373 Works

The effect of climate change on urban drainage: An evaluation based on regional climate model simulations

M.Grum, A. T. J\303\270rgensen, R. M. Johansen & J. J. Linde
That we are in a period of extraordinary rates of climate change is today evident. These climate changes are likely to impact local weather conditions with direct impacts on precipitation patterns and urban drainage. In resent years several studies have focused on revealing the nature, extent and consequences of climate change on urban drainage and urban runoff pollution issues. This study uses predictions from a regional climate model to look at the effects of climate...

Filtration for metals removal from stormwater

S. Clark, P. Johnson, R. Pitt, S. Gill & M. Pratap
Filtration as a method of stormwater treatment was investigated in a 3-year study. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of metals\342\200\231 capture were performed initially on twelve media. The three best performing media: peat-sand mix, compost, and zeolite were then selected for in-depth study. Upflow filters did not clog as easily as downflow, and longer-term performance was better in the upflow column. Metals were retained on the filters during anaerobiosis. Metal retention by the filters was not...

Real-time control of the integrated urban drainage system in the city of Leipzig

R. Rohlfing, C. Nietzschmann & M. Wiemann
ABSTRACT The existing sewer network of the City of Leipzig (Germany) is characterized by old brick sewer pipes. The objective of the old part of the drainage system consists in the rapid discharge of stormwater to the numerous outlets of the network. In the given system, even small storm events cause combined sewer overflows (CSOs). About 80 % of all combined sewer overflows occur at the overflow structure at the inlet of the treatment plant...

Statistical classification of frequent rainfall events as a basis for operational aspects of sewer systems

H.-R. Verworn, S. Kraemer & L. Shi
Statistical analysis of rainfall and runoff are generally carried out for design and rehabilitation purposes. All processes generated by smaller events are of no interest in this context. While these design events have no relevance for the everyday performance of the drainage systems, statistical analysis of the more frequent events has to cover more aspects than just the maxi-mum intensities of certain durations. Operational aspects for sewer systems include e.g. sedi-mentation and remobilisation of settleable...

Effect of rainfall hyetograph on pollutant loads in an urban catchment area

K. Michiokui, N. Wada & Y. Tsuji
Field measurements and runoff analysis of stormwater in a small urban area were performed. The effects of rainfall hyetograph on the pollutant runoff process were examined. Excellent agreement between SWMM simulation and field data were found not only with the runoff discharge, but also with the concentration and washoff rate of nutrients. A response analysis of pollutant runoff was carried out for design storms of single-peaked triangular hyetographs with various durations and peak intensities. The...

From single-objective to multiple-objective multiple-rainfall events automatic calibration of urban storm water runoff models using genetic algorithms

F. Di Pierro, S.-T. Khu & D. Savic
The calibration of storm water runoff models is a complex task. Early attempts focused on the choice of a performance criterion function that could capture all the facets of the problem into a Single-Objective framework. Subsequently, the awareness that a good calibration must necessarily take into account conflicting objectives led to the adoption of more sophisticated Multi-Objective approaches. Only recently, the focus has shifted towards effective ways of exploiting the mounting information provided by the...

Hydrological and hydraulic studies to analyse the main drainage system of the valley of Mexico

H. L. Cisneros-Iturbe & R. Dom\303\255nguez-Mora
ABSTRACT The present work deals with the mathematical simulations of the main drainage system of Mexico City, which serves an urban area of 20 million people on a surface of about 2500 km2. This system is composed by retention dams, surface channels, deep and semi-deep tunnels, pumping stations and retention lakes. Due to the aquifer\342\200\231s overexploitation and, its consequents, soil sink problems, the surface drainage channels have significantly diminished their conducting capacity. This has result...

Pollution in storm water runoff in a highway toll gate area and performance of a source-area treatment technology

S. Papiri, C. Ciaponi, S. Todeschini & P. Valcher
This report describes the experimental equipment and the first results of a study to characterise the quality of storm water runoff in the area of a medium traffic flow highway toll gate and also to evaluate the efficiency, for this type of surface, of a \342\200\234source-area treatment\342\200\235 technology currently on the market called EcoDrainTM. This system was designed to reduce pollutants carried into storm drains by water runoff via filtration and absorption. The report presents...

Urban run-off volumes dependency on rainfall measurement method - Scaling properties of precipitation within a 2x2 km radar pixel

L. Pedersen, N. E. Jensen, M. R. Rasmussen & M. G. Nicolajsen
Urban run-off is characterized with fast response since the large surface run-off in the catchments responds immediately to variations in the rainfall. Modeling such type of catchments is most often done with the input from very few rain gauges, but the large variation in rainfall over small areas suggests that rainfall needs to be measured with a much higher spatial resolution (Jensen and Pedersen, 2004). This paper evaluates the impact of using high-resolution rainfall information...

Designing BMPs considering water quality criteria

T. Larm
We require to have a better understanding of whether the designed or constructed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are cost-effective and have the desired effects on the receiving waters or if complementary or alternative measures are needed. The operative Excel model StormTac integrates watershed, transport, recipient and BMP processes. The aim is to present the key equations and parameters. Complementary studies and uncertainties are briefly discussed. StormTac has been implemented in many case projects for planning-level...

Optimizing Montana\342\200\231s model to permit urban drainage in humid tropical environment: the case of Abidjan (C\303\264te d\342\200\231Ivoire)

K. Dongo, M. Diamand\303\251, G. Ciss\303\251, M. Tanner & J. Bi\303\251mi
ABSTRACT In sub-Saharan Africa, the "hygienic" model used in urban drainage is faced with constraints in humid tropical environment, subjected to a high level of climatic variability. In C\303\264te d\342\200\231Ivoire adapting Montana's rain model is not satisfactory for certain time slots (Peuch and Gonni, 1984) whereas this model includes the Caquot's rate-of-flow model used in urban drainage. This work aims at optimizing and designing models which best simulate tropical downpours and help in calculations relating...

Study of the water budget of streets: experimentation and modelling

D. Ramier, E. Berthier & H. Andrieu
The study of two stretches of street during 38 months allowed to analyze the hydrological behavior of streets during rain events. The results show that runoff coefficients are very variable and runoff losses may be important. In order to better understand this behavior, a physical based model is used. This model, BiL, combine a porous media flow module with a surface runoff module. The lateral runoff transfer in the lateral gutter is approximated by the...

Changes of stream ecology along the urbanization gradient

I. Kabelkova, G. Stastna, D. Stransky & L. Malec
A study analyzing changes of the ecological status of a small stream (the Botic, Prague) along the urbanization gradient is carried out in order to identify major deficits and their causes. Quantitative assessment of benthic invertebrate fauna, river ecomorphology and water quality is being performed. Results show a serious ecological degradation of the whole Botic Stream (benthic index of biotic integrity indicates a very poor, poor and only once fair status) due to the combined...

Indicators of hazard, vulnerability and risk in urban drainage

M. B. Hauger, J.-M. Mouchel & P.S. Mikkelsen
An alternative definition of risk is proposed as risk being a function of the hazard, which is related to the risk source and the vulnerability, which is related to the risk object. The same hazard will not cause the same effect on all risk objects. Therefore vulnerability is introduced as a system dependant property to be the link between the hazard and the effect so that the combination of the occurrence of a hazard and...

A hydrologists' guide to radar use in various applications

T. Einfalt
This paper is giving guidance on how to answer the question when and where to use which kind of radar data for a given hydrological application. In order to approach this goal, several corner stones are developed to provide guidance for hydrologists. Examples for a successful use of radar data are given. Reasons for the still quite limited routine use of radar data are explained and ways to improve this situation are shown.

Flood-damage curves: Methodological development for the Brazilian context

N. Nascimento, M. Baptista, A. Silva, M. L. Machado, J. Costa De Lima, M. Gon\303\247alves, A. Silva, R. Dias & E. Machado
The present paper describes the main results of an on-going research aiming to develop standard flood damage data in the form of generic flood-damage curves. This type of curve allows estimating flood damages from the depth of inundation. Although the research project encompasses flood damages on different urban land use activities (residential, commercial, services and industrial land uses), the paper focus on residential flood damage information. The empirical data used on this research was obtained...

Water sanitation management in Tunisia

A. H. Koundi
The development of urbanism in Tunisia, the increase of the demand of water of good quality, as well as the expansion of industry have produced an increase of the quantities of rejected polluted wastewater. Confronted with the danger of the decrease of the Tunisian water resources the Tunisian government we realized the necessity to preserve and reutilize them, the reason why the Tunisian government has created in 1975 the "National Office for Sanitation" (O.N.A.S.). "O.NAS"...

Characteristics of washed-off pollutants and dynamic EMCs in a parking lot and a bridge during storms

K. Lee-Hyung, K. Lim & S. Ko
ABSTRACT Since the water quality has been recognized as a big issue in drinking water sources, the Ministry of Environment, Korea, are designing the TMDL program for major large rivers. In order to settle the TMDL program successfully, nonpoint pollutants causing from various landuses should be controlled. Especially paved areas such as parking lots and bridges are stormwater intensive landuses because of high imperviousness and high pollutant mass emissions from vehicular activity. Vehicle emissions from...

Sewer system protection against large scale floods \342\200\223 modelling, evaluation and design - Prague case study

D. Hrab\303\241k, S. Han\303\241k, K. Pryl, P. Kuba & T. Metalka
In August 2002 the Czech Republic was hit by devastating floods, the biggest natural disaster in modern Czech history. In some areas the floods - which affected over one third of the country - were the worst in the last 500 years. These floods were caused by large rainfall events following immediately one after the other. The Prague sewerage network, as well as the central waste water treatment plant (CWWTP), was also hit by the...

The city of Montreal's overflow control program

J. Lamarre, D. D. T. Duong, A. Charron & H. Colas
The Quebec provincial government (Minist\303\250re de l\342\200\231Environnement du Qu\303\251bec) has defined environmental discharge objectives (EDO) to protect receiving water bodies and their use against CSOs, SSOs and storm water pollution. The objectives have been established on the basis of direct and indirect water uses, which are to be protected or rehabilitated. They have been defined in terms of maximum overflow frequencies per area and based on the uses of the receiving water bodies. The City...

Potential future changes in heavy rainfall events in Europe simulated by the HIRHAM regional climate model

W. May, B. O. Christensen & J. H. Christensen
In this study potential future changes in the characteristics of daily rainfall events, in particular of heavy rainfall events, in Europe as a consequence of the anticipated future increase in the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is investigated. This is done on the basis of a mini-ensemble of simulations for the recent and the future climate with the HIRHAM RCM. HIRHAM simulates pronounced decreases in the number of wet days in all but northern Europe, in...

Developing a planning and design framwework for retrofit SUDS

R. Singh, C. Jefferies, V. Stovin, G. Morrison & S. Gillon
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are attracting increased attention due to their ability to attenuate flow, reduce flooding and improve water quality. However, planning of retrofit and new SUDS remains unclear in the context of pollution control, hydraulic efficiency and urban planning. Recent research has produced an initial methodology for the design and planning of retrofit SUDS in combined sewer areas. The methodology was applied in this new study initially to construct a database of...

On the effect of spatial variances of historical rainfall time series to CSO performance evaluation

S. De Toffol, Y. De Simon B\303\274rstrom & W. Rauch
Historical, high-resolution rain series are the backbone of modern combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure design. These rain series are the input to the computational estimation of the performance of the measures with respect to CSO pollution abatement. However, only at few locations those historical precipitation measurements are available. Frequently rain series have to be used from gauging stations at a significant distance. In order to judge on and to compensate for this influence an estimate...

Pervious pavement research in Spain: structural and hydraulic issues

J. Rodr\303\255guez, D. Castro, M. A. Calzada & J. W. Davies
This paper describes part of a new programme of research into the performance of pervious pavement structures in Spain. The project is collaboration between University of Cantabria and Coventry University and it tries to introduce the use of pervious surfaces in Spain at the same time as innovating these techniques. An experimental study of the structural and hydraulic effectiveness and suitability of different materials for the pervious surface (concrete blocks, porous asphalt and porous concrete)...

Modelling urban stormwater impact mitigation by using BMPs and storage tanks

G. Freni, G. Mannina & G. Viviani
The continuous growth of urban areas and the increasing public awareness about environmental impact of stormwater raised high interest on quality impact on the receiving water bodies. Indeed, in the last decades, large efforts have been provided for improving urban drainage systems in order to mitigate environmental impacts. In the present paper, a simplified modelling approach has been developed in order to evaluate the mitigation efficiency of different BMP schemes including infiltration and storage facilities...

Registration Year

  • 2011

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  • Event

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  • DTIC Datacenter