10 Works

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals lower genetic diversity in overfished populations

Malin L. Pinsky & Stephen R. Palumbi
While population declines can drive the loss of genetic diversity under some circumstances, it has been unclear whether this loss is a general consequence of overharvest in highly abundant marine fishes. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach across 160 species and 11,658 loci to show that allelic richness was on average 11% lower (p < 0.0001) in overharvested populations, even after accounting for the effects of body size, latitude, and other factors. Heterozygosity was 2%...

Data from: The symmetry of children’s knees is linked to their adult sprinting speed and their willingness to sprint in a long-term Jamaican study

Robert Trivers, Brian G. Palestis & John T. Manning
Jamaican athletes are prominent in sprint running but the reasons for their success are not clear. Here we consider the possibility that symmetry, particularly symmetry of the legs, in Jamaican children is linked to high sprinting speed in adults. Our study population was a cohort of 288 rural children, mean age 8.2 (±1 SD = 1.7) years in 1996. Symmetry was measured in 1996 and 2006 from the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of three lower-body traits...

Data from: Cell tropism predicts long-term nucleotide substitution rates of mammalian RNA viruses

Allison L. Hicks & Siobain Duffy
The high rates of RNA virus evolution are generally attributed to replication with error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, these long-term nucleotide substitution rates span three orders of magnitude and do not correlate well with mutation rates or selection pressures. This substitution rate variation may be explained by differences in virus ecology or intrinsic genomic properties. We generated nucleotide substitution rate estimates for mammalian RNA viruses and compiled comparable published rates, yielding a dataset of 118...

Data from: Biodiversity ensures plant-pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change

Ignasi Bartomeus, Mia G. Park, Jason Gibbs, Bryan N. Danforth, Alan N. Lakso & Rachael Winfree
Climate change has the potential to alter the phenological synchrony between interacting mutualists, such as plants and their pollinators. However, high levels of biodiversity might buffer the negative effects of species-specific phenological shifts and maintain synchrony at the community level, as predicted by the biodiversity insurance hypothesis. Here, we explore how biodiversity might enhance and stabilise phenological synchrony between a valuable crop, apple and its native pollinators. We combine 46 years of data on apple...

Data from: Pollinator body size mediates the scale at which land use drives crop pollination services

Faye Benjamin, James Reilly & Rachael Winfree
1. Ecosystem services to agriculture, such as pollination, rely on natural areas adjacent to farmland to support organisms that provide services. Native insect pollinators depend on natural or semi-natural land surrounding farms for nesting and alternative foraging resources. Despite interest in conserving pollinators through habitat restoration, the scale at which land use affects pollinators and thus crop pollination services is not well understood. 2. We measured abundance of native, wild bee pollinators and the pollination...

Data from: Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits

Ignasi Bartomeus, John S. Ascher, Jason Gibbs, Bryan N. Danforth, David L. Wagner, Shannon M. Hedtke & Rachael Winfree
Pollinators such as bees are essential to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, despite concerns about a global pollinator crisis, long-term data on the status of bee species are limited. We present a long-term study of relative rates of change for an entire regional bee fauna in the northeastern United States, based on >30,000 museum records representing 438 species. Over a 140-y period, aggregate native species richness weakly decreased, but richness declines were significant only...

Data from: Cryptic introductions and the interpretation of island biodiversity

Julian D. Avery, Dina M. Fonseca, Pascal Campagne & Julie L. Lockwood
Species with cryptic origins (i.e. those that cannot be reliably classed as native or non-native) present a particular challenge to our understanding of the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. Such species may be especially common on islands given that some islands have had a relatively recent history of human settlement. It is likely that select island species considered native might have achieved their current distributions via direct or indirect human actions. As an example, we...

Data from: Identifying loci under selection against gene flow in isolation with migration models

Vitor C. Sousa, Miguel Carneiro, Nuno Ferrand & Jody Hey
When divergence occurs in the presence of gene flow, there can arise an interesting dynamic in which selection against gene flow, at sites associated with population-specific adaptations or genetic incompatibilities, can cause net gene flow to vary across the genome. Loci linked to sites under selection may experience reduced gene flow and may experience genetic bottlenecks by the action of nearby selective sweeps. Data from histories such as these may be poorly fitted by conventional...

Data from: Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata

Marina Corrêa Côrtes, María Uriarte, Maristerra R. Lemes, Rogério Gribel, W. John Kress, Peter E. Smouse & Emilio M. Bruna
In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest...

Data from: Host conservatism or host specialization? Patterns of fungal diversification are influenced by host plant specificity in Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales)

Donald M. Walker, Amy Y. Rossman, Lisa A. Castlebury & Lena Struwe
In this study evolutionary host plant patterns at ranks from order to species were analysed using spatial evolutionary and ecological vicariance analysis (SEEVA), based on a multigene phylogeny of 45 ascomycete fungal species. The objective was to understand speciation events and host associations in Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae). Species of this genus are perithecial fungi that occur as endophytes, pathogens, and latent saprobes on plants in the families of Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae,...

Registration Year

  • 2013
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Affiliations

  • Rutgers University
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  • Cornell University
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  • Columbia University
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  • Princeton University
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  • Department of Plant Biology
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  • Smithsonian Institution
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  • Agricultural Research Service
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  • University of Connecticut
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  • University of Florida
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