123 Works

Interpreting borehole data with machine learning: A pilot rtudy

Robert Buxton, Donal Krouse, Cecile Massiot & Mark J. F. Lawrence
Classifying and interpreting multi-sensor geophysical borehole (wireline) data is normally undertaken manually by a geologist and is extremely resource intensive, both in terms of skilled people and time. Machine learning techniques have been applied to wireline data overseas; however, those techniques are not necessarily directly applicable to New Zealand sedimentary rocks and little investigation has been done in geothermal settings. This pilot study aims to investigate machine learning algorithms and approaches to allow the automated...

Threading the basket of knowledge: the role of iwi and hapū management plans for natural hazard research design

Lucy H. Kaiser, Wendy S. A. Saunders & L Taylor
The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) Vision Mātauranga policy has created a clear message for researchers in Aotearoa/New Zealand—that research conducted in Aotearoa New Zealand should recognise and support the “unlocking of the innovative potential of Māori for the benefit of all New Zealand” and be designed with a clear engagement pathway. However, there is still confusion amongst many researchers on where to begin when considering the Vision Mātauranga component of their research....

Materials for improved assessment of the petroleum source potential of New Zealand coaly rocks, 2: Jurassic to Early Cretaceous stratigraphy, coal abundance, flora and climate

J. Ian Raine, Angela G. Griffin, Elizabeth M. Kennedy, Chris D. Clowes & Richard Sykes
Jurassic to Early Cretaceous strata of New Zealand were deposited at high latitude on the southern margin of Gondwana in several tectonic situations, now recognised as distinct tectonostratigraphic terranes within the Eastern Province of Zealandia. To develop a chronostratigraphic framework of coaly petroleum source rock potential in relation to vegetation and climate, we review the stratigraphy of non-marine strata, estimate relative abundance of coaly lithologies in available exploration wells and outcrop sections and discuss macrofloral...

Integrated 3D petroleum generation, migration and charge modelling in the Kupe-Kapuni region, south-eastern Taranaki Basin

Karsten F Kroeger, Rob H Funnell, M Fohrmann & Matt G Hill
This report presents workflows and results of integrated petroleum systems modelling of the Kupe region in the south-eastern Taranaki Basin. A series of PetroMod™ 3D models have been built for numerical forward modelling of the complex tectonic and sedimentological evolution of the area. The models use a detailed structural and stratigraphic model based on high-resolution grids (100 x 100 m) developed from new reflection seismic data interpretation carried out as part of the GNS 4D...

Classification of New Zealand hydrogeological systems

Magali Moreau, Paul A. White, Frederika Mourot, Zara J. Rawlinson, Conny Tschritter, Stewart G. Cameron & Rogier S. Westerhoff
Digital datasets of New Zealand hydrogeological systems and their boundaries have been developed using a nationally-consistent and transparent methodology. Here, we define hydrogeological systems as geographical areas with broadly-consistent hydrogeological properties, and similar resource pressures and management issues. These systems are represented in two Geographical Information System (GIS) datasets at the 1:250,000 scale, i.e., hydrogeological system polygons and system boundary polylines. The hydrogeological system polygons (1896 in total) include attributes corresponding to mapping levels, i.e.:...

SLIDE (Wellington): summary of borehole image and full-waveform acoustic processing and interpretation results

Angela G. Griffin & Mark J. F. Lawrence
This report provides a summary of data and results derived from eleven geotechnical boreholes that were drilled at six localities in and around the Wellington city area. The borehole localities are Orchy Crescent (Southgate), Priscilla Crescent (Kingston), St Gerard’s Monastery (Mt Victoria), Ngauranga Gorge, along with Dungarvan Road and Bendigo Grove (State Highway 2 near Newlands). Seismic velocity data (full-waveform acoustic logs or downhole seismic data) were acquired in all boreholes and acoustic and optical...

2019 thermal infrared survey of the Waiotapu Geothermal Field

Robert R. Reeves & Fiona Sanders
An aerial thermal infrared (TIR) survey of the Waiotapu Geothermal Field was undertaken on 13 April 2019. Approximately 2260 TIR images were processed and mosaicked to produce a single, 16-bit image with a ground pixel size of approximately 2 m x 2 m (Figure A.1). The purpose of this report is to summarise the method of data collection and present the final TIR image and accompanying brief interpretation. The TIR data is of good quality...

Residual gravity anomalies of the Taupō Volcanic Zone and adjacent region

Vaughan M Stagpoole, Craig A Miller, Thomas Brakenrig, Nick Macdonald & Fabio Caratori Tontini
The 2019 map of residual gravity anomalies of the Taupō Volcanic Zone and adjacent region is an update of the map of Stagpoole and Bibby (1999). An additional 1795 observations have been used in the 2019 compilation, bringing the total to 9189. All data used for the map have been uniformly processed and anomalies calculated using high resolution digital terrain models. The regional gravity field, used to separate the residual gravity anomalies from Bouguer anomalies,...

Hikurangi Ocean Bottom Investigation of Tremor and Slow Slip (HOBITTS IV)

Laura M. Wallace &
HOBITSS IV was a 12-day (24 June–5 July 2017) Wellington to Wellington R/V Tangaroa voyage (TAN1705). Objectives of TAN1705 were to (1) undertake seafloor geodetic instrument deployments, recoveries, and surveys offshore Gisborne and Mahia, and (2) acquire multicores along the Hikurangi margin and offshore the north-eastern South Island to evaluate the extent of turbidite deposition following the November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake. The seafloor geodetic aims involve using Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) to determine the cm...

Towards the calibration of tsunami models in the Auckland region using paleotsunami deposits

Kate J. Clark, Bruce Hayward & Regine Morgenstern
The Auckland region does not have a historic record of any significant tsunamis, but it is exposed to a number of local, regional and distant tsunami sources. Of these potential sources, the largest tsunamis are expected to be generated by large earthquakes on the Kermadec Trench. Tsunami models of large Kermadec Trench earthquakes (M 8.5–9.4) suggest parts of the eastern coastline of the Auckland Region could be exposed to tsunamis with wave amplitudes of up...

New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model Framework Plan

Matt C. Gerstenberger, Chris Van Houtte, Elizabeth R. Abbott, Russ J. Van Dissen, Anna E. Kaiser, Brendon Bradley, Andy Nicol, David A. Rhoades, Mark W. Stirling & K. K. S. Thingbaijam
The New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) Revision Project is an MBIE- and EQC-funded project and is expected to deliver a revised model by August 2022. This document presents the major components of work that the NSHM team will be undertaking over the next two years to deliver the revision. The framework has been formed via numerous working group meetings and scientific development over the past six months, including a review and revision process...

Investigations of past earthquakes on the Titri Fault, coastal Otago, New Zealand

David J. A. Barrell, Nicola J. Litchfield, Russ J. Van Dissen, N. Wang, B. I. Taylor SIlva, S. Hornblow & Mark W. Stirling
The Titri Fault is a major southeast-dipping reverse fault in coastal Otago, southwest of Dunedin. The fault is up to 90 km long and has uplifted the coastal hills between Dunedin and Balclutha. Activity on the Titri Fault was previously poorly constrained, and the fault has not previously been included in the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM). Two suspected fault scarps were identified on alluvial fans along the Titri Fault and were investigated...

New Zealand Fault-Rupture Depth Model v1.0: a provisional estimate of the maximum depth of seismic rupture on New Zealand’s active faults

Susan M. Ellis, Stephen Bannister, Russ J. Van Dissen, Donna Eberhart-Phillips, Caroline Holden, Carolyn Boulton, Martin E. Reyners, Robert H. Funnell, Nick Mortimer & Phaedra Upton
This report presents a new and provisional estimate of the maximum depth of rupture on New Zealand’s active faults (“New Zealand Fault-Rupture Depth Model v1.0”) based on a combination of two independent models. The first model uses regional seismicity distribution from a relocated earthquake catalogue to calculate the 90% seismicity cut-off depth (D90) representing the seismogenic depth limit H. This is multiplied by an overshoot factor representing dynamic propagation of rupture into the conditional stability...

Review of global practice on data capture tools development, applications and limitations

Sheng-Lin Lin
Rapid and profound changes in the technology used for data acquisition, computing and information management provides a framework that has the potential to allow communities to consider acquiring, analysing and managing data in new ways. Improving the collection and management of data, immediately in post-disaster response and reconnaissance and in long-term impact assessments, is central to enabling knowledge of such events to be used and applied to improve community resilience to future disasters. This report...

Geology of the Hyde-Macraes Shear Zone and Waihemo Fault Zone area, northeastern Otago

Adam P. Martin, Belinda Smith Lyttle, A. H. Allibone, H. Blakemore, Simon C. Cox, D. Craw, S. Doyle, Richard L. Kellett, D. J. MacKenzie, Nick Mortimer, T. Ritchie & Tusar R. Sahoo
Geology of the Hyde-Macraes Shear Zone and Waihemo Fault Zone Area is a new 1:50 000 scale geological map of northeastern Otago. The >3000 km2 map area includes the trans-crustal Waihemo Fault Zone, the economically significant Hyde-Macraes Shear Zone in the Otago Schist and the western edge of the Canterbury Basin. The map area is two-thirds onshore and one-third offshore, amalgamated into a seamless geological map (sheet 1) with legend and cross-sections (sheet 2). The...

The 2021 pilot gravity survey of Rongotai Isthmus

Vaughan M. , Jenny Black, Matt P. Hill, Wanda R. Stratford & Brook Tozer
he subsurface of the Rongotai isthmus, the land area of the Rongotai–Miramar region of Wellington, consists of a series of Quaternary sedimentary basins upon which key infrastructure for Wellington City reside. Basin depths and geometries, critical parameters for seismic microzoning and hazard modelling, are currently poorly constrained in this region. In this study, we describe a pilot study where gravity data were acquired in a busy urban environment and modelled to evaluate the method for...

Ash leachate characteristics of the 27 April 2016 and 13 September 2016 eruptions of Whakaari/White Island volcano

Carol Stewart, Geoff N. Kilgour & Michael D. Rosenberg
Volcanic ash samples from the 27 April 2016 and 13 September 2016 eruptions of Whakaari / White Island volcano were collected on-island within 24 hours of each eruption. Water-extractable concentrations of a range of elements were determined in these samples, following the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (IVHHN) protocol. These results are reported here to add to the broader geochemical data series for Whakaari / White Island and because of interest in the 2016 ash...

An experimental study on the potential of Rhenium and Indium as geothermal tracers

Lucjan Sajkowski, A. Kamiya & Bruce W. Mountain
The experiment described in this report tested indium (In) and rhenium (Re) as potential geothermal tracers up to super-hot and supercritical conditions. The results show that Re is potentially a suitable candidate, however, In is not. The flow-through experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 200–400°C, and in presence of a NZ greywacke rock substrate. The results indicate that Re behaves conservatively, in presence of the rock and H2S. But supercritical conditions however, the...

Wellbeing approaches to improved decision making in Aotearoa New Zealand

Robyn Ramsden, Lucy H. Kaiser & A. Lo
This report summarises the findings of a GNS Science and Victoria University of Wellington Summer Internship project investigating the use of wellbeing frameworks (specifically, the Living Standards Framework and He Ara Waiora) by government in Aotearoa New Zealand. Specifically, this project examines the interfaces between wellbeing fundamentals and the way that the New Zealand Treasury’s Living Standards Framework is used by different stakeholders in their decision making, measuring and reporting. (The authors)

Hikurangi Ocean Bottom Investigation of Tremor and Slow Slip (HOBITSS VI, TAN1907)

Laura M. Wallace &
HOBITSS VI was a 12-day (29 October – 9 November 2019) Wellington to Wellington R/V Tangaroa voyage (TAN1907). Objectives of TAN1907 were to undertake seafloor geodetic and seismic instrument deployments, recoveries and surveys offshore of the Gisborne, Hawke’s Bay and Wairarapa coasts. The seafloor geodetic aims involve using Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) to determine the cm-level vertical movement (upward or downward) of the seafloor during slow-slip events (SSEs), as well as to deploy a Wave...

Household relocation and recovery following the 2017 Edgecumbe flooding: results of a survey

Finn R. Scheele, Lucy H. Kaiser & Ryan Paulik
In April 2017, the Rangitāiki River breached a stopbank, resulting in widespread flooding within the town of Edgecumbe, Bay of Plenty. The evacuation of the town and damage to homes led to major disruption for residents. The relocation of households, both temporary and permanent, had long-lasting effects on the community. A questionnaire to gather residents’ experiences during the event and subsequent recovery was hand-delivered to residential addresses in Edgecumbe in November 2020. Topics included housing...

Geothermal gas emission and its impact on hauora and taiao at Whakarewarewa, the Living Village

Agnes Mazot, R. Huata, Diane Bradshaw, Perry K. Davy, B. Millar, J. Warbrick, J. Davis & Andreas Markwitz
This research explores the effect of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), a primary geothermal gas and in a certain extent Carbon Dioxide (CO2), has on humans when exposed to extreme environmental conditions. In this report we document and record the traditional histories/Mātauranga concerning the connection between H2S and the hauora (health) of people at the Whakarewarewa Village. An integrated database helped with the integration of technical, scientific and traditional Māori information, and the support of agile knowledge...

Better spatial characterisation of evapotranspiration and rainfall recharge estimates to groundwater using remote sensing multispectral techniques at lysimeter sites

Frederika Mourot, Rogier S. Westerhoff, Nick Macdonald & Stuart G. Cameron
Regional councils have the responsibility to set up allocation limits to protect and ensure the sustainable use of their freshwater resources. An important part of allocation limit setting consists in assessing the amount of recharge to groundwater. Improvement of recharge models and assessments of sustainable allocation limits will become more important in the context of climate change, where more variable rainfall inputs are expected in the future. This study, commissioned by Envirolink for Hawke’s Bay...

Auckland Volcanic Field eruption crisis management decision-making workshop

A. J. Wild, Jan M Lindsay, S. B. Costello, Natalia I. Deligne, A. Doherty, Graham S. Leonard, K. Maxwell, J. Rollin & Tom M. Wilson
Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand with 1.6 million residents. This major metropolitan region is situated upon the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), posing a considerable risk to the city’s population and essential services. On 17 December 2018, a workshop jointly run by DEVORA (Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland) and Auckland Emergency Management (AEM) was held to discuss evacuation decision-support options in the event of a volcanic crisis in Auckland. The workshop brought together...

New Zealand ShakeOut 2018 Observation Evaluation Report: a summary of high-level findings

Emily Lambie, Julia S Becker & Maureen A Coomer
The New Zealand ShakeOut 2018, organised by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), was the latest national earthquake drill to be held in New Zealand. Over 870,000 participants registered to participate in the drill via the ShakeOut website. The drill was held on 18 October 2018 at 9:30 a.m., and participants were encouraged to practice ‘Drop, Cover and Hold’ in response to a potential earthquake. In addition to the drill, other activities...

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