79 Works

Investigating targettable pathways in Robinow Syndrome

Heather Szabo Rogers

Building Workplace Democracy

Trevor Young-Hyman

Evaluating Prescription Drug Subsidies for Diabetics: Effects on Medication Adherence and Health Outcomes

Eric Roberts & Immaculada Hernandez

Locomotor Adaptability for Community Mobility of Older Adults: The Role of Gait Automaticity

Andrea Rosso, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo & Andrea Weinstein

Pittsburgh Phage Project (P3)

John Williams, Jennifer Bomberger, Vaughn Cooper, Tim Corcoran, Yohei Doi, Balasubramani Goundappa, Ghady Haidar, Graham Hatfull, Alina Iovleva, Geoff Kurland, Seema Lakdawala, Marian Michaels, Stephanie Mitchell, Lisa Parker, Jim Pipas, Doug Reed, Ryan Shields, Fernanda Silveira, Daria Van Tyne, Anna Wang-Erickson & Steve Wisniewski

Supporting the education of youth in foster care during the pandemic: foster parent and agency perspectives

Mary Rauktis, Fengyan Tang, Aimee Sgourakis, James Huguley & Rachel Robertson
Foster youth are at risk of poorer educational outcomes than their peers; foster youth take longer to graduate from secondary education, are less likely to obtain a high school diploma and less than 10% obtain a college diploma. Moreover, schools are a primary site for mental health services and counseling for this group of youth. The COVID-19 pandemic and educational closures has the potential to negatively impact educational and social gains for these youth, yet...

Transcending Disciplines to Advance Regional Water Equity

Emily Elliott, Marcela Gonzalez Rivas, Jackie Smith, Noble Maseru, Daniel Bain, Eitan Shelef, Eric Perry, Caitlin Schroering & Megan Guy
Pittsburgh has positioned itself as a city with a strong commitment to sustainable development, pledging to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals including equitable access to clean water and sanitation. However, the City of Pittsburgh has also been identified as being the worst locale in the country for Black women, and inequities in race, class, and gender persist. Further, the region is challenged by a rapidly changing climate, aged and failing infrastructure, impaired water...

Reducing language obstacles that Deaf students face when developing scientific competencies

Richard Boyce, Malihe Alikhani , Sheila Pratt, David Boone & Kenneth De Haan
People who identify as Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HoH) are highly underrepresented in research. Among the reasons for this disparity is the fact that Deaf/HoH students face significant obstacles to advancing in STEM including issues in accommodations, self-advocacy, and establishment of a support system. Our Momentum Fund Teaming project will develop and test a novel technology that supports Deaf/HoH students while learning biomedical topics using material available on the internet including educational videos, scientific...

Developing Communities of Research and Practice to Support Teacher Use of Proactive Behavior Management

Rachel Robertson, Kevin Binning & Thomas Farmer
Project CoRP (Communities of Research and Practice) seeks to narrow the research-practice divide in the use of proactive behavior management (PBM) strategies in schools by collaborating with teachers, caregivers, and students to create and test professional development modules aimed at increasing teacher use of PBM. Modules will incorporate (a) activities and messaging from social psychology shown to facilitate belief and behavior change, and (b) expertise of teachers and families of children who show challenging behavior...

Seed Imbibition Monitoring Using Millimeter-Scale Wireless Sensing Systems

Inhee Lee
Imbibition can be thought of as the resultant of soil moisture, soil structure, and pericarp permeability. Accurate imbibition monitoring enables to characterize one of three by holding the other two constant. It helps scientists and farmers find better soil or genotypes by assessing biologically-available soil moisture. However, we now know that a previous imaging-based approach is not effective since it cannot take images through the soil. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop a...

Multimedia Archival Work in Paris: The Reception of LGBTQ French Cinema

Todd Reeser
I will be conducting archival work and interviews in Paris in the next year (depending on when travel becomes possible) to complete the research for a monograph on LGBTQ French Film of the twenty-first century. This trip will allow me to conduct new research necessary to add missing sections in the monograph in process.

Center for Text Analytic Methods in Legal Studies

Kevin Ashley, Diane Litman, Daqing He, Rebecca Hwa & James Anderson
This Teaming Grant supports a multi-disciplinary collaboration across the School of Law, the School of Computing and Information (SCI), and the RAND Corporation to develop a Center for Text Analytic Methods in Legal Studies. The new center takes advantage of unique expertise at the University of Pittsburgh and its environs: SCI’s methodological excellence in developing and applying new tools for analyzing large text corpora and RAND’s substantive excellence in conducting impactful empirical research on legal...

Discovering drugs to treat osteoarthritis with a knee joint-on-a-chip model

Hang Lin, Sung Kwon Cho & Shilpa Sant
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent degenerative joint disease, which is mainly characterized by pain and physical disability. Currently, no FDA-approved disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) are currently available to stop, slow, or reverse the progression of OA. Numerous DMOADs have been investigated, but the results were disappointing and subsequently terminated. The reasons for the failures included unexpected toxicity and poor treatment outcomes that were not identified during preclinical studies, suggesting deficiencies of currently available models...

Highly Scalable and Efficient Deep Learning Accelerator Enabled by 3D Photonic Integration

Nathan Youngblood
The positive societal impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) through the field of deep learning have been thrilling to witness, but these advances come with an increasingly unsustainable appetite for computing resources. Thus, the generality and accuracy of deep learning—which fundamentally scale with the amount of training data and available computation—is also its Achilles’ heel. Novel approaches to computation are therefore needed to address the slowing growth in compute performance and efficiency of electronic hardware in...

Black on the Edge: Amplifying Pittsburgh HBCU Narratives

Khirsten Scott
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were created as a corrective to the legacy of slavery’s having outlawed the formal education of Black people. Although the U.S.’s 107 HBCUs now account for merely 3 percent of US colleges and universities, public discourse surrounding them often hinges on questions about their efficacy and relevance in addressing structural racism. My developing book to satisfy tenure requirements, Black on the Edge: Rhetorics of HBCU Survival, poses the question:...

Data Mining Approach to Understand Tensor Properties in Turbulent Cascade

Lei Fang
Traditionally, turbulence study starts from unproven but plausible hypotheses (e.g. Kolmogorov's similarity hypotheses) and then proceeding in a systematic fashion to reach theory (e.g. K41). The results are then tested against the experimental data for correctness and completeness. While this hypothetical-deductive-like-method received many successes in history, it has its detrimental limitation: starting from a plausible hypothesis precludes any other possibilities. Since the turbulent data is the final test for turbulent theories, why not start by...

Making Skeletons of Shapes Dance

Paul Gartside
Topology is the study of shape. During this project a bridge will be built between the continuous, infinite world of shapes and the combinatorial, finite domain of graphs (networks). To each shape will be associated a sequence of `1-skeletons' which are graphs. By employing recent developments in graph theory these skeletons will be put to work (`made to dance') both as a theoretical tool in topology, but also as a practical tool to understand shapes...

Transnational Dialogues in Afro-Latin American and Afro-Latinx Studies

Michele Reid, Shawn Michelle Alfonso Wells, Reid Andrews, Jerome Branche, Gina Ann Garcia, Martha Mantilla & Luis Van Fossen Bravo

Improving Educational Opportunities for Black Youth in Pittsburgh: A Justice-Centered Intervention

Esohe Osai, Shanyce Campbell, Loius Maraj, Khirsten Scott, Jalyn Evans-Williams, Omid Fotuhi & Josefina Bañales
College going and completion is shown to provide substantial tangible (e.g., lifetime wages) and intangible (e.g., critical consciousness) benefits. Yet, Black youth often are excluded from opportunities to access college. For instance, in Pittsburgh, only 16% of Black students earn a college degree while 42% of White students earn a college degree. In response to higher education barriers, Justice Scholars Institute (JSI) was created for Black youth in Pittsburgh. JSI provides college-credit courses and various...

Understanding the Role of the Brain in Race/Ethnicity Based Stressors and Behavioral Challenges Among Youth of Color

Jamie Hanson, Jaime Booth & Seong Jae Hwang

Embracing Heterogeneity in Modern GPUs

Xulong Tang
Graphics Processing Units is one of the most widely adopted parallel computing engines for modern applications. However, due to the “memory wall”, the scaling of GPUs is lagging behind the ever-growing complexity of application algorithms and ever-increasing data volume of inputs. Near-data computing (NDC) is a widely-acknowledged computing paradigm that alleviates the memory wall problem by offloading computation to data instead of conventional fetching data to computation. While the NDC GPU architectures have been proposed...

Coastal rivers: the missing link in source to sink understanding of sediment flux in a changing world

John Gardner
Rivers connect continents to coasts moving sediment needed to sustain coastal ecosystems. Slow moving, coastal rivers are known to be “bottlenecks” that control how much sediment actually reaches coasts. Yet, coastal rivers are typically ignored in estimates of riverine sediment delivery to coasts and few approaches are able to measure the influence of coastal rivers. We developed a satellite remote sensing method to measure suspended sediment concentration spatially along rivers. We will use this method...

Determining gene expression control during neural differentiation through coupled protein localization and RNA-seq in single cells

Sarah Hainer
Although the primary sequence of the eukaryotic genome is largely invariant across cells in an organism, the expression of genes is tightly regulated: specific complements and levels of expressed genes define the identity and function of cells. A primary mechanism of gene expression control is at the level of access to DNA sequences that can direct expression of individual genes. Access to these DNA regulatory elements is established and maintained by the combinatorial binding of...

Carbonic Anhydrase-Catalyzed Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Seawater

Meng Wang
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has emerged as a crucial action to mitigate the unprecedented challenges of global warming on human society. Carbon mineralization, a process whereby CO2 reacts with mineral cations such as magnesium to form insoluble solids, is a safe way for sequestrating CO2. As one of the largest reservoirs of mineral cations, seawater contains a high content of magnesium, which provides a gigaton-scale capacity for CO2 sequestration. However, the slow combination of CO2...

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