167 Works

The User Experience: Focus Group Insights

Melinda Baumann
The author discusses the results of three focus groups she facilitated about Maker spaces in April 2017 for the University of Virginia Library. All focus group participants valued inclusivity, expressing strong opinions that a Maker space should be "open to all" and should have an accessible layout.

The Russian Military and the Georgia War: Lessons and Implications

Robert Hamilton & Ariel Cohen
In August 2008, the armed conflict on the territory of Georgia's breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia broke out between Russia and Georgia. The Russian-planned military campaign lasted 5 days until the parties reached a preliminary ceasefire agreement on August 12. The European Union, led by the French presidency, mediated the ceasefire. After signing the agreement, Russia pulled most of its troops out of uncontested Georgian territories, but established buffer zones around Abkhazia and...

Upside Versus Downside Risk: Gender, Stakes, and Skewness: Single Decision Data

Charles Holt & Irene Comeig
Upside Versus Downside Risk: Gender, Stakes, and Skewness * Irene Comeig, Charles Holt, and Ainhoa Jaramillo-Gutiérrez The simplest perspective on risky choice is in terms of a tradeoff between higher expected payoff and higher payoff variability. Subjects in a simple experiment, however, exhibit more aversion to “downside risk” (with a small probability of a relatively low payoff) and more attraction to an equivalent “upside risk” (with a small probability of a high payoff). Females tend...

The implementation of embedded quick response codes into library resources to improve service delivery

Kimberley Barker, Elaine Attridge, Jason Bennett, Robert Hiserman, Andrea Horne, David Moody, Ellen Ramsey, Inhye Kim Son & Patricia Vaughn

Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean?

Abinash Bhattachan & Paolo D'Odorico
The supply of soluble iron through atmospheric dust deposition limits the productivity of the Southern Ocean. In comparison to the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere exhibits low levels of dust activity. However, given their proximity to the Southern Ocean, dust emissions from continental sources in the Southern Hemisphere could have disproportionate impact on ocean productivity. Australia is the largest source of dust in the Southern Hemisphere and aeolian transport of dust has major ecological, economic...

Valuing Unique Natural Resources: The Case of Endangered Species

Mark White
The valuation of environmental goods and services is an area of significant recent interest with ramifications for environmental policy-making and natural resource damage assessments. Controversy exists over the best way to determine passive-use values , i.e., benefits accruing to individuals based on the knowledge that a specific environmental resource exists or the knowledge that it will be available for future generations. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is at present the only technique available for determining...

The Narrative Strategy of \"La palabra asesino\"

Donald Shaw
(:unav)

Shakespearean Being: The Victorian Bard

Herbert Tucker
Shakespeare's pervasive Victorian influence comes into focus in the era's leading new genres: the dramatic monologue and the lyric sequence. A general discussion of leading Shakespearean heirs introduces detailed focus on sonnets about Shakespeare by Matthew Arnold, A. C. Swiinburne, and Robert Browning.

Role of crystal structure and junction morphology on interface thermal conductance

Carlos A. Polanco, Rouzbeh Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Jingjie Zhang, Nam Q. Le, Pamela Norris, Patrick Hopkins & Avik Ghosh
We argue that the relative thermal conductance between interfaces with different morphologies is controlled by crystal structure through Mmin/Mc > 1, the ratio between the minimum mode count on either side Mmin, and the conserving modes Mc that preserve phonon momentum transverse to the interface. Junctions with an added homogenous layer, “uniform,” and “abrupt” junctions are limited to Mc, while junctions with interfacial disorder, “mixed,” exploit the expansion of mode spectrum to Mmin. In our...

Teaching nature study on the blackboard in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century England

Caitlin Wylie
England’s Education Acts in the late nineteenth century made school free and mandatory for all children, filling schools with more and younger students. Visual teaching methods such as blackboard drawing were used to catch young students’ eyes and engage their interest. At the same time, there was high public engagement with natural history and popular science lectures, which built the perception of science as accessible, interesting and useful for people of all social classes. This...

Trust in technicians in paleontology laboratories

Caitlin Wylie
New technologies can upset scientific workplaces’ established practices and social order. Digital imaging of rock-encased fossils is a valuable way for scientists to “see” a specimen without traditional rock removal. However, interviews in vertebrate paleontology laboratories reveal workers’ skepticism towards computed tomography (CT) imaging. Scientists criticize replacing physical fossils with digital images because, they say, images are more subjective than the “real thing.” I argue that these scientists are also implicitly supporting rock-removal technicians, who...

Moderated Mediation Analysis: A Review and Application to School Climate Research

Kelly D. Edwards & Timothy R. Konold
Moderated mediation analysis is a valuable technique for assessing whether an indirect effect is conditional on values of a moderating variable. We review the basis of moderation and mediation and their integration into a combined model of moderated mediation within a regression framework. Thereafter, an analytic and interpretive illustration of the technique is provided in the context of a substantive school climate research question. The illustration is based on a sample of 318 high schools...

The European Union, the United States, and Trade: Metaphorical Climate Change, Not Bad Weather

Mark Schwartz
US and EU trade relations exhibit a set of chronic and secularly unsustainable imbalances, in which new Schumpeterian leading sectors and catch‐up growth create growing tension in the asymmetrical and somewhat hierarchical US–EU rela‐ tionship. These imbalances exhibit two distinct cycles interrupted by a clear structural break in the 1970s and an emerging cycle after the 2008–2010 crises. Each cycle has seen rising US current account or trade deficits with Europe provoke some financial or...

The iTHRIV Commons: A Cross-Institution Information and Health Research Data Sharing Architecture and Web Application

Johanna Loomba
Objective The integrated Translational Health Research Institute of Virginia (iTHRIV) aims to develop an information architecture to support data workflows throughout the research lifecycle for cross-state teams of translational researchers. Materials and Methods The iTHRIV Commons is a cross-state harmonized infrastructure supporting resource discovery, targeted consultations, and research data workflows. As the front end to the iTHRIV Commons, the iTHRIV Research Concierge Portal supports federated login, personalized views, and secure interactions with objects in the...

Voicing the ancestors: Readings in memory of George Stocking

Ira Bashkow
In this Forum, four anthropologists have chosen an “ancestral” figure to give voice to. Anthropologists’ ancestors are generally teachers, mentors, or, less proximally, canonized scholars of prior generations. Anthropologists draw on their ancestors for theoretical wisdom and practical guidance. Yet ancestors are not always shared broadly across our discipline, and they can easily fall into oblivion. Giving voice to them, publicly, allows each contributor to comment on an important scholar and invites readers to renew...

Where Credit Is Due: Preconditions for the Evaluation of Collaborative Digital Scholarship

Bethany Nowviskie
Our instinct is to evaluate the products of digital scholarship as if they can be mapped neatly to unary objects and established categories, such as journal articles or monographs. But a search for equivalency in product can lead us to overlook those incommensurate collaborative processes by which digital scholarship is created: systems of production that require closer partnership than ever before among scholars and the technologists, student and postdoctoral researchers, content creators, designers, faculty colleagues,...

Viscous and Resistive Effects on the Magnetorotational Instability with a Net Toroidal Field

John Hawley
Resistivity and viscosity have a significant role in establishing the energy levels in turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in local astrophysical disk models. This study uses the Athena code to characterize the effects of a constant shear viscosity ν and Ohmic resistivity η in unstratified shearing box simulations with a net toroidal magnetic flux. A previous study of shearing boxes with zero net magnetic field performed with the ZEUS code found that turbulence...

Selective pituitary tumor apoplexy apparently reversed acromegaly in Governor Pio Pico between 1858 and 1873

Ivan Login, Jessica Login & Jason Bennett
A newly obtained photograph of Pio Pico c.1873 appears to demonstrate that virtually all signs of his previous acromegaly have disappeared suggesting that his pituitary tumor had already regressed by this date. This new information implies that his tumor likely infarcted between 1858 and 1873 instead of the much later date, about 1890. Thus, Pio Pico may have been the biological father of the two boys, Ranulfo Romero born 1862 and Alfredo Romero born 1871.

Morality

Jonathan Haidt
Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older...

Literary History and Editorial Method. Poe and Antebellum America

Jerome McGann

Treasures found by seafaring librarians

Mary Johnston
Ahoy! To manage an undergraduate library while sailing around the world, you will need your well-honed library skills and a bit of an adventurous spirit. In this article, the University of Virginia librarians who have belayed their traditional landlubbing librarian jobs and successfully navigated a semester at sea present their ideas on the value of embarking upon such an adventure.

Subjectivity in the Ivanhoe Game: Visual and Computational Strategies

Bethany Nowviskie
The task of Ivanhoe’s interface is not merely to offer a visual representation of subjectivity, but instead to create an interactive matrix in which it can be enacted and performed, and where its results are emergent at the intersection of multiple subjectivities in dialogue. But what might emergent intersubjectivity look like? How might we respond to and fuel its representation through critical engagement with texts and documents and with a community of interpreters? Computationally and...

Seagrass Restoration Enhances “Blue Carbon” Sequestration in Coastal Waters

Jill Greiner, Karen McGlathery, John Gunnell & Brent McKee
Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as “blue carbon,” accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zostera marina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow...

Early warning signs in social-ecological networks

Paolo D'Odorico
A number of social-ecological systems exhibit complex behaviour associated with nonlinearities, bifurcations, and interaction with stochastic drivers. These systems are often prone to abrupt and unexpected instabilities and state shifts that emerge as a discontinuous response to gradual changes in environmental drivers. Predicting such behaviours is crucial to the prevention of or preparation for unwanted regime shifts. Recent research in ecology has investigated early warning signs that anticipate the divergence of univariate ecosystem dynamics from a...

Digital Humanities in the Anthropocene

Bethany Nowviskie
This keynote address for the 2014 Digital Humanities conference is a practitioner’s talk, and—though the abstract belies it—an optimistic one. I take as given the evidence that human beings are irrevocably altering the conditions for life on Earth and that, despite certain unpredictabilities, we live at the cusp of a mass extinction. What is the place of digital humanities (DH) practice in the new social and geological era of the Anthropocene? What are the DH...

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