34 Works

Data from: Scary clowns: adaptive function of anemonefish coloration

Sami Merilaita & Jennifer L. Kelley
Clownfishes, with their showy colouration, are well known for their symbiosis with sea anemones and for their hierarchical reproductive system, but the function of their colouration is unclear. We used a phylogeny of 27 clownfish species to test whether fish colouration: (1) serves a protective function that involves their anemone hosts, or (2) signals species identity in species with overlapping host ranges that can potentially share the same host. We tested for an association between...

Data from: Capturing genetic variation in crop wild relatives: an evolutionary approach

Paul A. Egan, Anne Muola & Johan A. Stenberg
Crop wild relatives (CWRs) offer novel genetic resources for crop improvement. To assist in the urgent need to collect and conserve CWR germplasm, we advance here the concept of an ‘evolutionary’ approach. Central to this approach is the predictive use of spatial proxies of evolutionary processes (natural selection, gene flow, and genetic drift) to locate and capture genetic variation. As a means to help validate this concept, we screened wild-collected genotypes of woodland strawberry (Fragaria...

Data from: Increased male bias in eider ducks can be explained by sex-specific survival of prime-age breeders

Satu Ramula, Markus Öst, Andreas Lindén, Patrik Karell & Mikael Kilpi
In contrast to theoretical predictions of even adult sex ratios, males are dominating in many bird populations. Such bias among adults may be critical to population growth and viability. Nevertheless, demographic mechanisms for biased adult sex ratios are still poorly understood. Here, we examined potential demographic mechanisms for the recent dramatic shift from a slight female bias among adult eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) to a male bias (about 65% males) in the Baltic Sea, where...

Data from: Size variability effects on visual detection are influenced by colour pattern and perceived size

Einat Karpestam, Sami Merilaita & Anders Forsman
Most animals including humans use vision to detect, identify, evaluate and respond to potential prey items in complex environments. Theories predict that predators’ visual search performance is better when targets are similar than when targets are dissimilar and require divided attention, and this may contribute to colour pattern polymorphism in prey. Most prey also vary in size, but how size variation influences detectability and search performance of predators that utilize polymorphic prey has received little...

Data from: Association mapping reveals candidate loci for resistance and anemic response to an emerging temperature-driven parasitic disease in a wild salmonid fish

Freed Ahmad, Paul Debes, Gemma Palomar & Anti Vasemägi
Even though parasitic infections are often costly or deadly for the host, we know very little which genes influence parasite susceptibility and disease severity. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging and, at elevated water temperatures, potentially deadly disease of salmonid fishes that is caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. By screening > 7.6 K SNPs in 255 wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) and combining association mapping and random forest approaches, we identified several...

Data from: Time-lagged effects of weather on plant demography: drought and Astragalus scaphoides

Brigitte Tenhumberg, Elizabeth E. Crone, Satu Ramula & Andrew J. Tyre
Temperature and precipitation determine the conditions where plant species can occur. Despite their significance, to date, surprisingly few demographic field studies have considered the effects of abiotic drivers. This is problematic because anticipating the effect of global climate change on plant population viability requires understanding how weather variables affect population dynamics. One possible reason for omitting the effect of weather variables in demographic studies is the difficulty in detecting tight associations between vital rates and...

Data from: Predation risk landscape modifies flying and red squirrel nest site occupancy independently of habitat amount

Tytti Turkia, Erkki Korpimäki, Alexandre Villers & Vesa Selonen
Habitat choice often entails trade-offs between food availability and predation risk. Understanding the distribution of individuals in space thus requires that both habitat characteristics and predation risk are considered simultaneously. Here, we studied the nest box use of two arboreal squirrels who share preferred habitat with their main predators. Nocturnal Ural owls (Strix uralensis) decreased occurrence of night-active flying squirrels (Pteromys volans) and diurnal goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) that of day-active red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). Unexpectedly,...

Data from: What have humans done for evolutionary biology? Contributions from genes to populations

Michael Briga, Robert M. Griffin, Vérane Berger, Jenni E. Pettay & Virpi Lummaa
Many fundamental concepts in evolutionary biology were discovered using non-human study systems. Humans are poorly suited to key study designs used to advance this field, and are subject to cultural, technological, and medical influences often considered to restrict the pertinence of human studies to other species and general contexts. Whether studies using current and recent human populations provide insights that have broader biological relevance in evolutionary biology is, therefore, frequently questioned. We first surveyed researchers...

Data from: Shared environmental effects bias phenotypic estimates of assortative mating in a wild bird

Barbara Class & Jon E. Brommer
Assortative mating is pervasive in wild populations and commonly described as a positive correlation between the phenotypes of males and females across mated pairs. This correlation is often assumed to reflect non-random mate choice based on phenotypic similarity. However, phenotypic resemblance between mates can also arise when their traits respond plastically to a shared environmental effect creating a (within-pair) residual correlation in traits. Using long-term data collected in pairs of wild blue tits and a...

Data from: Frequency of virus-resistant hosts determines experimental community dynamics

Sebastian Coloma, Ursula Gaedke, Kaarina Sivonen & Teppo Hiltunen
Parasites, such as bacterial viruses (phages), can have large effects on host populations both at the ecological and evolutionary levels. In the case of cyanobacteria, phages can reduce primary production and infected hosts release intracellular nutrients influencing planktonic food web structure, community dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. Cyanophages may be of great importance in aquatic food webs during large cyanobacterial blooms unless the host population becomes resistant to phage infection. The consequences on plankton community dynamics...

Data from: Size and contrast increase the divertive effect of eyespots

Karin Kjernsmo, Miranda Grönholm & Sami Merilaita
Recent studies have shown that some eyespots of prey divert the strikes of predators, increasing the likelihood of prey escape. However, little is known about what makes eyespots effective divertive (deflective) prey marks. The size of eyespots varies much both between and even within taxa. Yet, whether size is important for the divertive function of eyespots is unknown. Furthermore, eyespots have often been described as highly contrasting, but the effects of contrast on the divertive...

Data from: Folivory has long-term effects on sexual but not on asexual reproduction in woodland strawberry

Anne Muola & Johan A. Stenberg
1. Plant fitness is often a result of both sexual and asexual reproductive success and, in perennial plants, over several years. Folivory can affect both modes of reproduction. However, little is known about the effects of folivory on resource allocation to the two modes of reproduction simultaneously and across years. 2. In a two-year common garden experiment we examined the effects of different levels of folivory by the strawberry leaf beetle, Galerucella tenella, on current...

Data from: The relative strengths of rapid and delayed density dependence acting on a terrestrial herbivore change along a pollution gradient

Mark D. Hunter & Mikhail V. Kozlov
1. Animal populations vary in response to a combination of density dependent and density independent forces, which interact to drive their population dynamics. Understanding how abiotic forces mediate the form and strength of density dependent processes remains a central goal of ecology, and is of increasing urgency in a rapidly changing world. 2. Here, we report for the first time that industrial pollution determines the relative strength of rapid and delayed density dependence operating on...

Data from: Genomic signatures of parasite-driven natural selection in north European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Ksenia J. Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexei E Veselov, Matthew P. Kent & Craig R. Primmer
Understanding the genomic basis of host-parasite adaptation is important for predicting the long-term viability of species and developing successful management practices. However, in wild populations, identifying specific signatures of parasite-driven selection often presents a challenge, as it is difficult to unravel the molecular signatures of selection driven by different, but correlated, environmental factors. Furthermore, separating parasite-mediated selection from similar signatures due to genetic drift and population history can also be difficult. Populations of Atlantic salmon...

Data from: Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole‐nesting birds

Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontin, André A. Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Rudi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson … & Ruedi G. Nager
Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole‐nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co‐occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across...

Data from: Independent and interactive effects of immune activation and larval diet on adult immune function, growth and development in the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella)

Katariina Kangassalo, Terhi M. Valtonen, Jouni Sorvari, Sanita Kecko, Mari Pölkki, Indrikis Krams, Tatjana Krama & Markus J. Rantala
Organisms in the wild are likely to face multiple immune challenges as well as additional ecological stressors, yet their interactive effects on immune function are poorly understood. Insects are found to respond to cues of increased infection risk by enhancing their immune capacity. However, such adaptive plasticity in immune function may be limited by physiological and environmental constraints. Here, we investigated the effects of two environmental stressors – poor larval diet and an artificial parasite-like...

Data from: Reverse taxonomy applied to the Brachionus calyciflorus cryptic species complex: morphometric analysis confirms species delimitations revealed by molecular phylogenetic analysis and allows the (re)description of four species

Evangelia Michaloudi, Spiros Papakostas, Georgia Stamou, Vilém Neděla, Eva Tihlaříková, Wei Zhang & Steven A. J. Declerck
The discovery and exploration of cryptic species have been profoundly expedited thanks to developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics. In this study, we apply a reverse taxonomy approach to the Brachionus calyciflorus species complex, a commonly studied freshwater monogonont rotifer. By combining phylogenetic, morphometric and morphological analyses, we confirm the existence of four cryptic species that have been recently suggested by a molecular study. Based on these results and according to an exhaustive review of...

Data from: Association of in utero persistent organic pollutant exposure with placental thyroid hormones

Zhong-Min Li, David Hernandez-Moreno, Katharina Maria Main, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Hannu Kiviranta, Jorma Toppari, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Heqing Shen, Karl-Werner Schramm & Meri De Angelis
In utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can result in thyroid function disorder, leading to concerns about their impact on fetal and neonatal development. The present study was performed to investigate the associations between placental levels of various POPs and thyroid hormones (THs). In a prospective Danish study initially established for assessing congenital cryptorchidism, 58 placenta samples were collected from mothers of boys born with (28) and without (30) cryptorchidism. The concentrations of polybrominated...

Data from: Why do top predators engage in superpredation? From an empirical scenario to a theoretical framework

Rui Lourenço, Maria Del Mar Delgado, Letizia Campioni, Fernando Goytre, João E. Rabaça, Erkki Korpimäki & Vincenzo Penteriani
Lethal interactions can shape ecosystem structure, and consequently understanding their causes is ecologically relevant. To improve both empirical and theoretical knowledge on superpredation (i.e. predation on high-order predators), we studied an eagle owl population, including its main prey and mesopredators, and then we crossed these results with existing theories to provide a reasoning framework. We fitted our field data into four main causes explaining lethal interactions: food stress, opportunistic superpredation, removal of a competitor, and...

Data from: The effect of landscape structure on dispersal distances of the Eurasian red squirrel

Suvi Hämäläinen, Karen Fey & Vesa Selonen
Landscape structure can affect dispersal and gene flow in a species. In urban areas, buildings, roads and small habitat patches make the landscape highly fragmented and can inhibit movement and affect dispersal behavior. Similarly, in rural forested areas, large open areas, such as fields, may act as barriers to movement. We studied how landscape structure affects natal dispersal distances of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in an urban area and a rural area in Finland,...

Data from: How scientists perceive the evolutionary origin of human traits: results of a survey study

Hanna Tuomisto, Matleena Tuomisto & Jouni T. Tuomisto
Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (palaeoanthropology, palaeontology,...

Data from: Finding flies in the mushroom soup: host specificity of fungus-associated communities revisited with a novel molecular method

Janne Koskinen, Tomas Roslin, Tommi Nyman, Nerea Abrego, Craig Michell & Eero J. Vesterinen
Fruiting bodies of fungi constitute an important resource for thousands of other taxa. The structure of these diverse assemblages has traditionally been studied with labour-intensive methods involving cultivation and morphology-based species identification, to which molecular information might offer convenient complements. To overcome challenges in DNA extraction and PCR associated with the complex chemical properties fruiting bodies, we developed a pipeline applicable for extracting amplifiable total DNA from soft fungal samples of any size. Our protocol...

Data from: Construction and characterization of synthetic bacterial community for experimental ecology and evolution

Johannes Cairns, Roosa Jokela, Jenni Hultman, Manu Tamminen, Marko Virta & Teppo Hiltunen
Experimental microbial ecology and evolution have yielded foundational insights into ecological and evolutionary processes using simple microcosm setups and phenotypic assays with one- or two-species model systems. The fields are now increasingly incorporating more complex systems and exploration of the molecular basis of observations. For this purpose, simplified, manageable and well-defined multispecies model systems are required that can be easily investigated using culturing and high-throughput sequencing approaches, bridging the gap between simpler and more complex...

Data from: Genomic signatures of fine‐scale local selection in Atlantic salmon suggest involvement of sexual maturation, energy homeostasis, and immune defence‐related genes

Victoria L. Pritchard, Hannu Mäkinen, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Jaakko Erkinaro, Panu Orell & Craig R. Primmer
Elucidating the genetic basis of adaptation to the local environment can improve our understanding of how the diversity of life has evolved. In this study we used a dense SNP array to identify candidate loci potentially underlying fine-scale local adaptation within a large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population. By combining outlier, gene–environment association, and haplotype homozygosity analyses, we identified multiple regions of the genome with strong evidence for diversifying selection. Several of these candidate regions...

Data from: Testing for latitudinal gradients in defense at the macroevolutionary scale

Daniel N. Anstett, Jeffery R. Ahern, Marc T.J. Johnson, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Jeffrey R. Ahern
Plant defences against herbivores are predicted to evolve to be greater in warmer climates, such as lower latitudes where herbivore pressure is also thought to be higher. Instead, recent findings are often inconsistent with this expectation, suggesting alternative hypotheses are needed. We tested for latitudinal gradients in plant defence evolution at the macroevolutionary scale by characterizing plant chemical defences across 80 species of the evening primroses, spanning both North and South America. We quantified phenolics...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    34

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    34

Affiliations

  • University of Turku
    34
  • University of Helsinki
    9
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
    5
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    3
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • University of Oviedo
    2
  • University of Eastern Finland
    2
  • Estonian University of Life Sciences
    2
  • Lund University
    2