11,682 Works

New Act Legislated in Japan for Well-balanced Hydrological System and Urban Inundation Prevention

A. Okashita & K. Ogata
This paper presents the new act legislated in Japan for well-balanced hydrological system and urban inundation prevention. The comprehensive mitigation measures for flood control have been carried out by the government for nearly 30 years. Since it does not have a legal basis to stand on, there is a limitation to implement the measures on a mandatory basis. In order to supplement this disadvantage, the new act was constituted to bridge the existing laws such...

The social impacts of stormwater management techniques

S. Apostolaki, C. Jefferies & T. Wild
This paper presents the results of research into the social impacts of stormwater management techniques applied within urban environments. The main aim of the study was to compare public and professional attitudes of stormwater management practices such as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) and river management techniques. Any new and innovative technology used in residential areas, besides being economically and environmentally acceptable, must also be accepted by the residents. There has been considerable interest in...

Integrating on-site water management practices: A field study in Prince George's County, Maryland

T. Saravanapavan, L. Shoemaker, J. Zhen, A. Davis, M. Clar, S. Meigs & M. Cheng.
Decentralized and integrated stormwater management is becoming an efficient alternative to conventional \342\200\234centralized\342\200\235 structural Best Management Practices (BMPs). Decentralized management techniques, targeted to provide infiltration and minimize runoff closer to the sources, not only meet the stormwater control targets but also maintain the natural ecosystem integrity. On the other hand, conservation and reuse of rainwater and grey water are also emerging as environmentally sensitive \342\200\234green\342\200\235 architectural techniques. Although both stormwater management and green architecture techniques...

Urban run-off volumes dependency on rainfall measurement method - Scaling properties of precipitation within a 2x2 km radar pixel

L. Pedersen, N. E. Jensen, M. R. Rasmussen & M. G. Nicolajsen
Urban run-off is characterized with fast response since the large surface run-off in the catchments responds immediately to variations in the rainfall. Modeling such type of catchments is most often done with the input from very few rain gauges, but the large variation in rainfall over small areas suggests that rainfall needs to be measured with a much higher spatial resolution (Jensen and Pedersen, 2004). This paper evaluates the impact of using high-resolution rainfall information...

Indicators of hazard, vulnerability and risk in urban drainage

M. B. Hauger, J.-M. Mouchel & P.S. Mikkelsen
An alternative definition of risk is proposed as risk being a function of the hazard, which is related to the risk source and the vulnerability, which is related to the risk object. The same hazard will not cause the same effect on all risk objects. Therefore vulnerability is introduced as a system dependant property to be the link between the hazard and the effect so that the combination of the occurrence of a hazard and...

Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

E. Lindblom, K. V. Gernaey, M. Henze & P. S. Mikkelsen
This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model that describes the fate and transport of two selected xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in a simplified representation of an integrated urban wastewater system. A simulation study, where the xenobiotics bisphenol A and pyrene are used as reference compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds...

Road runoff treatment with dual porosity filtration - 18 m3/h subsurface pilot construction in \303\230restad, Copenhagen

M.B. Jensen & L. Bisballe
In Orestad, - a 310 hectares development area in Copenhagen, storm water runoff is discharged into open canals that serve recreational purposes too. Runoff from trafficked surfaces (i.e. road runoff) has to be cleaned to obtain high quality canal water. Consequently roof runoff, which is discharged directly to the canals, and road runoff are handled in individual sewer systems. Available techniques for wastewater treatment do not fulfill the requirements in Orestad regarding effluent quality, treatment...

Climate change and urban Drainage: Strategies

H. Van Luijtelaar, W. Stapel, M. Moens & A. Dirzwager
The national study \342\200\230Climatic Change and Urban Drainage: Quick Scan\342\200\231, in the Netherlands has shown that climatic change can have a significant effect on the functioning of urban drainage systems, Van Luijtelaar and Dirkzwager (2002).It is important to anticipate on the effects of climatic change knowing the fact that urban drainage systems are realized for a period of 40 years or more. The follow-up project called \342\200\230strategies\342\200\231 is aimed at developing \342\200\230strategies\342\200\231 to anticipate on...

Can we put the PUBLIC back into UTILITIES

A. Cashman
Since the later half of the 1990\342\200\231s there has been a growing concern to define the role and rights of the public vis-\303\240-vis access to and provision of water services. Implicated in this debate has been the question of the nature and extent of stakeholder involvement and public participation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between civil society and industry with respect to the management of water resources and services in...

Accounting for uncertainty in urban drainage system performance assessment using safety factors applied to runoff

A. C. Hansen, L. Liu, J. J. Linde, O. Mark & P. S. Mikkelsen
A crucial step in looking for causes of flooding is a thorough understanding of the uncertainty related to model-based performance assessment of urban drainage systems. This study introduces a methodology for design and analysis of urban drainage systems that takes into account the uncertainties related to the model inputs and parameters. The methodology has the advantage that it can be applied in different stages of the design process irrespective of the complexity of the calculations....

Estimation of water level in the trunk sewer during drainage pump operation support (RTC) in wet weather

R. Matsumoto, T. Nishiyama, S. Mushika & S. Morita
The water levels in wet weather were compared in the Tosabori/Tsumori trunk sewer and at the Tsumori pumping station, which were being constructed in Osaka, a big city in Japan. The comparison was made through simulations using integrated management software systems such as MOUSE, SWMM and Info-Works and hydraulic model tests. As a result, the water level of open channel flow estimated in simulation was higher than that obtained in the test. The variance was...

Behavior of the activated storage-volume of flushing waves on cleaning performance

J. Dettmar & P. Staufer
Deposits build up in sewer networks during both dry-weather and storm-water events. Especially in combined sewers, the sediment materials cause various undesirable effects. Flushing devices are able to remove deposits in sewers by generating flushing waves. To optimize the flushing with so called Storage-Volume-Activated-Devices (SVAD) numerical studies were carried out. The objective was to investigate the behaviour of the activated storage-volume of flushing waves on cleaning performance.

Australian rainfall & runoff - Guiding Australian practice into the 21st century

J. E. Ball & B. C. Phillips
Since 1958 when Australian Rainfall and Runoff was first released it has remained one of the most influential and widely used guidelines published by Engineers Australia. The current edition, initially published in 1987 and in a split book form in 1998, has received widespread Australian and international acclaim. The issues of environment sustainability and water conservation are increasingly requiring the application of updated or new engineering hydrology techniques. Consequently a new updated and revised edition...

Hydrological modelling in identifying the unintended rainfall-runoff contributions

M. Grum, B. N. Jacobsen, J. N\303\270rremark & J. B. Thyme
Continuous monitoring of performance is playing an increasingly significant role in both real time operation and in long term management of urban drainage systems. This is combined with an increased realisation of the information that potentially can be extracted from measured series of flow, water levels, substance concentrations, temperature, pump operation and others. Whilst on the one hand leading to vast amounts of information heavy data, this development raises a number of non-trivial questions concerning...

Estimates of urban stormwater runoff using GIS

M. H. Park, & M. K. Stenstrom
Urbanizing watersheds are facing many challenges and significant efforts are being made to protect receiving water quality and the natural habitats in the watersheds. In the Sweetwater River watershed, current efforts focus primarily on urban runoff since stormwater from urban land uses has been identified as a major source of contamination to the Sweetwater reservoir. Urban land use information is being used to estimate and manage stormwater runoff pollution. Although there have been several monitoring...

Resident evaluation of a waterside environments

Y. Wada, K. Michioku & N. Wada
The advance of urbanization has brought rapid and large-scale changes to the landscape. Development has impacted the river basins and water circulation, thereby there are causing various problems due to changes in the volume of water in rivers and water pollution. In Japan, with the graying of society and the expansion of leisure time, people seek \342\200\234ease of mind\342\200\235 and they are becoming more and more interested in the natural environments close to home. In...

Quantification of sewer exfiltration - a review

M. Rutsch, J. Rieckermann & P. Krebs
One of the goals of the APUSS project (Assessing Infiltration and Exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems) is to assess sewer exfiltration, in order to support cities and operators to define problem-oriented rehabilitation strategies. In this paper, we review various methods currently used for the estimation of exfiltration and discuss data needs and applicability for rehabilitation planning. Although, each approach has its individual advantages and drawbacks, we identified pressure tests and tracer methods...

Metal and organic content in gully pot mixture

K. Karlsson & M. Viklander
During the cleaning of the gully pot, water has to be added to the gully pot to remove all the sediment. This mixture of gully pot water and sediment, as well as the \342\200\234wash-water,\342\200\235 has to be taken care of. This paper considers the quality of the water phase of this mixture, due to a wide spectrum of metals and organic substances. Three sampling sites were selected according to type of area and traffic intensity....

Technical performance assessment of Inflow effects: experimental urban sewer system in Portugal

M.A. Cardoso, M.C. Almeida & C. David
In separate domestic sewer systems the excess of wastewater volumes in wastewater treatment plants can be due to infiltration into the sewer system from the groundwater, or due to storm water inflows coming from cross connections of storm drains, connected impervious areas and leaking manholes covers. In general, the effects of inflow/infiltration (I/I) are relatively obvious but usually there is no objective information on its quantification, origin and economic impact. The location and detection of...

The integrated unit process design approach for source control and best management practice design

M.M. Quigley, E.W. Strecker, M. Leisenring, W.C. Huber, J. Heaney, N. Weinstein, J. Sansalone & D. Bodine
Research being conducted by the authors under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program project \342\200\234Evaluation of Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff Control\342\200\235 and the Water Environment Research Foundation project \342\200\234Critical Assessment of Stormwater Treatment and Control Selection Issues\342\200\234 seeks to advance the state of the practice of stormwater design through the application of basic scientifically and technically sound engineering principals using a fundamental unit process design methodology. The research findings are being incorporated into...

Comparison between two methodologies for urban drainage decision aid

P.M. Moura, M.B. Baptista & S. Barrraud
The objective of the present work is to compare two methodologies based on multicriteria analysis for the evaluation of stormwater systems. The first methodology was developed in Brazil and is based on performance-cost analysis, the second one is ELECTRE III. Both methodologies were applied to a case study. Sensitivity and robustness analyses were then carried out. These analyses demonstrate that both methodologies bring equivalent results, and present low sensitivity and high robustness. These results prove...

Distribution of phosphorus for particulate

J. Ma, J. Sansalone & P. Veltri
Urban rainfall-runoff transports loads of particulate matter and total phosphorus (TP) from a variety of anthropogenic activities. Discharge of diffuse sources of phosphorus as a leading cause of receiving water eutrophication has received significant attention. Elevated phosphorus concentrations in rainfall-runoff have been commonly identified for many urban land uses. In some cases these phosphorus concentrations can approach levels of untreated wastewater plant influent. Particulate matter is also entrained with phosphorus in urban rainfall-runoff and this...

Socioeconomic impacts on fluvial system an urban watershed in southern Brazil

C. Poleto, G.H. Merten & A.L.L. Silveira
One of the great problems observed in the Brazilian urban watersheds concerns the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain these basins. The present work sought to evaluate these questions through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, South of Brazil. For this study different procedures have been used, such as field surveys, interviews with...

Seasonal flood frequency analysis based on disaggregated urban runoff data

B. V. Matheussen, S. T. Thorolfsson & D. P. Lettenmaier
Current design procedures for urban drainage systems are based on the assumption that it is short duration summer rainfall that produces the highest annual runoff peaks. Despite this several researchers report that in cold climates urban flooding may also happen as a consequence of rain in combination with snowmelt. Because of this we chose to question the assumption of rainfall being the only factor controlling urban flooding in cold climates like in Trondheim, Norway. Through...

An analytical model for hydrologic analysis in urban watersheds

P. Rivera, J. Giron\303\241s, J. P. Montt & B. Fern\303\241ndez
ABSTRACT Guo and Adams (1998a, b) presented a methodology to estimate the cumulative distribution function for maximum discharges and total volumes of urban floods based on the rainfall-runoff transformation and the rainfall volume and duration, modeled as independent variables exponentially distributed. Rainfall records in many locations did not show this independency; therefore this model may fail at estimating these distributions. In this paper a new analytical model based on a different characterization of the storms...

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