22 Works

Phylogeny, phylogeography, and diversification history of Caspian cobra

Mohammad Kaboli
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and demographic relationships of Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana; Eichwald, 1831) populations based on a concatenated dataset of two mtDNA genes (cyt b and ND4) across the species’ range in Iran, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan, along with other members of Asian cobras (i.e. subgenus Naja Laurenti, 1768). Our results provided strong support that N. oxiana is monophyletic and its divergence from its sister taxon, N. kaouthia, during early...

Wolbachia manipulate fitness benefits of olfactory associative learning in a parasitoid wasp

Hossein Kishani
Upon encountering a host, a female parasitoid wasp has to decide whether to learn positive or negative cues related to a host. The optimal female decision will depend on the fitness costs and benefits of learned stimuli. Reward quality is positively related to the rate of behavioral acquisition in processes such as associative learning. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, often plays an impressive role in the manipulation of its arthropod host’s biology. Here we studied the...

Data from: Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski’s horses

Charleen Gaunitz, Antoine Fages, Kristian Hanghøj, Anders Albrechtsen, Naveed Khan, Mikkel Schubert, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Ivy J. Owens, Sabine Felkel, Olivier Bignon-Lau, Peter De Barros Damgaard, Alissa Mittnik, Azadeh F. Mohaseb, Hossein Davoudi, Saleh Alquraishi, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid, Eric Crubézy, Norbert Benecke, Sandra Olsen, Dorcas Brown, David Anthony, Ken Massy, Vladimir Pitulko, Aleksei Kasparov … & Ludovic Orlando
The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski’s horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago...

Data from: Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens

C. Pélabon, E. Albertsen, M. Falahati-Anbaran, J. Wright, W. S. Armbruster & W.S. Armbruster
Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success...

Data from: Phytogeography of Genu and Homag, two mountains with an Irano–Turanian flora in the Saharo–Sindian regional zone, south Iran

Moslem Doostmohammadi, Nafiseh Samadi & Atefeh Ghorbanalizadeh
The Saharo-Sindian regional zone encompasses the flat and arid areas of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, southern Iran and the deserts of Pakistan and W India. There are some scattered mountains situated within this area like Hoggar in Sahara, Saint Catherine in Sinai and Genu and Homag in southern Iran. These highlands serve as interglacial refugia for cold adapted plant species. In the present study, phytogeographical patterns and relationships of the flora of Genu and...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Source data for: Presynaptic NMDARs cooperate with local spikes toward GABA release from the reciprocal olfactory bulb granule cell spine

Veronica Egger, Vanessa Lage-Rupprecht, Li Zhou, Gaia Bianchini, S. Sara Aghvami, Balazs Rozsa, Marco Sassoe-Pognetto & Max Mueller
In the rodent olfactory bulb the smooth dendrites of the principal glutamatergic mitral cells (MCs) form reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses with large spines on GABAergic granule cells (GC), where unitary release of glutamate can trigger postsynaptic local activation of voltage-gated Na+-channels (Navs), i.e. a spine spike. Can such single MC input evoke reciprocal release? We find that unitary-like activation via two-photon uncaging of glutamate causes GC spines to release GABA both synchronously and asynchronously onto MC...

Trichome micromorphology in Alcea L. and allied genera (Malvaceae) and its systematic

Mahnaz Arab Ameri, Hamed Khodayari & Shahin Zarre
Trichomes of 26 species of the genus Alcea were investigated using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The trichomes show a great micromorphological variation, which provides interesting data for species delimitation in Alcea. Two basic types of trichomes can be distinguished in the genus Alcea and the allied genera: glandular and eglandular. The glandular trichomes can in turn be subdivided into two subtypes: capitate and clavate. The eglandular trichomes can be subdivided into five...

Data from: Assessing the relationship between illegal hunting of ungulates, wild prey occurrence and livestock depredation rate by large carnivores

Mahmood Soofi, Arash Ghoddousi, Thorsten Zeppenfeld, Shirko Shokri, Mobin Soufi, Lukas Egli, Abbas Jafari, Mohsen Ahmadpour, Ali Qashqaei, Taher Ghadirian, Marc Filla, Bahram Kiabi, Niko Balkenhol, Matthias Waltert & Igor Khorozyan
1. Illegal hunting of ungulates can reduce the prey base of carnivores, which can increase human-carnivore conflict (HCC) through livestock depredation. However, the relationship between ungulate poaching, wild prey abundance and livestock depredation has rarely been empirically studied. 2. We surveyed 18 sites across the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran; a global biodiversity hotspot under pressure of illegal hunting of ungulates, prey depletion, livestock grazing and HCC. We conducted three field surveys across 1204 km...

Data from: The legacy of Eastern Mediterranean mountain uplifts – rapid disparity of phylogenetic niche conservatism and divergence in mountain vipers

Mohsen Ahmadi, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Mohammad Kaboli, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Mansoureh Malekian, Roozbeh Behrooz, Philippe Geniez, John Alroy & Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Aim The orogeny of the eastern Mediterranean region has substantially affected ecological speciation patterns, particularly of mountain-dwelling species. Mountain vipers of the genus Montivipera are among the paramount examples of Mediterranean neo-endemism, with restricted ranges in the mountains of Anatolia, the Levant, Caucasus, Alborz, and Zagros. Here we explore the phylogenetic and ecological diversification of Montivipera to reconstruct its ecological niche evolution and biogeographic history. Location Eastern Mediterranean mountain ecosystems Methods Using 177 sequences of...

Data from: DNA barcoding of tuberous Orchidoideae: a resource for identification of orchids used in Salep

Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Barbara Gravendeel, Sugirthini Selliah, Shahin Zarré & Hugo De Boer
Tubers of terrestrial orchids are harvested and traded from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea for the traditional product Salep. Overexploitation of wild populations and increased middle-class prosperity have escalated prices for Salep, causing overharvesting, depletion of native populations and providing an incentive to expand harvesting to untapped areas in Iran. Limited morphological distinctiveness among traded Salep tubers renders species identification impossible, making it difficult to establish which species are targeted and affected the...

Data from: The niches of nuthatches affect their lineage evolution differently across latitude

Yu-Chi Chen, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Fu‐Min Lei, Xiao‐Jun Yang, Cheng‐Te Yao, Feng Dong, Lu Dong, Fa‐Sheng Zou, Sergei V. Drovetski, Yang Liu, Chun-Cheng Huang, Chih-Ming Hung, Fu-Min Lei, Yu‐Chi Chen, Chun‐Cheng Huang & Chih‐Ming Hung
Ecological niche evolution can promote or hinder the differentiation of taxa and determine their distribution. Niche‐mediated evolution may differ among climatic regimes, and thus species that occur across a wide latitudinal range offer a chance to test these heterogeneous evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine (1) how many lineages have evolved across the continent‐wide range of the Eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea), (2) whether the lineages’ niches are significantly divergent or conserved, and (3) how...

Data from: Palenque de San Basilio in Colombia: genetic data supports an oral history of a paternal ancestry in Congo

Naser Ansari-Pour, Yves Moñino, Constanza Duque, Natalia Gallego, Gabriel Bedoya, Mark G. Thomas & Neil Bradman
The Palenque, a black community in rural Colombia, have an oral history of fugitive African slaves founding a free village near Cartagena in the seventeenth century. Recently, linguists have identified some 200 words in regular use that originate in a Kikongo language, with Yombe, mainly spoken in the Congo region, being the most likely source. The non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA were analysed to establish whether there was greater similarity...

Data from: Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine

Øystein H. Opedal, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Elena Albertsen, W. Scott Armbruster, Rocío Pérez-Barrales, Hans K. Stenøien & Christophe Pélabon
Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Link prediction in real-world multiplex networks via layer reconstruction method

Amir Mahdi Abdolhosseini-Qomi, Seyed Hosseini Jafari, Amirheckmat Taghizadeh, Naser Yazdani, Masoud Asadpour & Maseud Rahgozar
Networks are invaluable tools to study real biological, social and technological complex systems in which connected elements form a purposeful phenomenon. A higher resolution image of these systems shows that the connection types do not confine to one but to a variety of types. Multiplex networks encode this complexity with a set of nodes which are connected in different layers via different types of links. A large body of research on link prediction problem is...

A quantitative analysis of primary dormancy and dormancy changes during burial in seeds of Brassica napus

Keyvan Maleki & Elias Soltani
For plants inhabiting unpredictable environments, scheduling germination can be challenging. Various responses to environmental conditions have been evolved by plants; these responses combine with variation in local climate to construct germination niche. Germination process may be regulated by a number of factors, among them, the type of seed dormancy and dormancy cycling play an important role in promoting survival after dispersal. In the present study, seeds of Brassica napus were tested for primary conditional dormancy...

Data from: Genetic diversity of Persian Arabian horses and their relationship to other native Iranian horse breeds

Raheleh Sadeghi, Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak, Seyed Reza Miraei Ashtiani, Florencia Schlamp, Elissa J. Cosgrove & Doug F. Antczak
The principal aims of this study were to explore genetic diversity and genome-wide selection signatures in Persian Arabian horses and to determine genetic relationship of Persian Arabians with other Iranian horse breeds. We evaluated 71 horses from 8 matrilineal strains tracing to 47 mares from the mid to late 19th century, using the equine 670k SNP BeadChip. Mean observed and expected heterozygosity were (0.43) and (0.45), respectively, average inbreeding measures (FROH and FPED) were low,...

Data from: Evolutionary consequences of ecological factors: pollinator reliability predicts mating-system traits of a perennial plant

Øystein H. Opedal, Elena Albertsen, W. Scott Armbruster, Rocio Perez-Barrales, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran & Christophe Pelabon
The reproductive-assurance hypothesis predicts that mating-system traits will evolve towards increased autonomous self-pollination in plant populations experiencing unreliable pollinator service. We tested this long-standing hypothesis by assessing geographic covariation among pollinator reliability, outcrossing rates, heterozygosity, and relevant floral traits across populations of Dalechampia scandens in Costa Rica. Mean outcrossing rates ranged from 0.16 to 0.49 across four populations, and covaried with the average rates of pollen arrival on stigmas, a measure of pollinator reliability. Across...

Data from: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 barcode data of fish of the Nayband National Park in the Persian Gulf and analysis using meta-data flag several cryptic species

Hosseinali Asgharian, Homayoun Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, Aria Ashja Ardalan, Shahrokh Shekarriz & Elahe Elahi
We provide cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) barcode sequences of fishes of the Nayband National Park, Persian Gulf, Iran. Industrial activities, ecological considerations, and goals of The Fish Barcode of Life campaign make it crucial that fish species residing in the park be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of barcoding data on fishes of the Persian Gulf. 187 individuals representing 76 species, 56 genera, and 32 families...

Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Szilárd Szentes
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

Data from: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 barcode data of fish of the Nayband National Park in the Persian Gulf and analysis using meta-data flag several cryptic species

Hosseinali Asgharian, Homayoun Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, Aria Ashja Ardalan, Shahrokh Shekarriz & Elahe Elahi
We provide cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) barcode sequences of fishes of the Nayband National Park, Persian Gulf, Iran. Industrial activities, ecological considerations, and goals of The Fish Barcode of Life campaign make it crucial that fish species residing in the park be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of barcoding data on fishes of the Persian Gulf. 187 individuals representing 76 species, 56 genera, and 32 families...

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