150 Works

NCST Caltrans project on sensor data error estimation

Yueyue Fan & Saurabh Maheshwari
The aim of this script is to automate the process of directed network graph formation, i.e., creation of incidence matrix, node adjacency matrix, and map the sensors to appropriate links. The data used for creating the freeway network is obtained from open street maps, whereas, the data for sensors is obtained from PeMS. The results of the algorithm will later be fed to the network sensor error estimation algorithm, that quantifies the erroneous sensors using...

Habitats and fish communities at mesophotic depths in the Mexican Pacific

Jordan A. Hollarsmith, Georgina Ramirez-Ortiz, Tallulah Winquist, Manuel Velasco-Lozano, Katherine DuBois, Hector Bonilla, Kyle Neumann & Ted Grosholz
Aim: Mesophotic ecosystems, found at the limit of light penetration in the ocean, are rich in biodiversity and harbor unique ecological communities. However, they remain among the least studied habitat zones on earth due to high costs and technological limitations. Here, we characterize mesophotic communities in two marine reserves across a range of habitat types, depths, and temperatures using submersible technologies, with the goal of understanding the processes that structure these communities across biogeographic regions....

Data from: Detailed temporal mapping of global human modification from 1990 to 2017

David Theobald, Christina Kennedy, Bin Chen, James Oakleaf, Joe Kiesecker & Sharon Baruch-Mordo
Data on the extent, patterns, and trends of human land use are critically important to support global and national priorities for conservation and sustainable development. To inform these issues, we created a series of detailed global datasets for 1990, 2000, 2010, 2015, and 2017 to evaluate temporal and spatial trends of land use modification of terrestrial lands (excluding Antarctica). Our novel datasets are detailed (0.09 km2 resolution), temporally consistent (for 1990-2015), comprehensive (11 change stressors,...

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

Interspecific competition slows range expansion and shapes range boundaries

Geoffrey Legault, Matthew Bitters, Alan Hastings & Brett Melbourne
Species expanding into new habitats as a result of climate change or human introductions will frequently encounter resident competitors. Theoretical models suggest that such interspecific competition can alter the speed of expansion and the shape of expanding range boundaries. However, competitive interactions are rarely considered when forecasting the success or speed of expansion, in part because there has been no direct experimental evidence that competition affects either expansion speed or boundary shape. Here we demonstrate...

Evolution of the Greater Caucasus basement and formation of the Main Caucasus Thrust, Georgia

Dylan Vasey, Eric Cowgill, Sarah Roeske, Nathan Niemi, Tea Godoladze, Irakli Skhirtladze & Salome Gogoladze
Along the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in the western Greater Caucasus, the Main Caucasus Thrust (MCT) juxtaposes Paleozoic crystalline basement to the north against Mesozoic metasedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks to the south. The MCT is commonly assumed to be the trace of an active plate-boundary scale structure that accommodates Arabia-Eurasia convergence, but field data supporting this interpretation are equivocal. Here we investigate the deformation history of the rocks juxtaposed across the MCT...

Channel types predictions for the South Fork Eel River basin

Hervé Guillon, Colin F. Byrne, Belize A. Lane, Samuel Sandoval Solis & Gregory B. Pasternack
Hydrologic and geomorphic classifications have gained traction in response to the increasing need for basin-wide water resources management. Regardless of the selected classification scheme, an open scientific challenge is how to extend information from limited field sites to classify tens of thousands to millions of channel reaches across a basin. To address this spatial scaling challenge, we leveraged machine learning to predict reach-scale geomorphic channel types using publicly available geospatial data.

Ecological rigidity and the hardness of selection in the wild

Denon Start
Hutchinson’s ecological theater and evolutionary play is a classical view of evolutionary ecology—ecology provides a template in which evolution occurs. An opposing view is that ecological and evolutionary changes are like two actors on a stage, intertwined by density- and frequency-dependence. These opposing views correspond to hard and soft selection respectively. While often presented as diametrically opposed, both types of selection can occur simultaneously, yet we largely lack knowledge of the relative importance of hard...

Effects of low-carbon energy adoption on airborne particulate matter concentrations with feedbacks to future climate over California

Anikender Kumar, Christina Zapata, Sonia Yeh, Chris Yang, Joan Ogden, Hsiang-He Lee, ShuHua Chen & Michael Kleeman
California plans to reduce emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) through adoption of new energy systems that will also lower concentrations of short-lived absorbing soot contained in airborne particulate matter (PM). Here we examine the direct and indirect effects of reduced PM concentrationsunder a low-carbon energy (GHG-Step) scenario on radiative forcing in California. Simulations were carried out using the source-oriented WRF/Chem (SOWC) model over California with 12 km spatial resolutionfor the year 2054. The avoided...

Data from: Indirect genetic control of migration in a salmonid fish

Suzanne Kelson, Stephanie Carlson & Michael Miller
The paper titled "Indirect genetic control of migration in a salmonid fish" examines the genetic architecture of migration in a partially migratory salmonid fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss. We assess the shared genetic basis between early life growth and migration, and find a shared allelic basis on the Omy05 region of the genome. We then test if early life growth differs among resident/migratory genotype juvenile fish in streams in the South Fork Eel River watershed, in Northern...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Analytical Modeling Framework to Assess the Economic and Environmental Impacts of Residential Deliveries, and Evaluate Sustainable City Logistics Strategies

Anmol Pahwa & Miguel Jaller
In the last decade, e‐commerce has grown substantially, increasing business‐to‐business, business‐to‐consumer, and consumer‐to‐consumer transactions. As a result, there has been a continuous growth in last mile operations, especially deliveries to residential areas, bringing along externalities such as congestion, air and noise pollution, and energy consumption. This project aims to develop an analytical framework to model last mile operations based on continuous approximation techniques. The model will help estimate the economic and environmental impacts of residential...

Early maternal separation is not associated with changes in telomere length in domestic kittens (Felis catus)

Mikel Delgado, C.A.T. Tony Buffington, Melissa Bain & Karen Vernau
Objective The objective of this study was to determine if premature separation from the mother affected telomere length in domestic kittens (Felis catus) at one and eight weeks of life. Subjects were 42 orphaned kittens and 10 mother-reared kittens from local animal rescue groups and shelters. Blood (200 µl) was collected from kittens at 1 and 8 weeks of age via jugular venipuncture. Telomere length was assessed by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) from 86...

Equate SENAS and IVD cognitive measure: Summary of methods and results

Dan Mungas, Ji Won Han, Pauline Maillard, Danielle Harvey, Evan Fletcher, Oliver Martinez, David Johnson, John Olichney, Sarah Farias, Sylvia Villeneuve, William Jagust & Charles DeCarli
Conceptually similar measures of episodic memory and executive function have been derived from different tests that compose the SENAS (Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scale) and IVD-PPG (ischemic vascular contributions to cognitive decline and dementia) neuropsychological test batteries. The purpose of this project was to create equated episodic memory and executive scores from these two batteries that are on the same measurement metric and can be combined in analyses using data from both projects. This...

Data from: Distinct association between APOE ε2 and Aβ in Alzheimer- and vascular-type cognitive impairment

Jin San Lee, Hyejoo Lee, Seongbeom Park, Yeongsim Choe, Yu Hyun Park, Bo Kyoung Cheon, Alice Hahn, Rik Ossenkoppele, Hee Jin Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Heejin Yoo, Hyemin Jang, Soo Hyun Cho, Seung Joo Kim, Jun Pyo Kim, Young Hee Jung, Key-Chung Park, Charles DeCarli, Michael Weiner, Duk L. Na & Sang Won Seo
Objective: To investigate the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and amyloid-β (Aβ) burden, as measured by PET in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) and those with Alzheimer’s disease-related cognitive impairment (ADCI). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 310 patients with SVCI and 999 with ADCI. To evaluate the effects of APOE genotype or diagnostic group on Aβ-positivity, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses. Further distinctive underlying features of latent subgroups were...

A Peacock Bass (Cichla) functional novelty relaxes a constraint imposed by the classic cichlid pharyngeal jaw innovation

Edward Burress & Peter Wainwright
Innovations may provide access to new resources but often result in significant trade-offs. Pharyngognathy is a classic pharyngeal jaw innovation in which the left and right lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) bones are united into a single structure, producing a strong bite but reduced gape. Throughout cichlids, pharyngeal suturing occurs along the entire medial border between LPJ bones, except in Peacock bass (Cichla), where these bones are connected by ligaments only in their anterior region. We...

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

Transportation Network Company (TNC) taxes/fees by state/city in the United States

Sam Fuller & Austin Brown
Cities and states across the U.S. are assessing fees or taxes on transportation network company (TNC) platforms, such as Uber and Lyft. The goals of these policies include traffic and emissions mitigation, as well as revenue generation, among other objectives. Our research aims to assess the goals and effectiveness of these fees in achieving some of these policy objectives, primarily congestion and emissions mitigation. The analysis addresses a core difficulty in comparing TNC fees—some fees...

Wildfire alters the disturbance impacts of an emerging infectious disease via changes to host occurrence and demographic structure

Allison Simler-Williamson, Margaret Metz, Kerri Frangioso & David Rizzo
1. Anthropogenic activities have altered historical disturbance regimes, and understanding the mechanisms by which these shifting perturbations interact is essential to predicting where they may erode ecosystem resilience. Emerging infectious plant diseases, caused by human translocation of nonnative pathogens, can generate ecologically-damaging forms of novel biotic disturbance. Further, abiotic disturbances, such as wildfire, may influence the severity and extent of disease-related perturbations via their effects on the occurrence of hosts, pathogens, and microclimates; however, these...

Species interactions across trophic levels mediate rainfall effects on dryland vegetation dynamics

Douglas Kelt, Julio Gutiérrez & Peter Meserve
Arid ecosystems are strongly limited by water availability, and precipitation plays a major role in the dynamics of all species in arid regions, as well as the ecosystem processes that occur there. However, understanding how biotic interactions mediate long-term responses of dryland ecosystems to rainfall remains very fragmented. We report on a unique large-scale field experiment spanning 25 years and three trophic levels (plants, small mammal herbivores, predators) in a dryland ecosystem in the northern...

Landscape simplification increases vineyard pest outbreaks and insecticide use

Daniel Paredes, Jay Rosenheim, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Silvia Winter & Daniel Karp
Diversifying agricultural landscapes may mitigate biodiversity declines and improve pest management. Yet landscapes are rarely managed to suppress pests, in part because researchers seldom measure key variables related to pest outbreaks and insecticides that drive management decisions. We used a 13-year government database to analyze landscape effects on European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) outbreaks and insecticides across ~400 Spanish vineyards. At harvest, we found pest outbreaks increased four-fold in simplified, vineyard-dominated landscapes compared to complex...

Data from: Body shape diversification along the benthic-pelagic axis in marine fishes

Sarah Friedman, Samantha Price, Katherine Corn, Olivier Larouche, Christopher Martinez & Peter Wainwright
Colonization of novel habitats can result in marked phenotypic responses to the new environment that include changes in body shape and opportunities for further morphological diversification. Fishes have repeatedly transitioned along the benthic-pelagic axis, with varying degrees of association with the substrate. Previous work focusing on individual lineages shows that these transitions are accompanied by highly predictable changes in body form. Here, we generalize expectations drawn from this literature to study the effects of habitat...

Data from: Plasticity and habitat choice match color to function in an ambush bug

Julia Boyle & Denon Start
Individuals aim to maximize their fitness by matching their own phenotype to the optimum phenotype in their environment. Individuals can achieve matching through several mechanism including habitat choice and adaptive plasticity. A key trait of interest to biologists is color, with background matching reciprocally camouflaging predators and prey. However, the multiple mechanisms matching an individual’s color to their background, and its consequences for function (e.g. species interactions), are rarely explored simultaneously. Here we investigate color...

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of Alzheimer's dementia: Findings from two longitudinal studies

Klodian Dhana, Denis Evans, Kumar Rajan, David Bennett & Martha Morris
Objective To quantify the impact of a healthy lifestyle on the risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP n=1,845) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP n=920), we defined a healthy lifestyle score on the basis of non-smoking, >=150 min/week moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption, high-quality MIND diet (upper 40%), and engagement in late-life cognitive activities (upper 40%), giving an overall score ranging from...

Insect diversity over 36 years at a protected Sierra Nevada (California) site

Jay Rosenheim & Philip Ward
Recent authors have suggested that declines of insect abundance or diversity, documented first for particular insect taxa of high interest (e.g., butterflies, bees), may apply to insect diversity more generally. This has led to an urgent call for analysis of additional longitudinal datasets to examine trends in general insect diversity. Here we present a dataset gathered from 1982-2018 by advanced undergraduate students and graduate students enrolled in a taxonomy course that involved collecting as many...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    150

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    150

Affiliations

  • University of California, Davis
    150
  • University of California, Berkeley
    13
  • Oregon State University
    6
  • University of Georgia
    5
  • University of Minnesota
    5
  • University of British Columbia
    4
  • Michigan State University
    4
  • University of California, Merced
    3
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    3
  • University of Florida
    3