2,403 Works

Towards Improving Adversarial Robustness of NLP Models

Jin Yong Yoo
Adversarial training has been extensively studied as a way to improve model's adversarial robustness in computer vision. On the other hand, little attention has been paid in NLP as to how adversarial training affects model's robustness. Within NLP, there exists a significant disconnect between recent works on adversarial training and recent works on adversarial attacks as most recent works on adversarial training have studied it as a means of improving the model's generalization capability instead...

Enacting Accountability in Innovative Schools: The Sensemaking Strategies of Public Montessori Principals

Corey Borgman
Montessori is the largest alternative pedagogy represented in the public educational system (Debs & Brown, 2017), with over 500 such programs currently operating in the US. The number of publicly funded Montessori schools has doubled over the past two decades, in part due to market-based reforms promoting educational innovation and school choice. Our nation’s simultaneous pursuit of comprehensive, accountability-based reforms presents another promising opportunity for the Montessori movement, as Montessori is one approach that is...

Effects of Complex Material-Environment Interactions on Hot Corrosion Mechanisms

Kevin Meisner
Low temperature hot corrosion (LTHC) is the degradation of gas turbine components by reaction with a molten salt at approximately 700 °C. LTHC is typically attributed to eutectic melts of a mixture of Na2SO4 and sulfates of alloying elements, particularly NiSO4 and CoSO4. However, characterization of NiCoCrAlY-coated field hardware shows corrosive deposits are rich in MgO and/or MgSO4 (referred to here as Mg2+) as well as Na2SO4. The literature on the effects of Mg2+ additions...

From \"Green Light\" to Flashing Red: Humanitarian Interventionism in the Balkans and the Clinton Administration's Iran-Bosnia Affair

Bo Qu
This essay examines United States policy towards the Bosnian War of 1992-1995. It focuses on a case study of the Clinton administration’s decision to tacitly permit the shipment of Iranian weapons to Bosnia through Croatia in the spring of 1994. Understanding this decision complicates the conventional narrative of Bosnia policy, which is usually one of gradually building up the will to take forceful action. It also complicates narratives about post-Cold War humanitarian interventions, which are...

\"Al-Shaheed Park as Public Space: An ethnographic exploration of everyday landscapes and politics in Kuwait\"

Weaam Alabdullah
Kuwait’s City’s Al-Shaheed Park is an example of public space beyond democracy, which disrupts the public/non-public binary. Scholars widely depict public spaces as directly tied to democracy, and emphasize their active production through protests and informal and insurgent practices. Drawing from thirteen months of ethnographic fieldwork in Al-Shaheed Park, this dissertation investigates publicness through the lens of everyday life. Each chapter identifies a seemingly banal practice that highlights the park’s heterotopic (real and unreal) nature....

Sphingolipids and Prostate Cancer: complex molecules for a complex disease

Pedro Filipe Da Costa Pinheiro
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most incident cancer in men worldwide, and despite vast amounts of research it remains one of the major epidemiological burdens in oncology. The prostate gland is regulated by male androgens that activate the Androgen Receptor (AR), a transcription factor and a master regulator of several different signaling pathways, contributing towards normal development of the organ. In PCa, these hormones exert an important role in the onset and progression of...

A Radio Measurement of the Star Formation History of the Universe

Allison Matthews
Most of the stars in the universe were formed by disk galaxies like our own Milky Way during an era poetically called “cosmic noon.” This era, occurring approximately 3 billion years after the Big Bang, marked the peak of not only star formation, but also black hole growth and dust attenuation. The dust that permeates all galaxies absorbs and scatters the ultraviolet and optical light primarily generated by massive stars, whose lives are so short...

Exploring the Transformative Potential of Racial-Ethnic Diversity in Schools and Classrooms: The Role of Social Interactions

Haley Johnson
As the US education system becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, there is a need understand the pathways in which racial-ethnic diversity may or may not be beneficial in order to optimize benefits and minimize harm. This manuscript style dissertation, Exploring the Transformative Potential of Racial-Ethnic Diversity in Schools and Classrooms: The Role of Social Interactions, utilizes different analytic techniques to explore the pathways in which classroom diversity is and is not beneficial for adolescents....

The Relationship of School Leader Values and Practices to Participation of Black and Latinx Students in Advanced Placement Courses

Beverly Rudolph
Black and Latinx students in the United States are significantly underrepresented in Advanced Placement (AP) courses (Aud et al., 2010; College Board, 2008, 2018b). Historically, each group has experienced racial disproportionality between its participation in AP courses in comparison to its overall 9th – 12th grade U.S. population. The long-term negative effects for Black and Latinx students, their families, and their communities are significant, including limited post-secondary opportunities and a reduction of long-term earning potential....

Using Crowdsourced Datasets to Assess and Mitigate Impacts of Recurrent Flooding on Roadway Networks

Shraddha Praharaj
Recurrent flooding is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon in coastal cities all over the world. In the US, many cities on the east coast are facing the problem of recurrent flooding. This is a phenomenon caused by climate change and sea-level rise, yielding higher high tide events, rise in river water levels, and more severe rainfall events. In recent decades, recurrent flooding events are becoming more intense and frequent. These events typically last for a...

Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of Teacher Evaluations' Impact on Teacher Growth

David Stratuik
“The paradox of teacher evaluation is that it holds the potential to help nearly every teacher improve, yet in actual practice it helps almost no one” (Stiggins & Duke, 1988, p. 1). While the above quote was written more than three decades ago, some would suggest that while the process looks different, the outcome has changed very little. Significant resources of both time and money have been poured into improving the teacher evaluation process. At...

Mining Domain Knowledge from Unstructured Multi-Modal Data for Smart Bridge Infrastructure Management

Tianshu Li
The management of the bridge system encloses a pipeline of condition data collection (i.e. inspections), condition assessment, and deterioration prediction. Visual inspections are performed periodically, submitting ratings of bridge conditions to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) and the element-level rating data to support deterioration prediction. While the current experience-driven inspection and assessment have been practiced for decades, today’s bridge infrastructure system in the U.S. faces critical preservation challenges in its sheer volume of aging and...

The Role of Interferons in Regulating the Subnuclear Positioning of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes and Reactivation

Jon Suzich
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infections in post-mitotic neurons, most commonly in the peripheral ganglia. Latent HSV-1 infection is asymptomatic, but the virus periodically reactivates, which can lead to significant disease, including a life-threatening encephalitis or recurrent HSV-1 ocular infection, a leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that recurrent HSV-1 infection may also impact the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, there is a need to...

Posttranscriptional gene regulation in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

Amber Sauder
Bacteria must sense and respond to environmental cues to survive and replicate in diverse environments. Tight regulation of metabolic and virulence gene expression is required for pathogens to compete with the host microbiota, replicate, and subvert the immune system. The foodborne pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has a very low infectious dose, indicating successful adaptation to the various environments in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Whereas the role of transcriptional regulators in EHEC niche adaptation...

A User Interface Informing Medical Staff on Continuous Indoor Environmental Quality to Support Patient Care and Airborne Disease Mitigation; Researcher Communication Strategies Via Twitter to Bridge the Knowledge Barrier Between Scientists and Citizens Amidst the COVID-19 Infodemic

James Sterchi
Scientific researchers produce a wealth of knowledge and discovery untapped by society at large. While this information exists, the problem becomes communicating these findings in an easily interpretable, accessible manner on a broad scale. The works included below aim to breakdown this knowledge barrier as the technical project provides insights on readily-available data to assist medical staff in patient care, and the sociotechnical synthesis produces a framework for sharing knowledge via Twitter, one of the...

Analyzing Archival Terzan5 Data Through Polarization Calibration

Morgan Waddy
Redback Pulsars are eclipsing pulsars that are frequently lost due to their quasi-random orbital variability. In this project we endeavored to use new software to gather detections of two pulsars in the globular cluster, Terzan 5. Then using these new detections we were able to investigate the polarization of these sources through calibration of the data. We attempted to verify whether PSR J1748-2446ad is truly the fastest-spinning radio pulsar by using the polarization information, and...

Manufacturing an RNA Therapeutic for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy; A Distribution of Responsibility for the Sinking of the Titanic using Actor Network Theory and the Problem of Many Hands

William McDevitt
My technical work and my STS work are connected through the idea of responsibility for ensuring the safety of the people using your product. However, the two works differ in that one discusses precautions taken to ensure that no accident occurs while the other one focuses on assigning moral responsibility for the failure of an engineering invention. In what follows, I will first describe a proposal for the industrial design of a new therapeutic for...

Developing a Recommendation System for Collegiate Golf Recruiting; Impact of Unethical Biases on Recommender Systems

Michael Bassilios
Recommender systems are being used more frequently in many different fields and recruiting processes, but they can come with various biases that have harmful effects on the recruiting process. The technical project looked at developing an online recommender system that can be used for college golf recruiting by matching high school golfers with college teams. The purpose for doing so is that this recruiting process is very disorganized, and there is great difficulty in determining...

Developing a Criteria-Based Evaluation Tool for User Experience Design that Balances Standardization and Creativity; Personalization and Privacy: Conflicting Views of Targeted Digital Advertising

Kelcie Satterthwaite
How can the digital user experience be improved? In an environment where digital interactions are common, businesses must respect users’ data privacy concerns in their creation of digital experiences. How can user interface (UI) and user experience (UX) designers balance creativity and standardization in the development of an interface? Design systems are used to create consistent UX and UI patterns across a website or application. The absence of a design system can lead to inconsistencies...

Generating Images of University of Virginia Architecture with GANs ; Regulating Innovation: How Advocates Fight for Algorithmic Regulation

Arthur Harris
Digital systems imperfectly sense and represent external phenomena, constraining their capacity to depict or interpret them accurately or equitably. Generative modeling can now create realistic images. To evaluate generative modeling of complex images, images of the University of Virginia’s Rotunda were generated through a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN). The model required several thousand iterations to roughly approximate the Rotunda’s shape. Such results indicate that with sufficient training examples, time to train, and hardware, generative modeling...

Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on Economy and Environment in the Asia-Pacific Region ; Pathways to 2°C: The Controversy over the Place of Biomass in a Low-Carbon Energy Future

Eric Jess
What are the tradeoffs between economic and environmental interests? Economic slowdown due to COVID-19 has exposed the extent to which human activity affects the environment, which raises the question of how a low-carbon energy future will be achieved. The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked longstanding and competing interests of the economy and environment. Policy responses from governments have varied across the globe, but the economic downturn has plagued countries regardless of their COVID-19 response plan. Lockdowns...

Economy and Environment During COVID-19 Slowdown; Influences on Climate Politics in the Trump Administration

Rachel Bigelow
Infectious diseases and environmental hazards transcend national borders. Interest groups compete to influence public policy responses to these threats. Governments have the responsibility of providing citizens with what they cannot effectively provide for themselves. Complexities arise when governments are tasked with balancing competing interests amid unprecedented global crises. National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic affected domestic production and air quality. Many countries instituted lockdowns and other restrictions, at a cost to economic growth. Responses in...

Improving the Right-Hand Ergonomics of the Modern GI Endoscope ; The Future of Medical Risk Management: Software in Medicine

David Mai
How can medical professionals and hospital administrations improve working conditions within the hospital? How can right-hand ergonomics be improved during gastrointestinal endoscopy? During colonoscopy procedures, gastroenterologists are required to perform non-ergonomic favorable tasks such as standing for long periods of time, tilting their head and putting their wrist and fingers in unfavorable position while operating the procedure. The right-hand specifically experiences pain due to high gripping force and torque. In order to combat this a...

Wildrock Nature Play Park Audit

Anne Nelson Stoner, Carmen Wright, Archer Willauer, Aleksander De Mott, Theodore Teichman, Logan Ende & Ian Baxter
This project is a collaborative effort between a University of Virginia graduate student team and Wildrock to audit the existing green spaces in Charlottesville as potential sites of nature play. Wildrock is a three-year old nonprofit nature play and discovery center dedicated to promoting nature play for health and happiness through educational, recreational, and therapeutic programs for children. Within the City of Charlottesville, Wildrock works with local schools, non-profits, and public housing communities to create...

The Additive C􏰁ytotoxic Effect of BMS754807 and BMS599626 on the Head and Neck Cancer Proteome; The Impact of Telemedicine on Antimicrobial Resistance During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Sarah Hall
Drug resistance is a widespread issue that arises in many clinical circumstances, resulting in difficulty treating diseases/illnesses. Typically, a small population of the disease naturally contains gene mutations that diminish the efficacy of the treatment, and this immune population continues to grow. Alternatively, diseased cells can activate other pathways as a response to drugs in order to survive. While there are various types of drug resistance, resistance to antibiotics and cancer therapeutics were of interest...

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