13,593 Works

Quantification of sewer exfiltration - a review

M. Rutsch, J. Rieckermann & P. Krebs
One of the goals of the APUSS project (Assessing Infiltration and Exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems) is to assess sewer exfiltration, in order to support cities and operators to define problem-oriented rehabilitation strategies. In this paper, we review various methods currently used for the estimation of exfiltration and discuss data needs and applicability for rehabilitation planning. Although, each approach has its individual advantages and drawbacks, we identified pressure tests and tracer methods...

Metal and organic content in gully pot mixture

K. Karlsson & M. Viklander
During the cleaning of the gully pot, water has to be added to the gully pot to remove all the sediment. This mixture of gully pot water and sediment, as well as the \342\200\234wash-water,\342\200\235 has to be taken care of. This paper considers the quality of the water phase of this mixture, due to a wide spectrum of metals and organic substances. Three sampling sites were selected according to type of area and traffic intensity....

Technical performance assessment of Inflow effects: experimental urban sewer system in Portugal

M.A. Cardoso, M.C. Almeida & C. David
In separate domestic sewer systems the excess of wastewater volumes in wastewater treatment plants can be due to infiltration into the sewer system from the groundwater, or due to storm water inflows coming from cross connections of storm drains, connected impervious areas and leaking manholes covers. In general, the effects of inflow/infiltration (I/I) are relatively obvious but usually there is no objective information on its quantification, origin and economic impact. The location and detection of...

The integrated unit process design approach for source control and best management practice design

M.M. Quigley, E.W. Strecker, M. Leisenring, W.C. Huber, J. Heaney, N. Weinstein, J. Sansalone & D. Bodine
Research being conducted by the authors under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program project \342\200\234Evaluation of Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff Control\342\200\235 and the Water Environment Research Foundation project \342\200\234Critical Assessment of Stormwater Treatment and Control Selection Issues\342\200\234 seeks to advance the state of the practice of stormwater design through the application of basic scientifically and technically sound engineering principals using a fundamental unit process design methodology. The research findings are being incorporated into...

Comparison between two methodologies for urban drainage decision aid

P.M. Moura, M.B. Baptista & S. Barrraud
The objective of the present work is to compare two methodologies based on multicriteria analysis for the evaluation of stormwater systems. The first methodology was developed in Brazil and is based on performance-cost analysis, the second one is ELECTRE III. Both methodologies were applied to a case study. Sensitivity and robustness analyses were then carried out. These analyses demonstrate that both methodologies bring equivalent results, and present low sensitivity and high robustness. These results prove...

Distribution of phosphorus for particulate

J. Ma, J. Sansalone & P. Veltri
Urban rainfall-runoff transports loads of particulate matter and total phosphorus (TP) from a variety of anthropogenic activities. Discharge of diffuse sources of phosphorus as a leading cause of receiving water eutrophication has received significant attention. Elevated phosphorus concentrations in rainfall-runoff have been commonly identified for many urban land uses. In some cases these phosphorus concentrations can approach levels of untreated wastewater plant influent. Particulate matter is also entrained with phosphorus in urban rainfall-runoff and this...

Socioeconomic impacts on fluvial system an urban watershed in southern Brazil

C. Poleto, G.H. Merten & A.L.L. Silveira
One of the great problems observed in the Brazilian urban watersheds concerns the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain these basins. The present work sought to evaluate these questions through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, South of Brazil. For this study different procedures have been used, such as field surveys, interviews with...

Seasonal flood frequency analysis based on disaggregated urban runoff data

B. V. Matheussen, S. T. Thorolfsson & D. P. Lettenmaier
Current design procedures for urban drainage systems are based on the assumption that it is short duration summer rainfall that produces the highest annual runoff peaks. Despite this several researchers report that in cold climates urban flooding may also happen as a consequence of rain in combination with snowmelt. Because of this we chose to question the assumption of rainfall being the only factor controlling urban flooding in cold climates like in Trondheim, Norway. Through...

An analytical model for hydrologic analysis in urban watersheds

P. Rivera, J. Giron\303\241s, J. P. Montt & B. Fern\303\241ndez
ABSTRACT Guo and Adams (1998a, b) presented a methodology to estimate the cumulative distribution function for maximum discharges and total volumes of urban floods based on the rainfall-runoff transformation and the rainfall volume and duration, modeled as independent variables exponentially distributed. Rainfall records in many locations did not show this independency; therefore this model may fail at estimating these distributions. In this paper a new analytical model based on a different characterization of the storms...

New guidelines for planning of real time control for urban drainage systems

M. Sch\303\274tze, U. Haas, M. Scheer & W. Schilling
Recently, the Working Group \342\200\234Real time control\342\200\235 of the German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste (DWA, formerly: ATV-DVWK) has prepared a guideline document on planning of real time control (RTC) systems for urban drainage catchments. At present, the document is in its consultation phase, its publication as a DWA guideline document is envisaged (in German language) in 2005. This paper summarises its main issues, in order to make the guidelines available to an international...

Performance indicators for rehabilitation end-users field testing results

M.A. Cardoso & R. Matos Almeida
CARE-S - Computer Aided Rehabilitation of Sewer Networks is a project funded by the 5th EU Framework Programme. The project goal is to establish a rational framework for decision-making support on sewer network rehabilitation. CARE-S aims to develop an integrated and systematic methodology for rehabilitation. The final aim is to contribute to improve the structural and functional reliability of the sewer networks. The main deliverable will be a Decision Support System (CARE-S prototype) to assist...

Highway runoff characteristics in coastal areas \342\200\223 A case study in Aveiro, Portugal

P. A. Antunes & A. E. Barbosa
In the framework of a study for the Portuguese Road Institute, the authors carried out a monitoring study of the IP5 highway, located at the coast line. The TSS and the turbidity values measured in 40 runoff samples were relatively low, resulting from the low potential of the drainage area and surroundings to contribute with solids. Heavy metals results (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni) were in accordance with other studies. It was confirmed...

Quality of stormwater runoff from paved surfaces of two production sites

I. Gnecco, C. Berretta, L.G. Lanza & P. La Barbera
In order to investigate stormwater pollutant loads associated with different anthropic activities and the related pollutant build-up and wash-off processes, two pilot sites have been equipped in the Liguria Region (Italy) for monitoring first flush water quality in a gas station and an auto dismantler facility. TSS, COD, HCtot and heavy metals in dissolved form (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr) have been analyzed during the monitoring campaign (started in February 2004). Stormwater flow and...

Modular sewer quality simulation

J.B. Boxall, W.J. Shepherd, A.J. Saul & D.S. Hanson
The prediction of sewer flow quality in combined sewer systems under storm conditions is becoming increasingly important to the international water industry as there is a need to minimise environmental impact and to meet ever increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. Software to simulate the behaviour of combined sewers under storm conditions is now available and has been successfully applied to a variety of catchments. However, in many cases there are known limitations in the application and...

A field observatory in urban drainage: the OTHU project \342\200\223 a five year experience

B. Chocat, L. Bacot, S. Barraud, P. Breil, F. Malard, J.C. Varnier & T. Winiarski
OTHU is an on-site observatory that aims to study the different processes encountered all along the urban water cycle associated with urban drainage. The OTHU project is also a research organisation comprising fifteen research laboratories working in a wide range of complementary fields including geography, climatology, hydrology, soil mechanic, soil science, hydraulic, chemistry, biology, social sciences, and economy. The research project is based on data acquisition from 5 sites where continuous monitoring of climatic parameters,...

Underground sedimentation systems for treatment of highway runoff in dense city areas

T.J.R. Pettersson, A.-M. Str\303\266mvall & S. Ahlman
The pollutant characterization, removal efficiency and function of a newly constructed underground sedimentation system for treatment of highway runoff have been investigated. Results from flow weighted sampling, during eight consecutive storm events, show a high inflow of heavy metals and carcinogenic PAHs. The concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs in the inlet water exceeded the Swedish guideline values for polluted groundwater at petrol stations. The relatively high amounts of specific PAHs such as pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, and...

Facilitating local organisational development for advancing sustainable urban water futures

R. R. Brown
This paper presents the local institutional and organisational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focussed on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritises investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilising...

Statistical classification of frequent rainfall events as a basis for operational aspects of sewer systems

H.-R. Verworn, S. Kraemer & L. Shi
Statistical analysis of rainfall and runoff are generally carried out for design and rehabilitation purposes. All processes generated by smaller events are of no interest in this context. While these design events have no relevance for the everyday performance of the drainage systems, statistical analysis of the more frequent events has to cover more aspects than just the maxi-mum intensities of certain durations. Operational aspects for sewer systems include e.g. sedi-mentation and remobilisation of settleable...

Innovative approaches to urban stormwater management

M.G. Faram, R. Y. G. Andoh & C.A. Williams
\342\200\230Engineered\342\200\231 or \342\200\230hard\342\200\231 structure based SuDS (Sustainable (Urban) Drainage Systems) have become popular in recent years, presenting further options to the drainage engineer beyond some of the more conventional approaches. However, as with any approach, correct design practice must be applied if systems are to be effective and maintainable. Robust management of sediments is a prerequisite for the successful operation of any drainage system. If not adequately managed, sediments will accumulate in undesirable locations, making...

Growth of a toxic cyanobacteria in a retention pond

C. Quiblier, C. Y\303\251premian, , C. Bernard, A. Groleau, B.Vin\303\247on-Leite & B. Tassin
In this paper, a research project is presented. This project goals are mainly to identify the environmental factors (temperature, nutrients, zooplankton,\342\200\246) driving the development of a toxic cyanobacterium species (P. agardhii) and the variations of the toxic and non-toxic clones, in a retention pond. The physico-chemical context, the phytoplankton dynamics and the toxin production have been monitored by a fortnightly field survey, whose preliminary results are presented.

The GIS-based decision support system for urban flooding emergency response

A. S. Chen, M. H. Hsu, C. J. Huang & W. Y. Lien
The study develops a GIS-based decision support system for emergency responses during floods. The system collects the near-real-time rainfall observation records to determine the flood-prone areas. The information increases the responding time for emergency managers to take adapted measures. The residents in the high inundation potential areas are warned and evacuated to shelters before disasters. The application strengthens the preparedness for mitigating the damages caused by floods.The study develops a GIS-based decision support system for...

Hydrologic and water quality performance of four bioretention cells in Central North Carolina, USA

, L. J. Sharkey, J.T. Smith, W.G. Lord & A.R. Jarrett
Two paired, field-scale bioretention studies (in Greensboro and Louisburg, NC, USA) have been conducted to study (1) hydrologic performance and (2) nutrient removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. In Greensboro, one cell was conventionally drained; the other contains a zone of internal water saturation (IWS) of 0.45m. They were continuously monitored from June, 2002, to December, 2004. During outflow events, TP concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.01) in the cell with an IWS zone, but these results...

Analysis of urban runoff control with infiltration facilities

F. Papa & B. J. Adams
ABSTRACT This paper presents two methodologies for estimating the impact of infiltration facilities on reducing stormwater runoff volumes, and pollutant loads, from urban drainage systems. The methodologies have previously been developed using derived probability distribution theory, often referred to in the literature as analytical probabilistic modelling, and differ in that they employ different hydrologic models for the transformation of rainfall to runoff. Moreover, the original model derivations employed herein were developed for the analysis of...

Performance analysis of the Maclean Avenue detention tank, City of Toronto

L. Xu & B. J. Adams
Performance Analysis of the Maclean Avenue Detention Tank City of Toronto Lijing Xu1 and Barry J. Adams2* 1 XCG Consultants, 2620 Bristol Circle, #300, Oakville, Ontario, Canada, L6H6Z7 2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,M5S1A4 e-mail: adams@ecf.utoront.ca ABSTRACT The Maclean Avenue detention tank was constructed by the City of Toronto to decrease the frequency of beach closing caused by directly discharged stormwater and CSOs in the Eastern Beaches area of the City....

Development of a GIS-based expert system for on-site stormwater management

Z. Jin, F. Sieker, S. Bannermann & H. Sieker
Urbanization is accelerating worldwide. One of the negative effects of urbanization is the overloading of the city sewer system. To solve this problem, on-site storm water infiltration proves very promising due to its near natural characteristics and multiple effects on the drainage of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the judgment of whether a local area is appropriate to be drained in this way and which infiltration measures are optimal is rather complex and involves...

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