11 Works

Experimental evidence of multiple ecosystem services and disservices provided by ecological intensification in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems

Hila Segre, Michal Segoli, Yohay Carmel & Assaf Shwartz
1. Intensifying agricultural production in sustainable ways is pivotal to increasing food production while reducing environmental impacts. Ecological intensification is based on managing organisms that provide services underlying crop production to simultaneously intensify agricultural production and increase biodiversity. However, few studies address the interactions and trade-offs between biodiversity, multiple ecosystem services and crop production. 2. We experimentally quantified the effect of uncultivated field margins, a prominent practice of ecological intensification, on agricultural production, biodiversity, as...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Data from: Equivocal evidence for a change in balance between selfing and pollinator-mediated reproduction in annual Brassicaceae growing along a rainfall gradient

Merav Seifan, Eleanor V. J. Gibson-Forty & Katja Katja Tielbörger
Because many plants ensure their reproductive success using some level of self-fertilization, it is predicted that the balance between pollinator-mediated pollen transfer and autonomous selfing will be correlated with habitat harshness and pollinator activity. To study these correlations, we used three annual species that differ in their self-incompatibility and compared their reproductive success in the form of fruit production and seed viability, with and without pollinators, along a rainfall gradient and in relation to pollinator...

Data from: Positive associations with native shrubs are intense and important for an exotic invader but not the native annual community across an aridity gradient

Jacob Lucero, Merav Seifan, Ragan Callaway & Christopher Lortie
AIM AND LOCATION: Positive interactions influence the assembly of plant communities globally, particularly in stressful environments like deserts. However, few studies have measured the intensity and relative importance of positive interactions involving native and invasive species along aridity gradients. These measures are essential for predicting how dryland communities will respond to biological invasions and environmental change. Here, we measured the intensity and importance of positive associations formed between native shrubs and the annual plant community,...

Data from: Contrasting global patterns of spatially periodic fairy circles and regular insect nests in drylands

Stephan Getzin, Hezi Yizhaq, Michael D. Cramer & Walter R. Tschinkel
Numerical analysis of spatial pattern is widely used in ecology to describe the characteristics of floral and faunal distributions. These methods allow attribution of pattern to causal mechanisms by uncovering the specific signatures of patterns and causal agents. For example, grassland‐gap patterns called fairy circles (FCs) in Namibia and Australia are characterized by highly regular and homogenous distributions across landscapes that show spatially periodic ordering. These FCs have been suggested to be caused by both...

Harrison’s rule scales up to entire parasite assemblages but is determined by environmental factors

Renan Maestri, Maico Fiedler, Georgy Shenbrot, Elena Surkova, Sergei Medvedev, Irina Khokhlova & Boris Krasnov
Harrison’s rule states that parasite body size and the body size of their hosts tend to be positively correlated. After it was proposed a century ago, a number of studies have investigated this trend, but the support level has varied greatly between parasite/host associations. Moreover, while the rule has been tested at the individual species level, we still lack knowledge on whether Harrison’s rule holds at the scale of parasite and host communities. Here, we...

Data from: The enemy within: how does a bacterium inhibit the foraging aptitude and risk management behavior of Allenby’s gerbils?

Douglas Ferguson Makin, Burt P. Kotler, Joel S. Brown, Mario Garrido & Jorge F. S. Menezes
Microbes inhabiting multi-cellular organisms have complex, often subtle effects on their hosts. Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi are commonly infected with the Mycoplasma haemomuris-like bacteria, which may cause mild nutrient (choline, arginine) deficiencies. However, are there more serious ecological consequences of infection such as effects on foraging aptitudes and risk management? We tested alternatives: 1) nutrient compensation hypothesis, does nutrient deficiency induce infected gerbils to make up for the shortfall by foraging more and taking greater risks?...

Phylogenomics of scorpions reveal a co-diversification of scorpion mammalian predators and mammal-specific sodium channel toxins

Carlos Santibanez, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Ballesteros, Guilherme Gainett, Caitlin Baker, Edmundo González-Santillán, Mark Harvey, Mohamed Hassans, Ali Abu-Almaaty, Shorouk Aldeyarbi, Lionel Monod, Andrés Ojanguren-Affilastro, Robert Raven, Ricardo Pinto Da Rocha, Yoram Zvik, Efrat Gavish-Regev & Prashant Sharma
Scorpions constitute a charismatic lineage of arthropods and comprise more than 2,500 described species. Found throughout various tropical and temperate habitats, these predatory arachnids have a long evolutionary history, with a fossil record that began in the Silurian. While all scorpions are venomous, the asymmetrically diverse family Buthidae harbors nearly half the diversity of extant scorpions, and all but one of the 58 species that are medically significant to humans. Many aspects of scorpion evolutionary...

Data from: Reduced dispersal at non-expanding range margins: a matter of dispersers' identity

Gilad Ben Zvi, Itamar Giladi & Merav Seifan
The evolution of dispersal at range margins received much attention recently; especially in the context of dynamic range shifts, such as those following climate change. However, much less attention has been devoted to study variation in and selection on dispersal at non-expanding range margins, where populations are often small and isolated, and empirical test is dearly missing. To fill this gap, we tested whether dispersal of an ant-dispersed perennial plant (Sternbergia clusiana), is quantitatively and/or...

Mechanics of walking and running up and downhill: A joint-level perspective to guide design of lower-limb exoskeletons

Richard Nuckols, Kota Takahashi, Dominic Farris, Sarai Mizrachi, Raziel Riemer & Gregory Sawicki
Lower-limb wearable robotic devices can improve clinical gait and reduce energetic demand in healthy populations. To help enable real-world use, we sought to examine how assistance should be applied in variable gait conditions and suggest an approach derived from knowledge of human locomotion mechanics to establish a ‘roadmap’ for wearable robot design. We characterized the changes in joint mechanics during walking and running across a range of incline/decline grades and then provide an analysis that...

Ant foraging strategies vary along a natural resource gradient

Udi Segev, Katja Tielborger, Yael Lubin & Jaime Kigel
Food selection by foragers is sensitive to the availability of resources, which may vary along geographical gradients. Hence, selectivity of food types by foragers is expected to track these resource gradients. Here we addressed this hypothesis and asked if foraging decisions of seed-eating ants differ along a geographic gradient of habitat productivity. The study was carried out for two years at five sites along a natural climatic gradient, ranging from arid to Mediterranean, where plant...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    11

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    11

Affiliations

  • Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
    11
  • Western Australian Museum
    2
  • University of Tübingen
    2
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • Queen's University Belfast
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1
  • New College of Florida
    1
  • Eastern Connecticut State University
    1
  • National Autonomous University of Mexico
    1