586 Works

THE ROLES OF POLAR CELL EXTENSIONS IN DROSOPHILA MICROPYLE FORMATION

Bradford Hull
The Drosophila micropyle is a conserved formation utilized to allow sperm passage past the robust eggshell structure for fertilization. Micropyle formation follows a unique acellular tubulogenesis method where it is secreted and shaped by specialized follicle cells including the border cells and polar cells. In late oogenesis, the polar cells form extensions that are necessary to create the micropyle pore through which sperm enters. Previous work established that polar cell extension presence is required for...

INTERFACES IN LEAD-FREE TIN PEROVSKITE PHOTOVOLTAICS

Alex Boehm
Halide perovskites have generated tremendous interest as low-cost semiconductors for optoelectronics, such as photovoltaics, lasers, and light emitting diodes due to their extraordinary optical and transport properties. Perovskite photovoltaics in particular have demonstrated a meteoric rise in power conversion efficiencies and drawn considerable interest as a next-generation solar energy technology. The rapid development has centered around lead-based derivatives, and concerns regarding the toxicity of lead has sparked interest in low toxicity and more environmentally friendly...

Pneumovirus Infections

Jonathan Kinder
Pneumoviruses including human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are significant causes of respiratory tract infections globally. Children, elderly, and immunocompromised patients are at the greatest risk for developing severe infections, which can have devastating outcomes. Although these viruses are ubiquitous with significant impacts on human health, there are no antivirals or vaccines available. The only FDA approved therapy is a monoclonal antibody for RSV, given prophylactically during the infectious season, and this treatment...

ESCALATION AND REINSTATEMENT OF FENTANYL SELF-ADMINISTRATION IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS

Samantha Malone
Escalation of intake and craving are two DSM-5 hallmark symptoms of opioid use disorder (OUD). Objectives: This study determined if escalation measured by long access (LgA) self-administration and craving measured by reinstatement are related. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer (SA) fentanyl across 7 daily 1-h sessions, followed by 21 SA sessions of either 1- or 6-h duration. Assignment to short access (ShA) and long access (LgA) groups was randomly determined...

Analysis of Traffic Crash Data in Kentucky 2015-2019

Eric R. Green, Paul A. Ross, Christopher L. Blackden, Michael A. Fields & William Nicholas Staats
Executive Summary and Introduction This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Where used, rates were calculated for various types of highways and for counties and cities. Difference criteria were used for exposure. Average and critical numbers, SPFs, and rates of crashes were calculated for various types of highways in rural and urban areas. These use crashes...

RECONSIDERING MORAL PERCEPTION

James Lincoln
Moral perceptions occur when a subject makes an immediate discernment about the moral features of an occurrent experience. This project taxonomizes theories of moral perception into the following two camps: experientialism and judgementalism. I defend a version of experientialism, Moral Perceptual Orientation, by arguing that we, in addition to making moral judgments, have genuine perceptions with moral content during occurrent experience. I then go on to advance a framework for understanding how these perceptions are...

Nonparametric Analysis of Clustered and Multivariate Data

Yue Cui
In this dissertation, we investigate three distinct but interrelated problems for nonparametric analysis of clustered data and multivariate data in pre-post factorial design. In the first project, we propose a nonparametric approach for one-sample clustered data in pre-post intervention design. In particular, we consider the situation where for some clusters all members are only observed at either pre or post intervention but not both. This type of clustered data is referred to us as partially...

Parenting from Prison

Gabrielle Hadorn
Incarcerated parents are at a substantially higher risk for losing their legal right to parent than the general public. This study assessed implicit perceptions and biases that may play a role in these legal decisions, specifically the perceptions of incarcerated parents’ ability to parent and influence their children’s lives. Court appointed special advocate (CASA) volunteers’ (N = 242) perceptions of incarcerated parents based on the parents’ personal characteristics, characteristics of their children, and characteristics of...

NOVEL POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION AND FUNCTION OF FUS

Alexandra Arenas
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the preferential death of motor neurons. Approximately 10% of ALS cases are familial and 90% are sporadic. Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) is a ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein implicated in familial ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). FUS is ubiquitously expressed in cells and has a variety of functions in the nucleus and cytoplasm. FUS mutations in the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) causes mislocalization of FUS...

BETTER DEVILS OF OUR NATURE

Steven Kaiser
Extensive theoretical and empirical research has examined the role that violence-justifying ideologies play in generating violent behavior. Yet, a substantial body of this work employs measures that are consistently associated with sexist attitudes and gender stereotypes. As a consequence, scholars are limited in our ability to fully comprehend individuals’ propensity to endorse, or even promote violent behavior – or how these attitudes influence perceptions of victims and related policy preferences. I contribute to this line...

Patronage Politics in Eastern Kentucky

Frank Allen II Fletcher
From the 1930s to the 1970s, the Turner family of Breathitt County held a political and economic monopoly over their rural county in the mountains of eastern Kentucky. They were emblematic of the patronage, clientele, and kinship politics that characterized twentieth century eastern Kentucky. The family rewarded their supporters with jobs and other economic benefits in exchange for continued political support. Ervine Turner served as a state senator during the Great Depression and was later...

Noncontact Multiscale Diffuse Optical Imaging of Deep Tissue Hemodynamics in Animals and Humans

Siavash Mazdeyasna
Blood flow (BF) impacts the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues and the removal of metabolic byproducts from tissues. Imaging of BF distributions helps characterize many diseases associated with tissue hypoxia/ischemia. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a novel, noninvasive, noncontact, high-density camera-based speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography (scDCT) device for use in both animal and human studies. The scDCT uses a galvo-mirror to remotely deliver the focused point near-infrared...

PLANT-SOIL INTERACTIONS DOMINATE SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND SOIL ORGANIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN A SUBTROPICAL MOIST EVERGREEN BROADLEAVED FOREST IN CHINA

Zhijie Yang
Tropical forest soils contain one-third of global soil carbon (C). The warm and moist climate in tropical forests leads to rapid soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, with the highest soil microbial respiration rates in the world, so even a slight change in soil C and microbial respiration could affect atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. However, there remains a lack of understanding of the mechanisms driving microbial respiration in tropical forests, due to different climate and biophysical...

Articulatory-WaveNet

Narjes Bozorg
Acoustic-to-Articulatory Inversion, the estimation of articulatory kinematics from speech, is an important problem which has received significant attention in recent years. Estimated articulatory movements from such models can be used for many applications, including speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, and facial kinematics for talking-head animation devices. Knowledge about the position of the articulators can also be extremely useful in speech therapy systems and Computer-Aided Language Learning (CALL) and Computer-Aided Pronunciation Training (CAPT) systems for second...

TESTING INTERPRETATIONS OF THE DISPLACEMENT MAGNITUDE OF THE TETON FAULT AND UPLIFT OF THE TETON RANGE, WYOMING WITH INTEGRATED FLEXURAL-KINEMATIC AND THERMAL MODELING

Autumn Helfrich
The Teton fault is a range-front normal fault in northwestern Wyoming. Previous estimates of the maximum displacement (Dmax) on the Teton fault cover a wide range (2 - 11 km). Discrepancies also exist regarding the slip onset timing, which spans 2 - 13 Ma. To address these discrepancies, the exhumation history of the Teton Range is here investigated using forward flexural-kinematic (Move) and thermal-kinematic (Pecube) models that can be compared with previously reported apatite fission...

IDENTIFICATION OF ADSORBATE FT-IR BANDS USING IN-SITU TECHNIQUES

Robert Pace
To meet increasingly stringent automotive emissions standards, further improvements in catalytic converter design are necessary. Current automotive catalyst systems are effective at eliminating emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) once the catalyst reaches operational temperature (~200 °C). NOx emitted at lower catalyst temperatures now comprises most of the NOx released during a typical test cycle. Referred to as “the cold start problem” this issue has come to the forefront of automotive catalyst development, as mitigating these...

In the Shadows of Apollo

Stuart Simms
In the Piney Woods of Mississippi, John C. Stennis used political connections to displace small communities in a 150,000-acre space in Hancock County, Mississippi for the creation of a rocket test facility for NASA. What became the John C. Stennis Space Center created a narrative that preached of the benefits of the facility in the region while local residents from the displaced communities remember the facility in different terms.

National Guard Members with Suicide Ideation

Amy Brown
Background. Veterans are overrepresented among suicide deaths in the United States, representing 20% of annual suicide deaths but only about 1% of the U.S. population (Department of Veteran Affairs, 2010). Of all military suicide deaths in 2016, one-third (33.4%) were in the National Guard or Reserves (Department of Defense, 2018). Previous suicidal ideation or behavior (SIB) has been shown to increase risk of subsequent ideation or behavior in both active duty and veteran samples (Bryan,...

ELUCIDATING MOLECULAR FUNCTION OF MITHRAMYCIN AND ANALOGUES FOR THE TREATMENT OF EWS-ETS EXPRESSING CANCERS

Reiya Hayden
Introduction: Chromosomal translocations are common in cancer. In many cancers such as prostate cancer, leukemia and Ewing sarcoma, chromosomal translocations are the main driver of malignancy. Ewing sarcoma is a cancer diagnosed mostly in children and adolescents that has very grim outcomes for patients with metastasis and recurrent disease. Malignancy in Ewing sarcoma is due to EWS-FLI1, an aberrant transcription factor that is the result of a chromosomal translocation. EWS-FLI1 is the main driver of...

Nonparametric Tests of Lack of Fit for Multivariate Data

Yan Xu
A common problem in regression analysis (linear or nonlinear) is assessing the lack-of-fit. Existing methods make parametric or semi-parametric assumptions to model the conditional mean or covariance matrices. In this dissertation, we propose fully nonparametric methods that make only additive error assumptions. Our nonparametric approach relies on ideas from nonparametric smoothing to reduce the test of association (lack-of-fit) problem into a nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance. A major problem that arises in this approach is...

RESPONSES TO SYMPTOMS AMONG PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE

Chin-Yen Lin
Patients with heart failure (HF) suffer from chronic and progressive symptoms. Failure to respond appropriately to escalating symptoms of HF causes a delay in seeking care, which results in worse symptom status, frequent rehospitalizations, and contributes to higher mortality. In order to enhance HF self-care, promote timely care-seeking, and improve outcomes, identification of factors that affect patients’ responses to symptoms and their decisions to seek care is essential. Thus, the purposes of this dissertation were...

Relevant Angry Affect Slows Response Time To Commands

Aleah Combs
Previous research has found that emotional prosody can interact with speech perception and listeners’ processing of the meaning of particular word/emotion pairings(Kim and Sumner, 2017). What remains unclear is how this interactive processing can affect behavioral responses such as responses to imperatives. To answer this question,71 participants were presented with a series of commands given in a relevant affect.Commands were read either with angry prosody, happy prosody, or neutral prosody (control) and the participants were...

A CASE STUDY OF A STEM SPECIALIST CO-TEACHING MODEL

Kristen Witt
This research is focused on elementary science teaching and learning with support of a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) specialist because science tends to be nearly absent from self-contained classrooms in the primary grades. Research has established STEM education needs to increase, however, a key question for researchers remains who should teach science and how we can improve teacher efficacy for science education. The purpose of this study is to discover the impacts of...

WOMEN RETURNING TO THEIR FAMILIES AND COMMUNITIES AFTER INCARCERATION

Julius Johnson
The voices of women in re-entry from prison have been muted for many decades. Prior research conducted on men and prison re-entry has been used to shape not only prisons but also the reentry process for women. It is because of this oversight that the gender-specific needs of women in the justice system have gone unnoticed. Once released, formerly incarcerated women face the almost impossible task of finding employment. Many women who find employment have...

USE OF SURVEY DATA TO GUIDE THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEST PRACTICES FOR INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUITMENT OF VOLUNTEER FIREFIGHTERS

Jeffrey Kimble
The number of calls for service by firefighters has increased by over three times since the 1980s while during the same time, the numbers of firefighters per population has decreased. The increase in the number of calls for service by fire departments is further complicated by that fact that nearly 70% of the firefighters who respond to these calls are volunteers. Further, the number of training hours to become a certified firefighter has also increased....

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • University of Kentucky
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