20 Works

Nutrient digestibility and balance studies

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, René Baumont, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Pierre Noziére, Peter Lund, David Humphries & Jan Dijkstra
The nutritional value of a feed for cattle depends on its nutrient and energy contents, the extent of rumen fermentation and degradation, and the post-ruminal digestibility. Efficiency of digestion depends on different factors, for example, the apparent digestibility (estimated by subtracting the nutrients contained in faeces from the nutrients contained in dietary intake – unlike true digestibility where the endogenous and microbial amount is taken into account and corrected in final outcome) usually decreases when...

Pleotropism of gonadotropin action

Manuela Simoni, Elia Paradiso, Véronique Lockhart, Eric Reiter, Livio Casarini, Lucie Pellissier & Pascale Crépieux

Defining Agroecology: Exploring the Circulation of Knowledge in FAO’s Global Dialogue

Allison Loconto & Eve Fouilleux
This article traces how ‘agroecology’ is co-produced as a global socio-technical object. The site of co-production, the Global Dialogue on Agroecology, was convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in different cities around the world between 2014 and 2018 (Rome 2014; Brasilia, Dakar, Bangkok 2015; La Paz, Kunming, Budapest 2016; Rome 2018). We analyze these ‘expert’ symposia and regional meetings by exploring how knowledge about agroecology circulates and frames the...

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique

Yvanne Rochette, Arjan Jonker, Peter Moate, Amélie Vanlierde & Cécile Martin
A further method for measuring methane production is the sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) tracer technique, which requires inserting a known quantity of the inert tracer into the rumen. The use of the SF₆ tracer technique to quantify enteric CH4 emissions from grazing ruminants was pioneered by Zimmerman and Johnson. The SF₆ tracer technique is an indirect method to quantify CH4 emissions from ruminants because only a representative quantity of gas produced by the animal is collected;...

Foreword

Philippe Chemineau
Generally, one of the main areas for progress in science is the exchange of methods and techniques amongst laboratories working in the same area. Sharing methods does not limit discoveries made by different research groups, often in competition, but can accelerate them. In life sciences, the situation is different, and how methods are shared, depends on the specialist field concerned. The aim of this book is to share methods for investigation of physiology and behaviour...

Respiratory chamber facility

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Karen Beauchemin, Cécile Martin, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Gemma Miller, David Humphries & Marcel Heetkamp
This guideline will highlight the key steps required when measuring gas exchange of cattle for the estimation of methane emission and heat production (by estimating the relation of emitted CO2 and CH4 to the consumed O2) via a respiration chamber (RC). The authors acknowledge the variation in RC design in different experimental units, and therefore, the mentioned steps within this guideline are common and essential for all. Note that a CO2 and/or CH4 recovery test...

Rumination activity

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Lene Munksgaard, René Baumont, Björn Kuhla & David Humphries
The daily rumination pattern in cattle is influenced by different factors such as feeding frequency, physical and chemical characteristics of the diet, feeding time, fasting, photoperiod and grazing management. Studies have observed an apparent decrease in rumination activity in ruminal acidosis or mastitis challenging dairy cattle. Social and physical environment can also affect cattle’s rumination behaviour. Manual observation of eating and rumination in individual animal is time-consuming and labour intensive. Therefore, the need for developing...

Ethics in experiments on live cattle: a pragmatic approach

Isabelle Veissier, Véronique Deiss, Mette Herskin, Emer Kennedy & Kenny Rutherford
There are ongoing philosophical, moral, and societal debates about experiments on live animals. Along with a consequentialist approach, it may be considered that an action – here an experiment on live animals – is morally acceptable if the knowledge it aims to produce can result in an overall benefit. In other words, it is acceptable if the constraints imposed on the animals involved are outweighed by the larger benefits expected for others (humans or animals)....

Lying, standing, and eating behaviour

Lene Munksgaard, Emma Ternman, Isabelle Veissier, Carol-Anne Duthie & René Baumont
Standing and lying behaviours are well-defined. Lying is often described as when the flank or sternum of the animal is in contact with the ground, and end of lying when all four legs are perpendicular to the body. The transition from lying to standing and vice versa requires only a few seconds, and therefore differences in the description of lying do not greatly affect the calculation of time spent lying or standing. By contrast, if...

A checklist to validate sensor output for the recording of cattle behaviour

Matthieu Bouchon, Alex Bach, Bruno Meunier, Emma Ternman, Kees Van Reenen, Isabelle Veissier & Lene Munksgaard
A process of validation assesses the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose within a specific context. Ideally, the validation of a tool should describe the range of purposes and contexts in which it is appropriate. This generally cannot be done completely. Therefore, when such a wide validation cannot be done, the validation process needs to refer clearly to the purpose of the use of the tool and to which animals it...

Analyse d’un questionnaire à destination des pêcheurs pélagiques professionnels français

Coline Arqué, Charlotte Couëdel, Sven Mellaza, Marylou Pourret & Axel Rochaud

Méthodologies d’évaluation et de suivi du bilan carbone des sols et recommandations pour l’écriture d’une méthode Label Bas Carbone

Wendtwoin Imelda Gécica Yogo, Hugues Clivot, Eric Ceschia, Fabien Ferchaud, Suzanne Reynders, Jean-Francois Soussana & Taeken Wijmer

The gas recovery test of respiratory chambers

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Marcel Heetkamp, Gemma Miller, David Humphries, Frederic Anglard, Yvanne Rochette, Cécile Martin, Tom Gardiner & Marc Coleman
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calorimetry studies, as CH4 is an energy loss. The RC can therefore be used to quantify the CH4 production from animals, and many new RC units have been constructed during the last decades with...

Etude technico-économique sur l'opportunité de récupération des métaux contenus dans les eaux usées domestiques

Elodie Varennes, Denise Blanc-Biscarat, Lucie Gueret, Céline Lagarrigue & Jean-Marc Choubert

Milk intake, body anatomy and composition in calves

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Dominique Pomies, Volker Röttgen, Björn Kuhla, Stefan Nüske, Alex Bach & Armin M. Scholz
Calves are an important investment on a cattle farm as their loss can cause substantial financial damage. Young calves are susceptible to a range of different diseases caused by pathogens, which can lead to morbidity and mortality. Additionally, calf management, including cow-calf separation, colostrum feeding, housing, dehorning and vaccination, can directly impact the health of calves. This chapter is therefore dedicated to different methods for assessing specific traits in calves. The current focus in calf...

Greenfeed systems

Cécile Martin, Yvanne Rochette, David Humphries & Gilles Renand
The GreenFeed (GF) system spot samples the breath of individual animals for short periods (3–7 min), at various times of the day, over several days, weeks, or months to measure methane production. To obtain a diurnal CH4 emission pattern from the GF system, the animal visits need to be appropriately distributed over a 24 h feeding cycle. This can be difficult to achieve as the number of visits is greater during certain hours of the...

Lameness detection and scoring

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Juan Haladjian, Stefan Nüske, Dorothée Ledoux, Dave Humphries, Lene Munksgaard & Isabelle Veissier
Enting concluded lameness, from an economic perspective, as the third most costly health disease, following mastitis and reproductive failure issues, in cattle units. Archer estimated the incidence rate of lameness in the United Kingdom cattle herds roughly 50 cases/100 cows in a year; nevertheless, due to poor correlation between incidence rates and records of treatments in farms, the actual number seems to be higher. Surprisingly, the significance of lameness associated with cattle welfare, health and...

How to make a little worm pump like a big worm

Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Alexander P. Gerhard, Jürgen Krücken, Claude Charvet & cedric neveu

Agroecological transformation for sustainable food systems : insight on France-CGIAR research

Kwesi Atta-Krah, Jean-Luc Chotte, Gascuel Chantal, Gitz Vincent, Hainzelin Etienne, Hubert Bernard, Quintero Marcela & Sinclair Fergus

Registration Year

  • 2021
    11
  • 2020
    9

Resource Types

  • Text
    20

Affiliations

  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    20
  • University of Clermont Auvergne
    10
  • Aarhus University
    8
  • Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
    6
  • University of Reading
    6
  • Scotland's Rural College
    4
  • Wageningen University & Research
    4
  • Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats
    2
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
    2
  • Fractionnation of AgroResources and Environment
    1