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Figure 5 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 5. Illustrations of the neurocranium of Melanosternarchus amaru (ANSP 200459, 187 mm TL, male) in dorsal (A), ventral (B), and lateral (C) view. Cartilages shown in black. Abbreviations: bao, basioccipital; epo, epioccipital; exo, exoccipital; fro, frontal; let, lateral ethmoid; met, mesethmoid; obs, orbitosphenoid; par, parietal; pas, parasphenoid; pro, prootic; pto, pterotic; pts, pterosphenoid; soc, supraoccipital; spo, sphenotic; vet, ventral ethmoid; vom,vomer.

Figure 6 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 6. Suspensorium, opercular series, and maxilla of Melanosternarchus amaru (ANSP200459) in lateral (A) and medial (B, image reflected) view. Thin, unstained hard tissue associated with opercular bones shown in light gray. Abbreviations: ang, anguloarticular; ap, autopalatine cartilage; cm, coronomeckelian; d, dentary; enp, endopterygoid; h, hyomandibula; iop, interopercle; mx, maxilla; mco, mandibular canal ossicles; m, Meckel's cartilage; mpt, metapterygoid; op, opercle; pop, preopercle; q, quadrate; rar, retroarticular; sop, subopercle; sym, symplectic.

Figure 7 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 7. Premaxillae of three specimens of Melanosternarchus amaru, ANSP 200459, 187 mm TL—shown in dorsal and ventral views and bearing a single tooth (A) and MUSM 59453, 214 mm TL, and C) MUSM 59453, 147 mm TL (B). Scale bar = 2.5 mm.

Figure 7 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 7. Premaxillae of three specimens of Melanosternarchus amaru, ANSP 200459, 187 mm TL—shown in dorsal and ventral views and bearing a single tooth (A) and MUSM 59453, 214 mm TL, and C) MUSM 59453, 147 mm TL (B). Scale bar = 2.5 mm.

Figure 10 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 10. Pectoral girdle of Melanosternarchus amaru (ANSP 20045) in lateral (A), and medial (B) views. Abbreviations: cl, cleithrum; co, coracoid; pcl, postcleithrum; pt, posttemporal; ptg, propterygium; ra, radial; sc, scapula; scl, supracleithrum.

Figure 10 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 10. Pectoral girdle of Melanosternarchus amaru (ANSP 20045) in lateral (A), and medial (B) views. Abbreviations: cl, cleithrum; co, coracoid; pcl, postcleithrum; pt, posttemporal; ptg, propterygium; ra, radial; sc, scapula; scl, supracleithrum.

Figure 12 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 12. Head-to-tail electric organ discharge (ht-EOD) waveform (A) and corresponding power spectral density (PSD) (B) for Melanosternarchus amaru, ZUEC 14195, specimen1999-01-28-23, female, 272 mm TL; ParanáMaiana, rio Solimões- Japurá confluence, near Alvarães, Amazonas, Brazil. The ht-EOD waveform is plotted head-positive with relative voltage on the ordinate and absolute time on the abscissa. Horizontal dashed line denotes 0V. The PSDs is computed by 65536-point Fast Fourier Transform and is scaled to report the peak power...

Figure14 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE14. Photograph of typelocality of Melanosternarchus amaru, the Rio Nanay upstream from Iquitos during low water (September, 2016). Photo by A. Orfinger.

Figure14 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE14. Photograph of typelocality of Melanosternarchus amaru, the Rio Nanay upstream from Iquitos during low water (September, 2016). Photo by A. Orfinger.

Figure15 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE15.Phylogenetic position of Melanosternarchus (shaded) withinApteronotidae.Topology from maximumlikelihood analysis of four concatenated loci (2946 bp). Bootstrap values shown only on nodes with support below 90 with 1000 replicates.

Figure 16 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 16. Cephalic lateral line bones of Apteronotus bonapartii, ANSP 20045, 137 mm TL (A) and Compsaraia samueli, MUSM 54620, 161 mm TL (B). Abbreviations:ant,antorbital; io, infraorbital;na,nasal; otc, otic canal; mco, mandibularcanal ossicles; pa, parietal canal; prc, preopercular canal; soc, supraorbital canal; stc, supratemporal canal.

Figure 16 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 16. Cephalic lateral line bones of Apteronotus bonapartii, ANSP 20045, 137 mm TL (A) and Compsaraia samueli, MUSM 54620, 161 mm TL (B). Abbreviations:ant,antorbital; io, infraorbital;na,nasal; otc, otic canal; mco, mandibularcanal ossicles; pa, parietal canal; prc, preopercular canal; soc, supraorbital canal; stc, supratemporal canal.

Figure 17 In Melanosternarchus Amaru, A New Genus And Species Of Electric Ghost Knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) From The Amazon Basin

Maxwell J. Bernt, William G. R. Crampton, Alexander B. Orfinger & James S. Albert
FIGURE 17. Medial view of the lower jaw in Melanosternarchus amaru, MUSM 59453 (A), Apteronotus bonapartii, MUSM 54641 (B), Pariosternarchus amazonensis, ANSP 192996 (C), Compsaraia samueli, MUSM 54620 (D). Scale bar equals 5 mm.

Figure 1 In Description Of A New Species Of Isagoras Stål (Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Xerosomatinae: Prexaspini) From The State Of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Raphael Aquino Heleodoro & José Albertino Rafael
FIGURE 1. Isagoras aurocaudatasp. nov. holotype ♀. A) habitus, dorsal view; B) idem, lateral view; C) idem,ventral view.

Figure 2 In Description Of A New Species Of Isagoras Stål (Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Xerosomatinae: Prexaspini) From The State Of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Raphael Aquino Heleodoro & José Albertino Rafael
FIGURE 2. Head and tegminae of Isagoras aurocaudata sp. nov. A) holotype head, dorsal view; B) paratype head, lateral view; C) holotype tegminae, dorsolateral view;D) idem.

Figure2 In A New Blind Snake Of The Genus Letheobia (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) From Rwanda With Redescriptions Of L. Gracilis (Sternfeld, 1910) And L. Graueri (Sternfeld, 1912) And The Introduction Of A Non-Invasive Preparation Procedure For Scanning Electron Microscopy In Zoology

J. Maximilian Dehling, Harald H. Hinkel, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat, Kenny Babilon & Eberhard Fischer
FIGURE2. SEM imagesof lateral view of the head of theholotype of Letheobia gracilis (ZMB 22030;top), the holotypeof L. akagerae sp. nov. (ZFMK 100862, centre), and a specimen of L.graueri (ZFMK 63138, bottom).

Figure 4 In A New Blind Snake Of The Genus Letheobia (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) From Rwanda With Redescriptions Of L. Gracilis (Sternfeld, 1910) And L. Graueri (Sternfeld, 1912) And The Introduction Of A Non-Invasive Preparation Procedure For Scanning Electron Microscopy In Zoology

J. Maximilian Dehling, Harald H. Hinkel, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat, Kenny Babilon & Eberhard Fischer
FIGURE 4. Holotype of Letheobia akagerae sp. nov. (ZFMK 100862) in life.

Figure 5 In A New Blind Snake Of The Genus Letheobia (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) From Rwanda With Redescriptions Of L. Gracilis (Sternfeld, 1910) And L. Graueri (Sternfeld, 1912) And The Introduction Of A Non-Invasive Preparation Procedure For Scanning Electron Microscopy In Zoology

J. Maximilian Dehling, Harald H. Hinkel, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat, Kenny Babilon & Eberhard Fischer
FIGURE 5. Preserved holotypes of Letheobia gracilis (ZMB 22030, total length 465.4 mm; outside) and L. akagerae sp. nov. (ZFMK 100862, total length 457.5 mm; centre); showing the extreme elongation in the new species.

Figure 1 In Vehicle-Mounted Net Sampling Of Airborne Micro-Heteroptera In Western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae)

Andreas Krüger
FIGURE 1. Sketch map of the study area in Bong county, Liberia, west Africa. LRU:"Liberia Research Unit".

Figure 3 In Vehicle-Mounted Net Sampling Of Airborne Micro-Heteroptera In Western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae)

Andreas Krüger
FIGURE 3. Isometopus bongensis sp. nov. male. A—head, frontal view; B—head dorsad; C—head, thorax and antenna, laterad; D—antenna III+IV; E—habitus; F—parameres; G—aedeagus.Scales:A–D = 0.5 mm; E = 1 mm; F–G = 0.1 mm.

Figure 7 In Vehicle-Mounted Net Sampling Of Airborne Micro-Heteroptera In Western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae)

Andreas Krüger
FIGURE 7. Ptisca liberiense sp. nov. male. A—habitus; B—head, thorax dorsad; C—head, frontal view; D—head ventrad, antennal sockets arrowed; E—head, laterad; F—hind femur; G—recessed hind femoral trichobothria, arrowed; H—parameres and aedeagus.Scales:A= 2 mm; B–E = 0.5 mm; F = 0.2 mm; H = 0.1 mm.

Figure10 In Vehicle-Mounted Net Sampling Of Airborne Micro-Heteroptera In Western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae)

Andreas Krüger
FIGURE10.Myiomma brunnea sp.nov. male.A—habitus;B—head,dorsad; C—head, frontalview; D—head,thorax laterad; E—antennaI–II; F—parameres and aedeagus. Scales: A = 1 mm; B–E = 0.3 mm; F = 0.05 mm.

Figure 13 In Vehicle-Mounted Net Sampling Of Airborne Micro-Heteroptera In Western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae)

Andreas Krüger
FIGURE 13. Myiomma goellneri sp. nov. male. A—habitus; B—head, pronotum dorsad; C—head, frontal view; D—head, thorax laterad; E—parameres and aedeagus.Scales:A = 1 mm; B–E = 0.3 mm; F = 0.05 mm.

Figure 13 In Vehicle-Mounted Net Sampling Of Airborne Micro-Heteroptera In Western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae)

Andreas Krüger
FIGURE 13. Myiomma goellneri sp. nov. male. A—habitus; B—head, pronotum dorsad; C—head, frontal view; D—head, thorax laterad; E—parameres and aedeagus.Scales:A = 1 mm; B–E = 0.3 mm; F = 0.05 mm.

Figure 15 In Vehicle-Mounted Net Sampling Of Airborne Micro-Heteroptera In Western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae)

Andreas Krüger
FIGURE 15. Myiomma variabilis sp. nov. male. A—habitus; B—head dorsad; C—head, frontal view; D—head, thorax laterad; E—antenna; F—parameres; G—aedeagus, inverted and everted. Scales: A = 1 mm;B–E = 0.3 mm; F–G = 0.05 mm.

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