50 Works

Une baisse du chômage encourageante? Non : le marché du travail français est structurellement malade (Policy Brief, n°13)

Auray Stéphane & Nicolas Lepage-Saucier
Les chiffres publiés le 24 septembre 2014 par la DARES semblent encourageants car ils présentent une baisse de 0.3% du taux de chômage des demandeurs d’emploi de catégorie A. Qu’en est il exactement ? Il ne s’agit en définitive que d’un changement d’un mois à un autre et si l’on observe les changements sur un trimestre, on doute que la tendance pourrait s’inverser. Au contraire, les développements substantiels des derniers mois et ce malgré les...

Pourquoi les personnes occupant un emploi “essentiel” sont-elles si mal payées ? (LIEPP Working Paper, n°116)

Bruno Palier
Beaucoup de celles et ceux qui ont dû se déplacer pour aller travailler pendant le premier confinement, qui occupent des emplois alors dits « essentiels », ont des emplois précaires et mal payés. Comment expliquer que des fonctions aussi essentielles que celles occupées dans les infrastructures de service, les services aux autres, y compris l’éducation et la santé, soient si mal rémunérés et occupent si souvent des emplois particulièrement précaires ? Ce working paper commence...

La réduction du nombre de parlementaires est-elle justifiée ? Une évaluation ex-ante (LIEPP Working Paper, n°75)

Thomas Ehrhard & Olivier Rozenberg
Cette note propose une évaluation ex-ante de la réduction d’un tiers du nombre de députés en France, annoncée officiellement en juillet 2017 par Emmanuel Macron. Après avoir discuté les différents arguments plutôt infondés soutenant cette réforme, nous envisageons les modalités de sa mise en œuvre qui s’annonce difficile, notamment en raison du découpage électoral. La note propose également une simulation des effets électoraux d’une baisse du nombre de députés concomitante à l’introduction d’une dose de...

A Bismarckian Type of Fiscal Welfare? Insights on the Use of Social Tax Expenditures in French Social and Employment Policy ( LIEPP Working Paper, n° 65)

Nathalie Morel, Chloé Touzet & Michaël Zemmour
This article argues that situated approaches are necessary to reveal institu-tion-specific or regime specific structures, forms and uses of fiscal welfare instruments. We base our analysis on the French case, for which we have previously built an exhaustive database of social tax expenditures (STEs) for the year 2014. We find that France displays a specific structure of fiscal welfare. Most STEs are concentrated in the fields of employment, family and health policy; most STEs concern...

New methods for measuring the educational gradient of period fertility in Europe. A Bayesian approach based on parity-specific fertility estimates using harmonized survey data (OSC Papers n°4)

Greulich Angela & Toulemon Laurent
This article provides new measures allowing comparing within-country differences in current fertility behavior in Europe. By mobilizing data from the European Union’s Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), we measure the educational gradient of female period fertility for a large set of European countries. A semi-retrospective approach serves to observe fertility behavior of cohorts that are currently at childbearing age, while at the same time recording the educational level correctly. Bayesian statistics allow us...

Inégalités dans l'accumulation des différents types de patrimoine : le lien avec les inégalités économiques en général (LIEPP Working Paper, n°32)

Clément Carbonnier
Le livre de Thomas Piketty, « Le capital au XXIème siècle », a entrainé un débat nourri, notamment concernant la hausse du ratio capital sur revenus qui serait portée par la bulle immobilière. Le présent article tente d’éclairer en trois points les modifications que la prise en compte de cette spécificité immobilière engendrerait en termes d’interprétation des inégalités de patrimoine. Dans un premier temps, il est remarqué qu’en remplaçant la valorisation de marché par une...

Les stratégies statutaires des établissements d’enseignement supérieur. Une étude des 'journées portes ouvertes' (Working Paper, n°40)

Agnes Van Zanten & Alice Olivier
Les « journées portes ouvertes » (JPO) des institutions d’enseignement supérieur (IES) sont présentées par leurs organisateurs et par les divers prescripteurs intervenant auprès des futurs étudiants comme des occasions pour ces derniers de découvrir les offres de formation de différentes IES, de s'informer sur l'organisation des études, leur coût ou leurs débouchés professionnels ainsi que de demander des conseils concernant les procédures d'admission ou les attentes du corps professoral. Ces journées sont néanmoins aussi...

Does moving to a system with a more generous public health insurance increase medical care consumption? (LIEPP Working Paper, n°37)

Lea Toulemon & Laurent Davezies
We evaluate the impact of reimbursement rates on health expenditures, using a natural experiment. For historical reasons, reimbursement rates of public health insurance are higher in the French region Alsace Moselle than in other French regions. For both systems, affiliation is compulsory. Individuals moving between Alsace-Moselle and the rest of France undergo an exogenous change in reimbursement rates. We use a difference-in-difference method on a panel datasets of individuals. Our treatment group consists of individuals...

Better residential than ethnic discrimination! Reconciling audit's findings and interviews' findings in the Parisian housing market (LIEPP Working Paper, n°36)

Francois Bonnet, Etienne Lalé, Mirna Safi & Etienne Wasmer
This article investigates discrimination and the interplay of residential and ethnic stigma on the French housing market using two different methods, paired-testing au- dit study of real estate agencies and face-to-face interviews with real estate agents. The juxtaposition of their findings leads to a paradox: interviews reveal high levels of ethnic discrimination but little to none residential discrimination, while the audit study shows that living in deprived suburbs is associated with a lower probability of...

Dismantling the 'Jungle' : Relocation and Extreme Voting in France (LIEPP Working Paper, n°110)

Paul Vertier, Max Viskanic & Matteo Gamalerio
Large migrant inflows have in the past spurred anti-immigrant sentiment, but is there a way small inflows can have a different impact? In this paper, we exploit the redistribution of migrants in the aftermath of the dismantling of the “Calais Jungle” in France to study the impact of the exposure to few migrants. Using an instrumental variables approach, we find that in the presence of a migrant center (CAO), the percentage growth rate of vote...

Turning back the clock: Beliefs about gender roles during lockdown (LIEPP Working Paper, n°133)

Anne Boring & Gloria Moroni
We study the impact of lockdown measures on beliefs about gender roles. We collect data from a representative sample of 1,000 individuals in France during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. To measure beliefs about gender roles, we use questions from the 2018 wave of the European Values Study, and match respondents from the two surveys to compare beliefs before and during lockdown. We find evidence that the lockdown period was associated with a shift...

Road Space Reallocation for Sustainable Urban Mobility in the EU: The balancing act between EU regulations and cities as urban space managers (LIEPP Policy Brief, n°60)

Charlotte Halpern & Parnika Khatal
Current discussions at EU level on urban sustainable mobility have confirmed the shift away from the approach based on managing traffic flows to an approach based on moving people and goods more sustainably. European regulations and policies will impact the future of urban road space across Member States and cities, especially the urban nodes along the TEN­T network. Cities and urban spaces have acquired, in this context, a strategic role yet to be defined. Although...

Un petit pas pour le Parlement, un grand pas pour la Ve République : L’évaluation de la révision constitutionnelle du 23 juillet 2008 (LIEPP Working Paper, n°61)

Olivier Rozenberg
La note évalue les effets de la révision constitutionnelle de 2008 du point de vue de son objectif principal : la revalorisation du Parlement. Elle passe en revue nombre de dispositions relatives à l’ordre du jour des séances des assemblées, aux activités de législation, de contrôle et d’évaluation ou encore au statut de l’opposition. Elle s’appuie sur une analyse chiffrée des différentes procédures, et secondairement sur des entretiens menés dans les assemblées. Ses conclusions sont...

Cooperating with the Czechs, driving the State : German activist policies through biographical trajectories and administrative records (1918-1938) (LIEPP Working Paper, n°108)

Paul Lenormand & Jan Rovny
Czechoslovakia, a newborn state in 1918, immediately faced interethnic conflict, threatening its survival. In other multinational places of interwar Central Europe, democracy rapidly collapsed, and most ethnic minorities became entrenched into a systemic opposition to the dominant nationality of their state. How could the Czechoslovak leaders of all nationalities overcome this state of tension and mistrust? How would leaders shape their preferences and strategies be shaped? Would cooperation prove to be a better option than...

Outsourcing recruitment as a solution to prevent discrimination : A correspondence study (LIEPP Working Paper, n°104)

Clémence Berson, Morgane Laouenan & Emmanuel Valat
In this work, we assess how organization of recruitment in large companies affects ethnic discrimination. We consider large multi-establishment companies and distinguish two types of organization of recruitment: hiring made through a human resources (HR) department at a centralized level of the company and hiring made only at the level of the establishment concerned by the position, generally by managers in charge of recruitment. Our results indicate that access to a centralized HR department in...

Jobs, News and Re-offending after Incarceration (LIEPP Working Paper, n°41)

Roberto Galbiati, Aurelie Ouss & Philippe Arnaud
Gender quotas have proliferated worldwide as a major tool of gender equality policies, first in the electoral arena and then expanding to other socioeconomic spheres, notably corporate boards. The ensuing rich body of scientific literature on gender quotas so far remains split across disciplines, with a main partition between political science and economics. This scoping review aims at fostering an interdisciplinary dialogue between research on gender quotas conducted from different disciplinary and methodological perspectives. To...

Employment protection and capital-labor ratios (LIEPP Working Paper, n°33)

Alexandre Janiak & Etienne Wasmer
Employment protection (EPL) has a well know negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a non-monotonic relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and the negative. We explore the theorical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a...

When Does Money Matter for Elections? (LIEPP Policy Brief, n°58)

Julia Cagé & Heleen Dewitte
Cet article étudie les campagnes électorales sur le long terme, à travers le prisme de leurs dépenses. En particulier, nous investiguons l’impact des évolutions majeures dans les technologies de l’information et les contextes électoraux sur les niveaux, allocations et influences des dépenses des candidats. Pour ce faire, nous construisons un nouvel ensemble de données exhaustif sur les élections générales au Royaume­Uni de 1857 à 2017, qui comprend des informations sur les dépenses de campagne (détaillées...

Comment lutter contre la violence et le harcèlement à l'école et au collège ? Enseignements d'une expérimentation à grande échelle (Policy Brief, n°19)

Yann Algan, Nina Guyon & Elise Huillery
La violence entre pairs à l’école est un phénomène préoccupant, en particulier compte tenu du potentiel impact de long terme sur le devenir des enfants. Nous évaluons ici les effets d’un dispositif de « Médiation Sociale en Milieu Scolaire » (MSMS) visant à réduire la violence entre pairs. Grâce à un protocole expérimental par assignation aléatoire, nous montrons que les effets du programme sont très importants lorsqu’il est mis en place par des médiateurs assez...

Y-a-t-il un exode des qualifiés français ? Quels sont les chiffres de l'immigration ? (Policy Brief, n°10)

Pierre-Henri Bono & Etienne Wasmer
Le débat sur les fuites de jeunes qualifiés hors de France est récurrent mais semble prendre une dimension nouvelle avec les débats sur la fiscalité. Or, contrairement à certains commentaires, il n’y a pas en France de fuite massive des personnes les plus qualifiées, tout au plus une légère tendance croissante. Si l’on compare le flux net, la France accueille quasiment autant de personnes qualifiées qu’elle n’en perd. En comparaison avec les autres pays, on...

Eppur si muove: labour market protection varieties and trajectories of change across 21 high-income countries and three decades (LIEPP Working Paper, n°119)

Emanuele Ferragina & Federico Filetti
We compare labour market protection varieties and evaluate systematically trajectories of change across 21 high-income countries over three decades. Our measures – Principal Component Analysis and a new multidimensional indicator – deal with the average production worker assumption and allow us to assess countries’ trajectories of change in relation to, and independently from, classic varieties. We find that in 1990 labour market protection varieties retrace mostly Esping-Andersen’s worlds of welfare, and in 2015 the distinction...

How Legal Intermediaries Facilitate or Inhibit Social Change (LIEPP Working Paper, n°73)

Jérôme Pelisse & Shaunin Talesh
This article explores how legal intermediaries facilitate or inhibit so-cial change. We suggest the increasing complexity and ambiguity of legal rules coupled with the shift from government to governance pro-vides legal intermediaries greater opportunities to influence law and social change. Drawing from new institutional sociology, we suggest rule intermediaries shape legal and social change, with varying de-grees of success, in two ways: (1) law is filtered through non-legal logics emanating from various organizational fields; (2)...

The Dynamics of Expectations. A Look on Forecasting as a Sequence (LIEPP Working Paper, n°91)

Olivier Pilmis
The paper claims forecasting is a process during which forecasts are regularly updates and revised. Paying attention to the dynamics of expectations provides the opportunity to study changes in expectations formed by professionals, and thus give insights into how their labor unfolds. Drawing upon data from a purposely-built database of forecasts running from Sep-tember 2006 to September 2017, linear and logistic regression models investigate the infor-mational and organizational grounds of forecasts revisions. It it suggests...

The Production of Information in an Online World: Is Copy Right? (LIEPP Working Paper, n°72)

Julia Cagé, Hervé Nicolas & Ann Marie Luce
This paper documents the extent of copying and estimates the returns to originality in online news production. We build a unique dataset combining all the online content produced by French news media (newspaper, television, radio, pure online media, and a news agency) during the year 2013 with new micro audience data. We develop a topic detection algorithm that identi_es each news event, we trace the timeline of each story and study news propagation. We unravel...

An ungovernable tool of government? The problematic use of labels in public health policies (LIEPP Working Paper,2020 n°106)

Henri Bergeron, Patrick Castel & Etienne Nouguez
The popularity of labels as tools of government is growing in many policy areas. This working paper focuses on the creation and the implementation of three different public labels in the public health field. Granted by the States or other public authorities, those labels reward distinctively organizations for their contribution to a public cause. Governance by labels relies on the mechanisms of market competition and of social distinction at play within a field, to orient...

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