9 Works

Collective Effect of Landfills and Landscape Composition on Bird-Aircraft Collisions

Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell & Travis L. DeVault
Ninety-three percent of all reported bird strikes occur below 1,067 m, which based on the typical approach and departure angles of aircraft is within 8–13 km of an airport. Concomitantly, the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization recommend that any feature that would attract hazardous wildlife to the approach and departure airspace be restricted. Thus, preventing the establishment of wildlife attractants, such as municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) within 8 km or...

Livestock Preference for Endophyte-Infected or Endophyte-Free Oxytropis sericea, Ipomoea carnea, and Ipomoea asarifolia

James Pfister, Daniel Cook, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner & Franklin Riet-Correa
Fungal endophyte-infected forages have been shown to alter herbivore feeding preferences. The objective of this experiment was to compare the preference of cattle, sheep, and goats for plants containing (E+) and not containing (E-) fungal endophytes using freshly harvested Oxytropis sericea, Ipomoea carnea, and Ipomoea asarifolia. Goats and sheep rejected all forage choices regardless of endophyte status except for grass and alfalfa hay. Endophyte status had no influence on cattle forage preferences. Cattle rejected all...

Herbicide Control of Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae)

Clinton A. Stonecipher, Corey Ransom, Eric Thacker & Kevin D. Welch
Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae [Pursh] Britton & Rusby) is a native invasive species that is widely distributed across western North America. It is very competitive with other vegetation and can reduce or displace desirable grasses and forbs. Removal of snakeweed from rangelands can result in increased forage production of desirable plant species. The evaluation of new herbicides to determine their efficacy in controlling broom snakeweed assists in providing land managers with alternatives to control broom...

The Changing Face of the Wildlife Profession: Tools for Creating Women Leaders

Wendy S. Anderson
Women continue to be underrepresented in the natural resource sciences arena, including the field of wildlife biology. The gender gap widens further with advancement to higher level positions. This paper explores potential reasons behind the lack of women in leadership and the array of challenges that women may face in their career paths. A variety of tools are proposed to support and encourage career advancement for women. Studies show that organizations with higher numbers of...

Talking Trash in the Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near the North Shore Marine Transfer Station

Stephan J. Beffre & Brian E. Washburn
Anthropogenic activities that concentrate wildlife near airports increases the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions. Placing waste management facilities, natural areas, golf courses, and other landscape features near airports have the potential to attract wildlife hazardous to aviation. We conducted a 3-year study (March 2013–February 2016) to determine if the implementation of a Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Program (WHMP) would influence the bird use of a waste transfer station located near LaGuardia Airport, New York City, New York,...

Use of Roadside Deer Removal to Reduce Deer–Vehicle Collisions

John C. Kilgo, John I. Blake, Tracy E. Grazia, Andy Horcher, Michael Larsen, Thomas Mims & Stanley J. Zarnoch
Identification of management tools to reduce the incidence of deer–vehicle collisions (DVCs) is important to improve motorist safety. Sharpshooting to reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; deer) along roads has proven successful in urban situations but has not been evaluated in undeveloped areas. We used a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design to evaluate the use of sharpshooting to reduce DVCs along roads on the uninhabited U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, during 2011–2017. We...

Molecular Differentiation of Astragalus Species and Varieties from the Western United States: The Chloroplast DNA Bridge Between Evolution and Molecular Systematics

Marwa Neyaz, Daniel Cook & Rebecca Creamer
Locoweeds are the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the world and have been reported in the Western United States since the 1800s, causing tremendous losses in livestock. Consumption of locoweeds by grazing animals stimulates the neurological disease, locoism, characterized by weight loss, ataxia, and lack of muscular coordination. The name locoweed is used for Astragalus and Oxytropis species known to contain swainsonine, the toxic principle produced by the plant endophytic fungus Undifilum. Astragalus includes...

The Comparative Cytotoxicity of Riddelliine in Primary Mouse, Rat and Chick Hepatocytes

Bryan L. Stegelmeier, William S. Resager & Steven M. Colegate
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) producing plants commonly poison livestock, wildlife and humans. Poisoning occurs when DHPAs are ingested as feed or food, or when they contaminate medicinal or herbal products. Direct toxicologic comparison of individual DHPAs is essential to estimate their actual health risks. This has been problematic due to varying models and difficulties in DHPA isolation or synthesis. In contrast, the macrocyclic DHPA riddelliine is readily isolated and it has been used as a benchmark...

North American Hard Yellow Liver Disease: An Old Problem Readdressed

Bryan L. Stegelmeier, Meredyth Jones, Christopher P. Womack, T. Zane Davis & Dale R. Gardner
Hard yellow liver disease or fatty cirrhosis periodically affects cattle, sheep, goats, pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) and whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) within several Texas counties in the United States. Clinically it presents as chronic liver disease with progressive hepatic necrosis and fibrosis, icterus and liver failure. The damaged livers are yellow and many have multiple firm, often gritty foci that are scattered throughout all lobes. Early investigations included feeding studies using potential toxic plants,...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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  • Text
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Affiliations

  • United States Department of Agriculture
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  • Utah State University
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  • New Mexico State University
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  • University of Georgia
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  • Oklahoma State University
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  • Agricultural Research Service
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  • Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria
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  • University of Arizona
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  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    1