In addition to the hallmark muscle stiffness, patients with recessive myotonia congenita (Becker disease) experience debilitating bouts of transient weakness that remain poorly understood despite years of study. We made intracellular recordings from muscle of both genetic and pharmacologic mouse models of Becker disease to identify the mechanism underlying transient weakness. Our recordings reveal transient depolarizations (plateau potentials) of the membrane potential to -25 to -35 mV in the genetic and pharmacologic models of Becker...
Elevated rates of positive selection drive the evolution of pestiferousness in the Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say)Zachary Cohen, Kristian Brevik, Yolanda H. Chen, David J. Hawthorne, Benjamin D. Weibel & Sean D. Schoville
In order to understand the evolution of pestiferousness, which we define as the accumulation of traits that contribute to an insect population’s success in an agroecosystem, we tested the importance of known genomic properties associated with rapid adaptation. Within the leaf beetle genus Leptinotarsa, only the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, and a few populations therein, has risen to pest status on cultivated nightshades, Solanum. Using whole genomes from ten closely related Leptinotarsa...
Demographic studies measure drivers of plant fecundity such as seed production and survival, but few address environmental drivers of seed viability, such as germination and dormancy. Variation in climate and seed type may both directly and indirectly alter seed germination via altered fungal pathogen abundance. We examined seed germination and microbial communities of seeds of Danthonia californica, which are either chasmogamous (external, wind-pollinated) or cleistogamous (internal, self-fertilized) and Festuca roemeri, which are solely chasmogamous. Seed...
Natal dispersal is assumed to be a particularly risky movement behavior as individuals transfer, often long distances, from birth site to site of potential first reproduction. Though, because this behavior persists in populations, it is assumed that dispersal increases the fitness of individuals despite the potential for increased risk of mortality. The extent of dispersal risk, however, has rarely been tested, especially for large mammals. Therefore, we aimed to test the relationship between dispersal and...
In insect-microbe nutritional symbioses the gut symbionts supplement the host diet with nutrients by producing amino acids and vitamins or by degrading lignin or polysaccharides macromolecules. In multipartite mutualisms composed of multiple symbionts from different taxonomical orders, it has been suggested that beside the genes involved in the nutritional symbiosis the symbionts maintain genes responsible for the production of metabolites putatively playing a role in the maintenance and interaction of the bacterial communities living in...
1. The significant portion of global terrestrial biodiversity harbored in mountains is under increasing threat from a variety of anthropogenic impacts. Protecting fragile mountain ecosystems requires understanding how these human disturbances affect biodiversity. As roads and railways are extended further into mountain ecosystems, understanding the long-term impacts of this infrastructure on community composition and diversity gains urgency. 2. We used railway corridors constructed across the mountainous landscapes of the Kashmir Himalaya from 1994-2013 to study...
Birds can influence the environmental conditions that eggs and offspring experience by adjusting the composition of their nests. They often use feathers to build nests, presumably due to their insulating properties. The amount of feathers in nests is often associated with increased nestling survival and body condition. However, it is unclear whether these putative beneficial effects of adding feathers to nests are relevant in a wide range of environmental conditions or, instead, depend on the...
Data from: A geology and geodesy based model of dynamic earthquake rupture on the Rodgers Creek-Hayward-Calaveras fault system, CaliforniaMichael Barall, Ruth Harris, David Lockner, Diane Moore, Ponce David, Russell Graymer, Gareth Funning, Carolyn Morrow, Christodoulos Kyriakopoulos & Donna Eberhart-Phillips
The Hayward fault in California's San Francisco Bay area produces large earthquakes, with the last occurring in 1868. We examine how physics-based dynamic rupture modeling can be used to numerically simulate large earthquakes on not only the Hayward fault, but also its connected companions to the north and south, the Rodgers Creek and Calaveras faults. Equipped with a wealth of images of this fault system, including those of its 3D geology and 3D geometry, in...
Survival, fecundity and metabolic rate data for two treatment groups (hardened and control).
Phenotypic covariance matrices for 18 morphological traits for the 8 Anolis species and pooled P.
Each line in this file correspond to the thorax size for one female. In addition to her size there is information about the (i)block, (ii) population, (iii) selection regime, and (iv) yeast level.
Data from: Female reproductive competition in Eulemur rufifrons: eviction and reproductive restraint in a plurally breeding Malagasy primatePeter M. Kappeler & Claudia Fichtel
In mammals with female philopatry, co-resident females inevitably compete with each other for resources or reproductive opportunities, thereby reducing the kin-selected benefits of altruism towards relatives. These counteracting forces of cooperation and competition among kin should be particularly pronounced in plurally breeding species with limited alternative breeding opportunities outside the natal group. However, little is still known about the costs of reproductive competition on females’ fitness and the victims’ potential counter-strategies. Here we summarize long-term...
Data file of the experiment 'SH4'. Samples are from mice infected with a resistant Plasmodium chabaudi clone in the absence of competition and with various combinations of up to three susceptible clones. Daily samples were taken on red blood cell density, weight, asexual parasite density of each clone (by qPCR) and gametocyte density of clone R (by qPCR). The description of the column headings are all given as comments in the excel file.
Excel spreadsheet of observational data imported from JWatcher. Separate tabs for 'consensual' and 'coercive' mating attempts.
Input data for model 3.
The file is an excel spreadsheet with different tabs holding data for stickleback fish, their estimated ages (from otolith growth ring counts) and the size of the otolith used to age the fish, from which otolith growth rates were calculated. Also shown are the id's of each fish and their estimated admixture/hybridity coefficients.
The data set contains a number of measurements of metabolic traits measured on field caught fish (oxygen consumption rate, white muscle LDH and CS, and plasma acetylcholinesterase, together with the genotypes (pure rainbow trout, pure cutthroat trout or hybrid) body size data and the elevation of the site at which each was captured. These were the data used to generate the models presented in the paper.
Genetic positions of SNP markers on the linkage map. Physical positions are published in Backström, N., Forstmeier, W., Schielzeth, H., Mellenius, H., Nam, K., Bolund, E., Webster, M. T., Öst, T., Schneider, M., Kempenaers, B., Ellegren, H., 2010. The recombinational landscape of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome. Genome Research. 20, 485-495. doi: 10.1101/gr.101410.109.
Data from: Population genetic structure and secondary symbionts in host-associated populations of the pea aphid complexJulia Ferrari, Joan A West, Sara Via & H. Charles J. Godfray
Polyphagous insect herbivores experience different selection pressures on their various host plant species. How this affects population divergence and speciation may be influenced by the bacterial endosymbionts that many harbor. Here, we study the population structure and symbiont community of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), which feeds on a range of legume species and is known to form genetically differentiated host-adapted populations. Aphids were collected from eight legume genera in England and Germany. Extensive host...
This file contains data on each aphid clone: Information on origin: country and plant genus. Information on performance where applicable: plant species that the aphid clone is specialised on (as defined in the paper). Haplotypes for each of the nine markers. Presence/absence for each of the six symbiont species.
Data from: Interspecific hybridization transfers a previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism in Amaranthus speciesTodd A Gaines, Sarah M Ward, Bekir Bukun, Christopher Preston, Jan E Leach & Philip Westra
A previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism, amplification of the 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, was recently reported in Amaranthus palmeri. This evolved mechanism could introgress to other weedy Amaranthus species through interspecific hybridization, representing an avenue for acquisition of a novel adaptive trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for this glyphosate resistance trait to transfer via pollen from A. palmeri to five other weedy Amaranthus species (A. hybridus, A. powellii,...
French National Centre for Scientific Research778
University of Oxford610
University of British Columbia542
University of Florida481
University of Zurich442
University of Exeter436
University of California, Davis432
Chinese Academy of Sciences428