20 Works

Data from: The coevolution of lifespan and reversible plasticity

Irja Ida Ratikainen & Hanna Kokko
Reversible phenotypic plasticity, the ability to change one’s phenotype repeatedly throughout life, can be selected for in environments that do not stay constant throughout an individual’s lifetime. It might also mitigate senescence, as the mismatch between the varying environment and a non-plastic individual’s traits is likely to increase as time passes. To understand why reversible plasticity may covary with lifespan, studies tend to assume unidirectional causality: plasticity evolves under suitable rates of environmental variation with...

Data from: Effects of manipulated levels of predation threat on parental provisioning and nestling begging

Ariane Mutzel, Anne-Lise Olsen, Kimberley J. Mathot, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Marion Nicolaus, Jan J. Wijmenga, Jonathan Wright, Bart Kempenaers & Niels J. Dingemanse
Parental provisioning behavior is a major determinant of offspring growth and survival, but high provisioning rates might come at the cost of increased predation threat. Parents should thus adjust provisioning activity according to current predation threat levels. Moreover, life-history theory predicts that response to predation threat should be correlated with investment in current reproduction. We experimentally manipulated perceived predation threat in free-living great tits (Parus major) by presenting parents with a nest predator model while...

Data from: Rainfall seasonality predicts the germination behaviour of a tropical dry-forest vine

Adriana A. Martins, Øystein H. Opedal, W. Scott Armbruster & Christophe Pélabon
Seed dormancy is considered an adaptive strategy in seasonal and/or unpredictable environments because it prevents germination during climatically favourable periods that are too short for seedling establishment. Tropical dry forests are seasonal environments where seed dormancy may play an important role in plant resilience and resistance to changing precipitation patterns. We studied the germination behaviour of seeds from six populations of the Neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) originating from environments of contrasting rainfall seasonality. Seeds...

Data from: Regulation of reproductive processes with Dynamic Energy Budgets

Erik B. Muller, Konstadia Lika, Roger M. Nisbet, Irvin R. Schultz, Jerome Casas, Andre Gergs, Cheryl A. Murphy, Diane Nacci & Karen H. Watanabe
1. Linking organismal level processes to underlying suborganismal mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and organ level constitutes a major challenge for predictive ecological risk assessments. This challenge can be addressed with the simple bioenergetic models in the family of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB), which consist of a small number of state equations quantifying universal processes, such as feeding, maintenance, development, reproduction and growth. 2. Motivated by the need for process-based models to evaluate the impact...

Spectral data for quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones of different ploidy levels

B. Blonder, B.J. Graae, B. Greer, M. Haagsma, K. Helsen, R.E. Kapás, H. Pai, J. Rieksta, D. Sapena, C.J. Still & R. Strimbeck
Data comprise measurements of spectral reflectance for quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) trees at a range of sites in southwestern Colorado near the town of Crested Butte. Spectra were measured in three different ways: hyperspectral measurements of leaves, hyperspectral measurements of bark, and multispectral measurements of canopies. The first two measurements were made using a handheld spectrometer, while the latter were made via airborne imaging from an unmanned aerial system. In addition to these reflectance...

Measuring phenotypes in fluctuating environments

Tim Burton, Hanna-Kaisa Lakka & Sigurd Einum
1. Despite considerable theoretical interest in how the evolution of phenotypic plasticity should be shaped by environmental variability and stochasticity, how individuals actually respond to these aspects of the environment within their own lifetimes remains unclear. 2. We propose that this understanding has been hampered by experimental approaches that expose organisms to fluctuating environments (typically treatments where fluctuations in the environment are cyclical versus erratic) for a pre-determined duration, while ensuring that the mean environment...

Genetic assignment of individuals to source populations using network estimation tools

Markku Kuismin, Dilan Saatoglu, Alina Niskanen, Henrik Jensen & Mikko Sillanpää
Dispersal, the movement of individuals between populations, is crucial in many ecological and genetic processes. However, direct identification of dispersing individuals is difficult or impossible in natural populations. By using genetic assignment methods, individuals with unknown genetic origin can be assigned to source populations. This knowledge is necessary in studying many key questions in ecology, evolution and conservation. We introduce a network-based tool BONE (Baseline Oriented Network Estimation) for genetic population assignment, which borrows concepts...

Data from: Differential patterns of floristic phylogenetic diversity across a post‐glacial landscape

Ida M. Mienna, James D.M. Speed, Mika Bendiksby, Andrew H. Thornhill, Brent D. Mishler & Michael D. Martin
Aim In this study, we explored spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity (PD) and endemism in the flora of Norway and tested hypothesized post‐glacial environmental drivers of PD, including temperature, precipitation, edaphic factors and time since glacial retreat. Location Norway. Taxon Vascular plants (Trachaeophyta). Methods We produced a multi‐locus maximum‐likelihood (ML) phylogeny using a combination of newly produced DNA sequences from herbarium specimens and sequences available from public repositories. We combined the phylogeny with species occurrence...

Data from: Trophic interactions and abiotic factors drive functional and phylogenetic structure of vertebrate herbivore communities across the Arctic tundra biome

James D.M. Speed, Ina A. Skjelbred, Isabel C. Barrio, Michael D. Martin, Dominique Berteaux, C. Guillermo Bueno, Katie S. Christie, Bruce C. Forbes, Jennifer Forbey, Daniel Fortin, Jon-Arvid Grytnes, Katrine S. Hoset, Nicolas Lecomte, Bryndis Marteinsdottir, Jesper B. Mosbacher, Åshild O. Pedersen, Virve Ravolainen, Eileen C. Rees, Anna Skarin, Natalya Sokolova, Andrew H. Thornhill, Ingunn Tombre & Eeva M. Soininen
Communities are assembled from species that evolve or colonise a given geographic region, and persist in the face of abiotic conditions and interactions with other species. The evolutionary and colonisation histories of communities are characterised by phylogenetic diversity, while functional diversity is indicative of abiotic and biotic conditions. The relationship between functional and phylogenetic diversity infers whether species functional traits are divergent (differing between related species) or convergent (similar among distantly related species). Biotic interactions...

Effects of supervised exercise training during pregnancy on psychological well-being among overweight and obese women: Secondary analyses of the ETIP-trial, a randomized controlled trial.

Kirsti Krohn Garnæs, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Signe Nilsen Stafne, Siv Mørkved, Kjell Åsmund Salvesen, Øyvind Salvesen & Trine Moholdt
Objectives: Women with high body mass index (BMI) have increased risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy and postpartum. In this pre-specified secondary analysis from the ETIP trial, our aim was to examine effects of supervised exercise during pregnancy on psychological well-being in late pregnancy and postpartum among women with a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2. Design: Single-centre, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. Setting: University Hospital, Norway Participants: Ninety-one women (age 31.2±4.1 years,...

Data from: Stabilizing selection and adaptive evolution in a combination of two traits in an arctic ungulate

Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Knut Røed, Øystein Holand, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Jouko Kumpula
Stabilizing selection is thought to be common in wild populations and act as one of the main evolutionary mechanisms which constrain phenotypic variation. When multiple traits interact to create a combined phenotype, correlational selection may be an important process driving adaptive evolution. Here we report on phenotypic selection and evolutionary changes in two natal traits in a semi-domestic population of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in northern Finland. The population has been closely monitored since 1969, and...

Individual variation in age-dependent reproduction: fast explorers live fast but senesce young?

Niels Dingemanse, Maria Moiron, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet & Robin N. Abbey-Lee
1. Adaptive integration of life history and behaviour is expected to result in variation in the pace-of-life. Previous work focused on whether “risky” phenotypes live-fast-but-die-young, but reported conflicting support. We posit that individuals exhibiting risky phenotypes may alternatively invest heavily in early-life reproduction but consequently suffer greater reproductive senescence. 2. We used a 7-year longitudinal dataset with >1200 breeding records of >800 female great tits assayed annually for exploratory behaviour to test whether within-individual age-dependency...

Data from: Warm and out of breath: thermal phenotypic plasticity in oxygen supply

Øystein Nordeide Kielland, Sigurd Einum & Claus Bech
1. Aquatic ectotherms face a challenge of obtaining sufficient oxygen, and it is commonly claimed that this challenge increases with increasing environmental temperature, causing concerns about the fate of aquatic ecosystems under climate change. 2. However, the oxygen challenge hypothesis often ignores the effect of known phenotypic plastic responses. These can occur on either a within- or multigenerational scale, where multiple reactions act in concert to increase oxygen supply in response to increased temperature in...

Decomposing demographic contributions to the effective population size with moose as a case study

Stine Svalheim Markussen, Aline Lee, Ane Myhre, Steinar Engen, Erling Solberg, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H Røed, Ivar Herfindal, Morten Heim & Bernt-Erik Sæther
Levels of random genetic drift are influenced by demographic factors, such as mating system, sex ratio and age structure. The effective population size (Ne) is a useful measure for quantifying genetic drift. Evaluating relative contributions of different demographic factors to Ne is therefore important to identify what makes a population vulnerable to loss of genetic variation. Until recently, models for estimating Ne have required many simplifying assumptions, making them unsuitable for this task. Here, using...

Data from: During hippocampal inactivation, grid cells maintain synchrony, even when the grid pattern is lost

Noam Almog, Gilad Tocker, Tora Bonnevie, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I Moser & Dori Derdikman
The grid cell network in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) has been subject to thorough testing and analysis, and many theories for their formation have been suggested. To test some of these theories, we re-analyzed data from Bonnevie et al., 2013, in which the hippocampus was inactivated and grid cells were recorded in the rat MEC. We investigated whether the firing associations of grid cells depend on hippocampal inputs. Specifically, we examined temporal and spatial...

Code and data from: Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict

Maria R Servedio, John M Powers, Russell Lande & Trevor D Price
This C code conducts deterministic iterations of the exact recursion equations presented in the Model section of "Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict" by Servedio, Powers, Lande and Price. The code produces a two-dimensional grid with any parameters of choice on the x and y axis. Examples can be found in Figures 2c, 3c and 4 of the main text as well as many similar figures in the Supplementary Material. A sample parameter file...

Multiple sequence alignment for the native Norwegian vascular plant phylogeny

Ida M. Mienna, James D.M. Speed, Mika Bendiksby, Andrew H. Thornhill, Brent D. Mishler & Michael D. Martin
Methods: We produced a multi-locus Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogeny using a combination of newly produced DNA sequences from herbarium specimens and sequences available from public repositories. We combined the phylogeny with species occurrence data to estimate phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic endemism across Norway, using a spatial randomization to judge statistical significance. We used multiple-model inference to identify environmental variables that contributed the most to the patterns of phylogenetic diversity. Finally, we estimated phylogenetic turnover and...

Data from: Adaptive maternal investment in the wild? Links between maternal growth trajectory and offspring size, growth, and survival in contrasting environments

Tim Burton, Njal Rollinson, Simon McKelvey, Dave Stewart, John Armstrong & Neil Metcalfe
Life history theory predicts that investment per offspring should correlate negatively with the quality of environment offspring are anticipated to encounter; parents may use their own experience as juveniles to predict this environment and may modulate offspring traits such as growth capacity as well as initial size. We manipulated nutrient levels in the juvenile habitat of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to investigate the hypothesis that the egg size maximizing juvenile growth and survival depends...

Data from: Density-dependent population dynamics of a high Arctic capital breeder, the barnacle goose

Kate Layton-Matthews, Maarten J.J.E. Loonen, Brage Bremset Hansen, Christophe F. D. Coste, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Vidar Grøtan
1. Density regulation of the population growth rate occurs through negative feedbacks on underlying vital rates, in response to increasing population size. Here, we examine in a capital breeder how vital rates of different life history stages, their elasticities, and population growth rates are affected by changes in population size. 2. We developed an integrated population model for a local population of Svalbard barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, using counts, reproductive data and individual-based mark-recapture data...

Data from: Accounting for interspecific competition and age structure in demographic analyses of density dependence improves predictions of fluctuations in population size

Marlène Gamelon, Stefan J.G. Vriend, Steinar Engen, Frank Adriaensen, Andre A. Dhondt, Simon R. Evans, Erik Matthysen, Ben C. Sheldon & Bernt-Erik Sæther
Understanding species coexistence has long been a major goal of ecology. Coexistence theory for two competing species posits that intraspecific density dependence should be stronger than interspecific density dependence. Great tits and blue tits are two bird species that compete for food resources and nesting cavities. Based on long-term monitoring of these two competing species at sites across Europe, combining observational and manipulative approaches, we show that the strength of density regulation is similar for...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20

Affiliations

  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    20
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    2
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1
  • University of Antwerp
    1
  • University of Crete
    1
  • The Arctic University of Norway
    1
  • Oregon State University
    1