384 Works

The city of Montreal's overflow control program

J. Lamarre, D. D. T. Duong, A. Charron & H. Colas
The Quebec provincial government (Minist\303\250re de l\342\200\231Environnement du Qu\303\251bec) has defined environmental discharge objectives (EDO) to protect receiving water bodies and their use against CSOs, SSOs and storm water pollution. The objectives have been established on the basis of direct and indirect water uses, which are to be protected or rehabilitated. They have been defined in terms of maximum overflow frequencies per area and based on the uses of the receiving water bodies. The City...

To prevent floods in Bangkok: An operational radar and RTC application - Rainfall forecasting

S. Chumchean, T. Einfalt, P. Vibulsirikul & O. Mark
Bangkok is known as one of the cities with a high flooding risk because of several reasons. These include: the city\342\200\231s rapid urbanization, the Chao Praya river inflow from the north of Thailand, an inadequate drainage capacity, backwater from the tidal effects of the Gulf of Thailand, and increase of groundwater consumption causing more land subsidence and sub-sequent reduced drainage capacity. Bangkok Municipal Administration has called for a flood forecasting system integrating information from rain...

Development of climate and urban drainage scenarios for impact assessment for Helsingborg, southern Sweden

A. Semadeni-Davies, C. Hernebring, G. Svensson & L. G. Gustafsson
Climate change due to human activities has the possibility of changing both the natural and built environment over the coming decades. As the global population grows and becomes more urbanised, stakeholders have an urgent need for tools to assess the impacts of global warming on urban water resources. However, to date, coping strategies and new technologies have not been addressed within most hydrological impact assessments. This paper presents a project to investigate the relative effects...

Indicators of hazard, vulnerability and risk in urban drainage

M. B. Hauger, J.-M. Mouchel & P.S. Mikkelsen
An alternative definition of risk is proposed as risk being a function of the hazard, which is related to the risk source and the vulnerability, which is related to the risk object. The same hazard will not cause the same effect on all risk objects. Therefore vulnerability is introduced as a system dependant property to be the link between the hazard and the effect so that the combination of the occurrence of a hazard and...

Sediment retention in rectangular storage tanks: Computations with a mass transport model and comparison with laboratory experiments.

M. Jensen
ABSTRACT A linear convection-dispersion-deposition model, in 1 length dimension (CDD1), for a rectangular storage tank, is applied for computing the variation, over distance and time, of the vertical mean concentration C of suspended sediment. It is assumed, that the deposition rate to the bottom is proportional to C. The deposition velocity Vp, is the constant of proportionality. The model is used, for steady tank flow velocity V, to calculate the mass distribution (suspended mass +...

Stakeholder involvement in wastewater treatment design

D.J. Gilmour, D.J. Blackwood & K. Picken
The design option appraisal stage of new water industry capital investment projects involve greater levels of complexity than those generally encountered in other stages of the design process. It is at this stage that the issues related to sustainable development will be introduced, as decisions are multi-stakeholder and therefore decision criteria that reflect the views of a wide range of stakeholders with a range of different viewpoints need to be incorporated. This paper describes a...

Field monitoring and evaluation of the stormwater management StormFilter\302\256 in the State of Washington

J. H. Lenhart & S. De Ridder
In 2003 the Washington State Department of Ecology adopted new criteria defining a design storm and expected BMP removal performance. Ecology also formed a Technical Review Committee (TRC) to establish a protocol for evaluating BMPs, which became known as the \342\200\234Technology Acceptance Protocol\342\200\224Ecology\342\200\235 (TAPE). To gain approval a manufacturer prepares an application including a technology description, maintenance and cost information, laboratory and field data. Based on this application the TRC gives a designation. Technologies receiving...

Decision support system for storm design level based on inundation damage simulation and risk analysis using GIS

M. Morita & K. Yamashita
To decide a storm design level for flood prevention in urban areas is a crucial task for local governmental engineers. The objective of this study is to present a risk analysis method for storm design level decisions. The concept of \342\200\234risk\342\200\235 is defined as the product of flood damage and its occurrence probability. The study also presents a flood damage prediction system using GIS to calculate flood damages for any design storms with different return...

Potentials of stored Rainwater as an alternative water resource to meet the increasing water demand: A case study

T. Tamama, T. Kawasaki & Y.Nakayama
Detention/storage of rainwater instead of its quick removal is an effective control measure for urban drainage. As well as its peak-cut effect, multi-purpose use of stored rainwater is expected as an on-site water resource. Though Japan is not an arid area (annual average precipitation is 1,718mm/year) serious water supply shortage arises at times in some urban areas, due to the heavily concentrated population or industrial activities and the relatively small catchment area. Utilization of stored...

Integrated Simulation of the Berlin Sewage System and Evaluation of a global Real-time Control Concept

K. Schroeder, R. Mannel, E. Pawlowsky-Reusing & J. Broll
The paper presents the build-up of a model for the integrated simulation of the sewage system of Berlin, Germany, focusing on the catchment of the wastewater treatment plant Ruhleben. The Ruhleben catchment, draining 185 km\302\262 and a population of 1.38 million inhabitants is characterised by its high portion of combined sewerage. The model comprises the collection system, pump stations, pressurised mains and the wastewater treatment plant. Hydraulic and quality processes are taken into account. A...

A field observatory in urban drainage: the OTHU project \342\200\223 a five year experience

B. Chocat, L. Bacot, S. Barraud, P. Breil, F. Malard, J.C. Varnier & T. Winiarski
OTHU is an on-site observatory that aims to study the different processes encountered all along the urban water cycle associated with urban drainage. The OTHU project is also a research organisation comprising fifteen research laboratories working in a wide range of complementary fields including geography, climatology, hydrology, soil mechanic, soil science, hydraulic, chemistry, biology, social sciences, and economy. The research project is based on data acquisition from 5 sites where continuous monitoring of climatic parameters,...

Determining the background concentration of contaminants in a stormwater wetland

T.M. Kasper & G. A. Jenkins
Urban stormwater wetlands have been widely embraced by the community as a beneficial part of the stormwater infrastructure. Although a reasonably large body of research has been undertaken into the treatment efficiency of wetlands during storm events, relatively little is known about inter-event processes. Environmental effects such as wind direction and speed, wildlife and other anthropogenic activities have a significant impact on these processes. The development of a suitable model of these processes is limited...

Urban Drainage in Cold Climate - Education and Training

S.T. Thorolfsson & B.V. Matheussen
The overall goal of this project is to contribute to education and training in urban drainage in cold climate. If engineers are to handle year round urban drainage in cold climate, they must have education and training within urban drainage in cold climate conditions. The project, Education and Training Laboratory on Urban Drainage in Cold Climate (ETL-UD-CC) was implemented at Department of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, (NTNU). ETL-UD-CC is based on internet connection between Risvollan...

Underground sedimentation systems for treatment of highway runoff in dense city areas

T.J.R. Pettersson, A.-M. Str\303\266mvall & S. Ahlman
The pollutant characterization, removal efficiency and function of a newly constructed underground sedimentation system for treatment of highway runoff have been investigated. Results from flow weighted sampling, during eight consecutive storm events, show a high inflow of heavy metals and carcinogenic PAHs. The concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs in the inlet water exceeded the Swedish guideline values for polluted groundwater at petrol stations. The relatively high amounts of specific PAHs such as pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, and...

Integrated urban and rural water management using modern meteorological data

A. H. Lobbrecht & S. J. Van Andel
This paper describes applications of modern meteorological data for water management in urbanised areas. A case study for the city of Rotterdam (NL) is presented. It is stated that integrated water management in urbanised areas should include another dimension by integrating operational water management of urban and rural areas. The use of modern precipitation radar contributes to this goal. The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) delivers operational radar data to municipalities and waterboards these days....

Bottom shear stress in unsteady sewer flow

V. Bare\305\241, J. Jir\303\241k & J. Pollert
The properties of unsteady open-channel turbulent flow were theoretically and experimentally investigated in a circular cross section channel with fixed sediment deposits. Velocity and turbulence distribution data were obtained using an Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP). Different uniform flow conditions and triangular-shaped hydrographs were analysed. The hydrograph analysis revealed a dynamic wave behaviour, where the time lags of mean cross section velocity, friction velocity, discharge and flow depth were all evident. The bottom shear stress dynamic...

Treatment of CSO water using floating plant beds

L. Buts, C. Thoeye & G. De Gueldre
A pilot installation treating a combined sewer overflow (CSO) at Bornem, Flanders is built. The construction comprises a presettler and a plug flow treatment zone with floating vegetation elements. The installation is aimed to treat efficiently a so-called two-year overflow event of 2,309 m\302\263 volume and 0.17 m\302\263/s peak flow. During the past three years a number of overflow events were registered. Initially the system performed well, with an observed COD-removal efficiency of 68% and...

Assessment of WWTP design and upgrade options: balancing costs and risks of standards' exceedance

L. Benedetti, D. Bixio & P. A. Vanrolleghem
Numerical models can be used to evaluate design and upgrade scenarios of urban wastewater systems on the basis of their ecological consequences. The objective of this paper is to illustrate a systematic procedure of system design/upgrade. This procedure consists of the following steps: 1) data collection and data reconstruction, 2) model building and calibration, 3) evaluation of scenarios, 4) uncertainty assessment. In contrast to conventional practice, this approach allows to choose the most appropriate trade-off...

Experimental results of a high rate pilot-scale retention treatment basin for the control of combined sewer owerflow in Windsor, Canada

A. S. El-Gendy, V. Roussinova, J.G. Li & N. Biswas
Pilot plant experiments were carried out to examine the performance of a retention treatment basin (RTB) with chemical coagulation in the treatment of combined sewer overflow (CSO) for the City of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The pilot plant was operated at surface overflow rates (SOR) up to 57 m/h. This study demonstrated that the use of polymer coagulation significantly improved settling characteristics of solids, and allowed the SOR in the RTB to be increased significantly. The...

An assessment of the cost effectiveness of vegetation harvesting as a means of removing nutrient and metals from ponds

F. Napier, M. Barrett & C. Jefferies
ABSTRACT This paper reports on an investigation to quantify the mass of pollutants removed from a stormwater retention pond by routine vegetation harvesting. The amount of plants can increase the costs of ponds, and the increased costs of plant maintenance may not be justified by enhanced pollutant removal. This study provides some of the basic information, previously lacking, which is needed to come to such decisions. The study facility was La Costa pond, a retention...

Advanced stormwater runoff characterization

M. Kayhanian
During the past seven years the California Department of Transportation has developed an extensive stormwater characterization program to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological quality of the runoff from their representative facilities. Initially the program has utilized many laboratories and environmental consultants who may not have necessarily used the same method of sample collection, quality assurance and quality control, data reporting and data validation standards. Faced with this deficiency, a set of standard protocols and...

Learning from experiences in applying integrated urban water management concepts in Australia

G. Mitchell
Integrated urban water management (IUWM) solutions take many forms, tailored to the specific characteristics and requirements of diverse locations that make up Australian cities and towns. This paper summaries a review of a selection of urban developments that incorporated integrated urban water management principles to gauge its progression with the Australian water industry. The development and ongoing provision of sustainable urban water services require both sustainable technologies and sustainable actions and behaviors of many actors...

Designing BMPs considering water quality criteria

T. Larm
We require to have a better understanding of whether the designed or constructed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are cost-effective and have the desired effects on the receiving waters or if complementary or alternative measures are needed. The operative Excel model StormTac integrates watershed, transport, recipient and BMP processes. The aim is to present the key equations and parameters. Complementary studies and uncertainties are briefly discussed. StormTac has been implemented in many case projects for planning-level...

Optimal control strategies for stormwater detention tanks

M. Zawilski & G. Sakson
The paper presents the results of optimisation of a combined sewerage system draining a real urban catchment in the city of Lodz. Application of 8 storage tanks distributed on the catchment area and a single tank at the lower part of the cachment was analysed. The calculations were performed using a set of historical rainfalls from the two-year period. Detention volume distribution across the catchment and outflow characteristics of the storage tanks have an essential...

Design and construction of plant-covered retention soil filters (RSF)

F. Frechen, W. Schier & J. Felmeden
Massive improvement of municipal wastewater treatment during the last 20 years has reduced the pollution load of our water bodies significantly. At the same time, pollution load resulting from combined sewer overflows (CSO) increased which made appropriate countermeasures necessary. Up to now, this is usually done by introducing combined wastewater basins including sedimentation as a first treatment process which does not affect the soluble substances at all. The only technology that is capable of reducing...

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