517 Works

Effects of Abiotic Stresses on Sorbitol and Ribitol Accumulation and Sorbitol Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L.]

Afaf Almaghamsi
Abiotic stresses are responsible for limiting crop production worldwide. Among diverse abiotic stresses, drought and salinity are the most challenging. Plants under these conditions have diverse strategies for tolerating stress. Osmotic adjustment and osmoprotection occur in plants during salinity and drought stress through accumulation of compatible solutes to a high level without interfering with cellular metabolism. Polyols (sugar alcohols) including sorbitol and ribitol are one such class of compatible solutes. Using plants of wild-type (WT)...

Two Essays on Input Substitution and Optimal Decision Making in Crop and Livestock Production Systems

John T., Jr. Allison
The thesis presented consists of two essays that analyze input substitution and decision making in crop and livestock production systems. The first essay consists of a whole-farm analysis that sought to optimize feed mixes and enterprise combinations for an organic dairy operation in the Southeastern United States. This was accomplished through mathematical programming where whole-farm net returns were maximized, and total feed costs were minimized simultaneously for four milk production level cases. Additionally, the sensitivity...

Autologous Peripheral Nerve Grafts to the Brain for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Andrew Welleford
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder of the nervous system that causes problems with movement (motor symptoms) as well as other problems such as mood disorders, cognitive changes, sleep disorders, constipation, pain, and other non-motor symptoms. The severity of PD symptoms worsens over time as the disease progresses, and while there are treatments for the motor and some non-motor symptoms there is no known cure for PD. Thus there is a high demand for therapies...

Characterizing an In Vitro Model of Severe Focal Traumatic Brain Injury in Hippocampal Slice Cultures

Julia Elaine Jagielo-Miller
In the United States, 2.8 million people suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually. Between 25%-50% of TBI injuries happen under alcohol intoxication. It is not understood how alcohol impacts patient outcomes via secondary injury pathways. Secondary injury pathways offer a window for therapeutic interventions, but there has been little success finding effective medications. Slice cultures offer a way to study secondary injury mechanisms in a controlled manner. The transection injury can model excitotoxicy seen...

A Compromised Liver Alters PCB Toxicity and Nutrient Metabolism

Jazmyne D. L. Barney
Environmental contamination is a public health concern. In particular persistent organic pollutants like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with multiple chronic inflammatory diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD prevalence has steadily increased and is expected to continue to rise with an estimated 25% of the world’s population and 80-100 million people affected in the United States alone. Importantly, the liver is the primary site for endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism, hence its proper...

Exploring the Role of Insulin Receptor Signaling in Hippocampal Learning and Memory, Neuronal Calcium Dysregulation, and Glucose Metabolism

Hilaree Frazier
In the late 90’s, emerging evidence revealed that the brain is insulin-sensitive, highlighted by broad expression of brain-specific insulin receptors and reports of circulating brain insulin. Contemporary literature robustly supports the role of insulin signaling in normal brain function and suggests that insulin-related processes diminish with aging, evidenced by decreased signaling markers, reduced insulin receptor density, and lower levels of insulin transport across the blood-brain barrier. In the context of pathological cognitive decline, clinical trials...

Access to Autism Spectrum Disorder Services for Rural Appalachian Citizens

Angela Scarpa, Laura S. Jensen, Denis Gracanin, Sharon L. Ramey, Angela V. Dahiya, L. Maria Ingram, Jordan Albright, Alyssa J. Gatto, Jen P. Scott & Lisa Ruble
Background: Low-resource rural communities face significant challenges regarding availability and adequacy of evidence-based services. Purposes: With respect to accessing evidence-based services for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), this brief report summarizes needs of rural citizens in the South-Central Appalachian region, an area notable for persistent health disparities. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data during focus groups with 33 service providers and 15 caregivers of children with ASD in rural southwest...

Evaluation of Guardrail Needs and Update of Guardrail Rating Program

Brian K. Howell, William Nicholas Staats & Nancy Albright
The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) seeks to reduce the frequency of roadway departure crashes, which often prove fatal. Roadside barriers such as guardrail have proven effective at mitigating these crashes, however, the demand for installations is high throughout the state. KYTC must prioritize prospective guardrail locations to match available funds with the most critical, or unsafe, sites. The current guardrail rating program (GRP) was established in 1989 to identify and prioritize guardrail needs. Despite periodic...

Caregivers of Parents with Alzheimer's Disease

Matthew Cornu
This study furthers Alzheimer’s family literature regarding the impact of caregiver attachment, readiness to provide care, and caregiver quality of life. A sample of 33 participants caring for a parent with Alzheimer’s disease in the state of Kentucky was recruited to complete a questionnaire for the study. The questionnaire consisted of an online survey about participants’ experiences and attachments growing up with their parents, their experiences becoming caregivers to their parents with Alzheimer’s disease, and...

The Economic Impacts of Land Use Policies in Lexington, Kentucky

Christopher R. Bollinger, William H. Hoyt, Michael W. Clark & Xiaozhou Ding
Every five years, Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government’s Planning Commission adopts a comprehensive plan detailing goals and objectives that guide the city’s land use planning. Maintaining the city’s urban service area and preserving its rural and agricultural areas are integral parts of this plan. Within the urban service area, land is zoned to permit various types of urban uses such as residential, commercial, and industrial use. Land outside the urban service area is subject to several...

An Evaluation of How Repealing West Virginia’s Prevailing Wage Law Affected the Cost of Public Construction

Michael W. Clark & Kenneth Tester
This study compared school construction costs before and after legislative changes to prevailing wage laws in West Virginia. The study uses data provided by the School Building Authority of West Virginia (SBA). The data suggests that school construction costs increased in the years prior to the legislative changes and decreased after. Comparing projects bid with and without prevailing wages since 2013 suggests construction costs per square foot decreased by 7.3 percent since the removal of...

Design and Process of 3D-Printed Parts Using Composite Theory

Jordan Garcia
3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly efficient. However, it is observed that the procedures used in 3D printing differ substantially among the printers and from those used in conventional manufacturing. In this thesis, the mechanical properties of engineering products fabricated by 3D printing were comprehensively evaluated and then compared with...

Nanoharvesting and Delivery of Bioactive Materials Using Engineered Silica Nanoparticles

M. Arif Khan
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) possess large surface areas and ample pore space that can be readily modified with specific functional groups for targeted binding of bioactive materials to be transported through cellular barriers. Engineered silica nanoparticles (ESNP) have been used extensively to deliver bio-active materials to target intracellular sites, including as non-viral vectors for nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) delivery such as for siRNA induced interference. The reverse process guided by the same principles is called “nanoharvesting”,...

Critical Path for Project Development

Steven Douglas Kreis, Bryan Gibson, Jeff Jasper, Christopher W. Van Dyke, Candice Y. Wallace, Rachel Catchings & Sarah M. McCormack
Overseeing the delivery of highway projects at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) requires the successful coordination of activities and inputs from multiple external agencies and members of the agency’s Project Development team, who have varied disciplinary backgrounds. Despite the complexity of project delivery, the Cabinet presently does not estimate hours and project milestone dates until after it has selected a design consultant. Moving forward KYTC should explore requiring consultants to develop a critical path method...

PERCEPTUAL DIALECTOLOGY IN SLOVAKIA

Katka Showers-Curtis
This study examines Slovak dialect perceptions from 311 participants in 9 municipalities in Slovakia. Data were collected between 2016 and 2017, utilizing a map task, degree of difference ratings, and other Likert scale tasks to assess participants’ perceptions of and attitudes about dialects in Slovakia. Participants received blank maps of Slovakia on which to elicit participants’ perceptions of where isoglosses (dialect boundaries) lie. They drew their own isoglosses and were asked to label each dialect...

An Inverse Eigenvalue Problem for the Schrödinger Equation on the Unit Ball of R3

Maryam Ali Al Ghafli
The inverse eigenvalue problem for a given operator is to determine the coefficients by using knowledge of its eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. These are determined by the behavior of the solutions on the domain boundaries. In our problem, the Schrödinger operator acting on functions defined on the unit ball of $\mathbb{R}^3$ has a radial potential taken from $L^2_{\mathbb{R}}[0,1].$ Hence the set of the eigenvalues of this problem is the union of the eigenvalues of infinitely many...

Introducing the L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative

F. Douglas Scutchfield & Kevin Patrick
The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative: Linking & Amplifying User-Centered Networks through Connected Health: A Demonstration of Broadband-Enabled Connected Health and Community-Based Co-Design brings together a group of organizations that are eager to use Appalachian Kentucky as a site for the development of a project aimed at creating an environment that addresses two of the nation’s major concerns about cancer. First, individuals who live in rural and remote areas are more likely to die of cancer than those...

Barn-Raising on the Digital Frontier

Bradford W. Hesse, David Ahern, Michele Ellison, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Karen Onyeije, Michael C. Gibbons, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Victoria Attencio, Grant Patterson, Jessica Boten, Christopher Hartshorn, Ben Bartolome, Katie Gorscak, Melanie McComsey, Alexandra Hubenko, Bin Huang, Corey Baker & Don Norman
A meta-analysis of oncology papers from around the world revealed that cancer patients who lived more than 50 miles away from hospital centers routinely presented with more advanced stages of disease at diagnosis, exhibited lower adherence to prescribed treatments, presented with poorer diagnoses, and reported a lower quality of life than patients who lived nearer to care facilities. Connected health approaches—or the use of broadband and telecommunications technologies to evaluate, diagnose, and monitor patients beyond...

BARRIERS AND FACILITORS OF HEALTHCARE USE AMONG PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS

Candice Kuns-Adkins
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is an infection that can have grave consequences when left untreated. Hepatitis C can be easily eradicated with direct acting antiviral therapy. People who inject drugs (PWID) and inmates are among those with the highest incidence of HCV. However, cure rates among this population remains low. This is, in part, related to an interruption in the HCV care cascade such that only 30% of PWID are linked to care and only...

Investigation of Thiol-Containing Biomarkers and Their Role in the Exposome

Tracy Gastineau-Stevens
Exposomics is an emerging area of study that looks at how the environment around a person or persons affects their overall health. Biomarkers have emerged as useful tools to better understand how the exposome affects a person. In this work, we investigate two potential endogenous biomarkers, homocysteine and glutathione that have been previously implicated in a number of diseases that have been linked to environmental causes. We also investigated an environmental exposure, the fungicide Ziram,...

PRINCIPAL BEHAVIORS THAT FOSTER COLLECTIVE EFFICACY AMONG TEACHERS IN RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENTUCKY

Tanya Jo Jury
The purpose of this study was to examine principal behaviors, identified by teachers and principals, which foster collective efficacy among teachers. As instructional leaders of a school, principals are expected to lead their schools. Behaviors exhibited by the principal can either help or hinder the success of the school and teachers and students in that school. This study will assist principals, aspiring principals, and instructors of principal preparation programs in knowing what behaviors are necessary...

BIOINFORMATIC AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES OF AXOLOTL REGENERATION

Nour Al Haj Baddar
Salamanders have an extraordinary ability to regenerate appendages after loss or amputation, irrespective of age. My dissertation research explored the possibility that regenerative ability is associated with the evolution of novel, salamander-specific genes. I utilized transcriptional and genomic databases for the axolotl to discover previously unidentified genes, to the exclusion of other vertebrate taxa. Among the genes identified were multiple mmps (Matrix metalloproteases) and a jnk1/mapk8 (c-jun-N-terminal kinase) paralog. MMPs function in extracellular matrix remodeling...

Kentucky Traffic Accident Facts 1994 Report

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KENTUCKY'S TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FACTS report for 1994 is based on accident reports submitted to the Accident Unit housed in the Kentucky State Police Information Services Branch, Records Section. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, "every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a vehicle accident of which a report must be made ... shall file a report of the accident...within ten days after investigation of the accident upon forms supplied by the bureau." The stated...

Kentucky Traffic Collision Facts 2010 Report

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KENTUCKY’S TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2010 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, “every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a vehicle accident of which a report must be made...shall file a report of the accident...within ten days after investigation of the accident upon forms supplied by the bureau.” The stated purpose of this requirement is to utilize data on traffic...

Pilot Study of Text Message Nudges as a Way to Improve Weight Loss Outcomes

Madison Copher
Weight loss programs for women are on the rise, including both face to face and online programs. However, current research is limited on the process measures and content which produce adherence and the largest outcomes. With obesity on the rise in the United States, it is important to understand out health coaches can strengthen their programs to better support the obese population in their weight loss journey. The purpose of this pilot study was to...

Registration Year

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Affiliations

  • University of Kentucky
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