Au, Daniel Labuz, Zhimin Liu, Mindy Chou, Chen Shen & Ed Luk
The assembly of the preinitiation complex (PIC) occurs upstream of the +1 nucleosome which, in yeast, obstructs the transcription start site and is frequently assembled with the histone variant H2A.Z. To understand the contribution of the transcription machinery in the disassembly of the +1 H2A.Z nucleosome, conditional mutants were used to block PIC assembly. A quantitative ChIP-seq approach, which allows detection of global occupancy change, was employed to measure H2A.Z occupancy. Blocking PIC assembly resulted...

Data from: Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc

Hila Levy, Gemma V. Clucas, Alex D. Rogers, Adam D. Leaché, Kate L. Ciborowski, Michael J. Polito, Heather J. Lynch, Michael J. Dunn & Tom Hart
Climate change, fisheries pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonisation and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes...

Data from: Evidence for ship noise impacts on humpback whale foraging behaviour

Hannah B. Blair, Nathan D. Merchant, Ari S. Friedlaender, David N. Wiley & Susan E. Parks
Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data were collected from 10 foraging whales using non-invasive archival tags that simultaneously recorded underwater movements and the acoustic environment at the...

Data from: Global mammal betadiversity show parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments

Caterina Penone, Ben G. Weinstein, Catherine H. Graham, Thomas M. Brooks, Carlo Rondinini, S. Blair Hedges, Ana D. Davidson & Gabriel C. Costa
The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of betadiversity each provide unique insight into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait betadiversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity but...

Data from: Ultra-fine scale spatially-integrated mapping of habitat and occupancy using structure-from-motion

Philip McDowall & Heather J. Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models...

Data from: Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs

Rachel L. Jacobs, Tammie S. MacFie, Amanda N. Spriggs, Andrea L. Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T. Irwin, Richard R. Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Peter M. Kappeler, Patricia C. Wright, Edward E. Louis, Nicholas I. Mundy & Brenda J. Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red–green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • Stony Brook University
    16
  • Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre
    2
  • Cleveland State University
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • INTEGRIS Baptist Medical Center
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • Hunter College
    1
  • Columbia University
    1
  • Temple University
    1