128 Works

Seismogenesis at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE) onshore seismic acquisition field report

Katie Jacobs, Stuart A Henrys, D Okaya, H Van Avendonk, Jenny Black, Dan H. N. Barker, Sapthala C Karalliyadda, E Kurashimo, Wanda R. Stratford, M Savage, R Sullivan, Zane R. Bruce & L Hughes
This report documents the acquisition and archiving of a major controlled source and passive seismic imaging project, the Seismogenesis Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE). The SHIRE project aims to identify and quantify factors controlling the long-term evolution of the Hikurangi margin and the mode of slip along the subduction megathrust. The components of the data volume were acquired in two phases; between October 2017 – April 2018 (SHIRE I) and February–March 2019 (SHIRE II). The...

Hei koha tū, hei kura huna a papa: a resource characterisation and ancestry of minerals for Ngāti Hako

Mark P. Simpson, P. Clarkin, Anthony B Christie & Diane Bradshaw
Mineral resources have long provided Māori with trading opportunities and growth through innovative developments with those from the Hauraki rohe used and traded by Ngāti Hako; the earliest inhabitants of Hauraki. Basalt from Tahanga was fashioned into adzes and obsidian from Tūhua (Mayor Island) was used as cutting tools; the latter traded throughout New Zealand. Other rocks and minerals from the Hauraki rohe have since become of economic significance (e.g. gold and silver) or are...

Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: field report on GNSS surveys of the Taranaki Network in 2019 (TARA2019)

Rory J. A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
Between March and June 2019, a combined team from GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) re-measured a network of 109 geodetic survey markers using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods throughout the Taranaki and Manawatu regions of New Zealand for monitoring the regional deformation due to tectonic processes. Included in the survey were 13 sites located in the Te Urewera mountains and Raukumara Peninsula that were observed to complete the requirements for the...

Post-earthquake building functionality and habitability in New Zealand: Survey results

Finn R. Scheele, SR Uma, Tatiana Goded, Maureen A Coomer, Nick A. Horspool & Jose Moratalla
The habitability and functionality of buildings following earthquake events has a significant impact on the recovery process. Understanding the factors that influence levels of post-event habitability and functionality can assist in identifying areas for improvement in risk reduction and resilience and allows for improved modelling of social impacts. We developed an online survey to gather data from individuals that had experienced recent earthquake events in New Zealand. Broadly, questions were asked regarding the following categories:...

Continued Professional Development (CPD) Strategy for natural hazards

Wendy S. A. Saunders
In July 2020, Dr Wendy Saunders of GNS Science became the ‘EQC Champion of Land Use Planning for Natural Hazards’. With support from the planning team at GNS Science, the position is for three years. There are three key objectives associated with the role: 1. to build land use planning capacity and capability in natural hazards and climate change; 2. to contribute to national and local initiatives that lead to improved land use planning outcomes...

Machine learning for decision support systems

Rob Buxton, Yannik Behr, Craig A. Miller & Annemarie Christophersen
In early 2020 the GNS Executive Management Team made available $500k of SSIF funding to support Data Science research. The newly formed Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Analytics team proposed several research projects that could utilise the funding and provide useful research outputs within the challenging timeframe available (to June 2020). Two of the supported projects had a strong volcanic hazard theme. The project discussed herein covers two main streams of research. Firstly, the investigation of...

The Thermal Field Below Permafrost - A Crustal Model of the Beaufort Mackenzie Basin (Arctic Canada)

Judith Sippel, Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, Björn Lewerenz & Karsten Kröger

Landslides and debris flows in the Tasman District caused by ex-Tropical Cyclone Gita, 20-21 February, 2018

Brenda J. Rosser, Jon M. Carey, Katie E. Jones, Dougal B. Townsend & J. F. Crouch
Ex-Tropical Cyclone Gita hit New Zealand on 20–21 February 2018, bringing heavy rain and high winds to much of the country. The heaviest rainfall occurred in the Tasman District where more than 230 mm of rain fell in 18 hours triggering extensive shallow landslides and debris flows. The Takaka Hill Road was closed by 16 slips, which impacted the road for the following year. The most intense rainfall (78 mm/hr) occurred over a 3-hour period...

Geological model of South Dunedin

Phil J. Glassey, David J. Barrell, Belinda Smith-Lyttle, S Hornblow & B Mackay
The South Dunedin suburb of Dunedin city lies on a coastal plain, which was a salt marsh prior to urban development, that began in 1840. Now one of the more densely populated areas in New Zealand, South Dunedin is within 2 m of current sea level, has groundwater close to the surface and is vulnerable to flood hazards that are expected to be worsened by sea-level rise. In addition, soft sediments that underlie much of...

Tsunami travel time estimates for local sources for Porirua and Kapiti Coast suburbs

Xiaoming Wang, Biljana Lukovic, Christof Mueller, David W. Heron & William L. Power
In local fault source tsunami events, the effectiveness of self-evacuation planning is constrained by two pieces of timing information: the tsunami travel (arrival) time estimate and evacuation travel time estimate. This study estimates travel times of tsunami from local active fault sources to coastal suburbs of Porirua and Kāpiti Coast in the Greater Wellington region of New Zealand. The estimates include the arrivals of 1.0 m tsunami elevation above local ambient sea condition, i.e. the...

Average coseimic slip profiles

Kiran K.S. Thingbaijam, Russ J. Van Dissen, B. E. Shaw & Matt C. Gerstenberger
Despite the potential impact on earthquake rupture forecasts for seismic hazard analysis, derivation of applicable average coseismic slip profiles has received relatively limited attention. Here, we present improved insight using a set of rupture models of past earthquakes. We find that along-strike slip profiles are well approximated by a power-of-sine function with index = 1/2 (i.e. sinesqrt function), corroborating Biasi and Weldon (2006). However, elongated ruptures (with aspect ratios >5.0) have a flatter profile. Additionally,...

SLIDE (Wellington): seismic profiling of Camrose Grove, Wellington

Zane R. Bruce & Hamish Cameron
This report represents an aspect of the ground truthing methods used to confirm the geomorphic mapping carried out as part of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) project within the Wellington Region. A simple hammer plate seismic survey was completed in Camrose Grove, Kingston, Wellington, on an area of fill identified from historical records of US Marine Corps construction in Camrose Grove during WW2. The purpose of the survey is to confirm the...

West Coast groundwater dynamics and hydrochemical evolution as inferred from regional water age and chemistry tracer data

Magali Moreau, Uwe Morgenstern, Rob W. van der Raaij & J. Horrox
This study aims to holistically describe the flow sources, pathways and lag times of water through the rivers and aquifers of the West Coast catchments. This information is required to ground truth and improve groundwater flow models and management tools. Such improvements will help to prevent degradation of rivers and aquifers from land-use activities that impact on cultural, recreational and economical values, as well as on drinking water supplies and quality. This study is mainly...

ACE Programme – Critical Incident Leadership course learner guide

Hana Craig & Scott Kelly
The seventh batch (2021 intake) of the AHA Centre Executive (ACE) Programme are undertaking the programme online. The Critical Incident Leadership course is one component of the ACE Programme and is facilitated by GNS Science. To deliver the course online, GNS Science will utilise iQualify and Zoom platforms. This document forms a Learner Guide for participants, and sets out the following: Course requirements; Activities needing to be completed before commencing the course; Logging into iQualify,...

Thermal properties of Matahina Ignimbrite

L. McGovern, Fiona Sanders, Michael D. Rosenberg, Anya M. Seward, Isabelle Chambefort & Rob H. Funnell
Thermal properties of a 140 m section of the Matahina Formation ignimbrite were determined from a rock core drilled near Rotorua, New Zealand. For this project, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity were determined using the divided-bar method in order to investigate interrelationships with density/porosity and lithological variation throughout the unit. Thermal conductivity ranged from 0.25 to 1.44 W/(m.K) for dry samples and 1.06 to 2.18 W/(m.K) for water-saturated samples. Specific heat capacity...

New Zealand Community Fault Model - version 1.0

Hannu Seebeck, Russ J. Van Dissen, Nicola J. Litchfield, P. M. Barnes, Andy Nicol, Rob M. Langridge, David J. A. Barrell, Pilar Villamor, Susan M. Ellis & Mark S. Rattenbury
Fault models developed by the scientific community aim to provide a consistent and broadly agreed-upon representation of faults in a region for such societally important endeavours as seismic hazard assessment (e.g. national seismic hazard models), strong ground-motion predictions and physics-based fault systems modelling. The New Zealand Community Fault Model (NZ CFM) is a two- and three-dimensional representation of fault zones associated with the New Zealand plate boundary for which Quaternary activity has been established (or...

Regional fault orientation and length analysis, Aotearoa New Zealand

Mark S. Rattenbury
Over the past few decades, several faults have been identified in Aotearoa New Zealand only because they ruptured in recent damaging earthquakes. The recognition of these previously unidentified earthquake-generating faults has heightened awareness of seismic hazard that extends beyond Aotearoa New Zealand’s large, but still fragmentary, record of known active faults. This has reinforced how important estimating distributed ‘off-fault’ seismicity is for characterising earthquake hazard. To help quantify aspects of distributed seismicity for the National...

Landslide hazard and risk assessment for the Fox and Franz Josef Glacier valleys

Chris I. Massey, Saskia J. de Vilder, T. Taig, Biljana Lukovic, Garth C. Archibald & Regine Morgenstern
This report has been prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science) for the Department of Conservation (DOC), in response to a request from them for a quantitative assessment of the risk posed by landslides within the Fox and Franz Josef Glacier valleys. The quantitative landslide risk assessment is based on risk-estimation methods that follow appropriate parts of the Australian Geomechanics Society framework for landslide risk management. It provides landslide risk...

New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database: design and overview of version 1.0

Nicola J. Litchfield, Jade Humphrey, Regine Morgenstern, Robert M. Langridge, Genevieve L. Coffey & Russ J. Van Dissen
The New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database (new term, new database) contains paleoseismic data (grouped into Slip Rate, Earthquake [EQ] Timings and Recurrence Interval [RI], and Single-Event Displacement [SED]) collected at specific sites along active faults throughout New Zealand. The database was developed as part of the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model 2022 Revision Project (NSHM 2022). The primary purpose is to compile paleoseismic data at specific sites to be used either as inputs into,...

Hikurangi Ocean Bottom Investigation of Tremor and Slow Slip (HOBITSS VI, TAN1907)

Laura M. Wallace &
HOBITSS VI was a 12-day (29 October – 9 November 2019) Wellington to Wellington R/V Tangaroa voyage (TAN1907). Objectives of TAN1907 were to undertake seafloor geodetic and seismic instrument deployments, recoveries and surveys offshore of the Gisborne, Hawke’s Bay and Wairarapa coasts. The seafloor geodetic aims involve using Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) to determine the cm-level vertical movement (upward or downward) of the seafloor during slow-slip events (SSEs), as well as to deploy a Wave...

Household relocation and recovery following the 2017 Edgecumbe flooding: results of a survey

Finn R. Scheele, Lucy H. Kaiser & Ryan Paulik
In April 2017, the Rangitāiki River breached a stopbank, resulting in widespread flooding within the town of Edgecumbe, Bay of Plenty. The evacuation of the town and damage to homes led to major disruption for residents. The relocation of households, both temporary and permanent, had long-lasting effects on the community. A questionnaire to gather residents’ experiences during the event and subsequent recovery was hand-delivered to residential addresses in Edgecumbe in November 2020. Topics included housing...

Geothermal gas emission and its impact on hauora and taiao at Whakarewarewa, the Living Village

Agnes Mazot, R. Huata, Diane Bradshaw, Perry K. Davy, B. Millar, J. Warbrick, J. Davis & Andreas Markwitz
This research explores the effect of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), a primary geothermal gas and in a certain extent Carbon Dioxide (CO2), has on humans when exposed to extreme environmental conditions. In this report we document and record the traditional histories/Mātauranga concerning the connection between H2S and the hauora (health) of people at the Whakarewarewa Village. An integrated database helped with the integration of technical, scientific and traditional Māori information, and the support of agile knowledge...

Better spatial characterisation of evapotranspiration and rainfall recharge estimates to groundwater using remote sensing multispectral techniques at lysimeter sites

Frederika Mourot, Rogier S. Westerhoff, Nick Macdonald & Stuart G. Cameron
Regional councils have the responsibility to set up allocation limits to protect and ensure the sustainable use of their freshwater resources. An important part of allocation limit setting consists in assessing the amount of recharge to groundwater. Improvement of recharge models and assessments of sustainable allocation limits will become more important in the context of climate change, where more variable rainfall inputs are expected in the future. This study, commissioned by Envirolink for Hawke’s Bay...

Auckland Volcanic Field eruption crisis management decision-making workshop

A. J. Wild, Jan M Lindsay, S. B. Costello, Natalia I. Deligne, A. Doherty, Graham S. Leonard, K. Maxwell, J. Rollin & Tom M. Wilson
Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand with 1.6 million residents. This major metropolitan region is situated upon the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), posing a considerable risk to the city’s population and essential services. On 17 December 2018, a workshop jointly run by DEVORA (Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland) and Auckland Emergency Management (AEM) was held to discuss evacuation decision-support options in the event of a volcanic crisis in Auckland. The workshop brought together...

New Zealand ShakeOut 2018 Observation Evaluation Report: a summary of high-level findings

Emily Lambie, Julia S Becker & Maureen A Coomer
The New Zealand ShakeOut 2018, organised by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), was the latest national earthquake drill to be held in New Zealand. Over 870,000 participants registered to participate in the drill via the ShakeOut website. The drill was held on 18 October 2018 at 9:30 a.m., and participants were encouraged to practice ‘Drop, Cover and Hold’ in response to a potential earthquake. In addition to the drill, other activities...

Registration Year

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Affiliations

  • GNS Science
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  • Victoria University of Wellington
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  • National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
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  • Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
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