128 Works

Uppermost Teurian to lowermost Bortonian foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Mead Stream section, Clarence River valley, Kaikoura district, New Zealand

C. Percy Strong
This report reviews and revises foraminiferal samples collected over some 3 decades from c. 245 m of the medial Amuri Limestone at Mead Stream, including all the Lower Marl and Upper Limestone, together with adjacent strata of the Lower Limestone and Upper Marl. These strata range from in age from Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene, however, most of the samples are Early Eocene in age. One-hundred and two samples were previously studied, 35 are new...

Obtaining water level data at Whakarewarewa Geothermal Valley using unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry

Nick Macdonald, Robert R. Reeves, Duncan J. Graham & Thomas Brakenrig
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer a novel means of studying dangerous and inaccessible areas. They have the advantage of having the ability to survey large study areas relatively quickly, while utilising a wide array of sensors. Monitoring the water level of geothermal pools is important for providing insight into how fluids may be flowing and interacting between geothermal surface features and shallow groundwater aquifers. Making manual measurements of water levels in geothermal areas can be...

Assessing the uncertainty of water quality and quantity predictions made using complex regional models: Ruamāhanga North Case Study

Brioch Hemmings, Matthew J Kowling & Catherine R Moore
The Smart models for Aquifer Management research programme aims to explore the utility and implications of using simple numerical models for decision support applications. This report details a case study example of the application of a complex numerical groundwater model as a tool of assessing the effectiveness of land- and water-use scenarios. The case study focuses on the upper Ruamāhanga catchment, Greater Wellington, NZ (Ruamāhanga North). The effect of land- and water-use scenarios are assessed...

Selection of representative ground motion input for Wellington

Elizabeth R Abbott & Chris Van Houtte
he goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) project is to better understand the behaviour of slopes in order to develop strategies for more robust remediation approaches and improve resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure. Numerical simulations of slope stability are used to better understand how anthropogenically modified slopes may perform in future strong earthquakes. The aim of this report is to provide a range of realistic earthquake ground motions, selected...

SLIDE (Wellington): geomorphological characterisation of the Wellington urban area

Dougal Townsend, Chris I Massey, Biljana Lukovic, Brenda J Rosser, William Ries, Regine Morgenstern, Salman Ashraf, Katie E Jones & Jon M Carey
The goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project is to improve the resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. One aspect of the SLIDE research is the development of a geomorphology map for terrain within the Wellington urban area in order to help identify those slopes that have been anthropogenically modified and...

Effects of afforestation on groundwater recharge: perspectives for New Zealand in relation to the One Billion Trees Programme

Frederika Mourot, Rogier S. Westerhoff & Stewart G. Cameron
Global attention on the development of afforestation programmes and the need to evaluate the trade-off between tree carbon sequestration potential and tree water use are increasing. In New Zealand, a large afforestation programme (the One Billion Tree Programme) was launched in 2018. This programme aims to assist the nation’s transition to a low-emission economy while also providing employment, improving erosion control and water quality; and supporting Māori objectives for their land and forests. Most of...

Te Kura Whenua ki Pukearuhe wānanga completion report

Malcolm J. Arnot, Kyle J. Bland, Hannu C. Seebeck, Richard L. Kellett, Greg H. Browne, Tania Gerrard, Hemi Waitaiki-Curry & Tiaan Bonica-Kururangi
In March 2019, GNS Science and Ngāti Tama, in collaboration with Ngāti Mutunga, led a Te Kura Whenua wānanga at Pukearuhe Marae, Urenui, Taranaki. Te Kura Whenua is a community engagement initiative aimed at creating dialogue and sharing knowledge between scientists and Māori communities on geoscience-related topics, such as climate change, geological hazards and geological resources, and Māori perspectives on the whenua. The two-and-a-half day wānanga involved field-based and hands-on activity-based learning. This report outlines...

Tectonic map of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer, Belinda Smith Lyttle & Jenny Black
This map poster shows the main tectonic features of the region within and near Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia. Earth's eighth continent is c. 5 Mkm2 in area and 95% submerged. Like all continents, it has a foundation of old, hard, crystalline rocks and a cargo of younger sedimentary basins and volcanoes. Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia is surrounded by oceanic crust of various ages and cut by the active Pacific-Australia plate boundary. Crust type (continental, oceanic,...

Bathymetric map of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer, Belinda Smith Lyttle & Jenny Black
This map poster shows the height and shape of the solid Earth within and near Earth's eighth continent, Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia, as if the oceans had been drained of water. The names of onland features are shown in plain text and undersea features in italics. Territorial limits of the Exclusive Economic Zones of various countries and New Zealand's Extended Continental Shelf are shown as lines, along with the extent of the Te Riu-a-Māui /...

February 2020 Southland flooding evacuation and response: Results of a survey

Lucy H. Kaiser, Finn R. Scheele, Sally H. Potter, Maureen A. Coomer & Joshua Stewart
In February 2020, the communities of Gore, Mataura and Wyndham in Southland, Aotearoa New Zealand, were impacted by a significant flood event, leading to a mandatory evacuation of the community and numerous flooded properties. A survey of the communities of Gore, Mataura and Wyndham was conducted in July 2020 to gather residents’ perspectives and experiences during the flooding event and ensuing evacuation. Topics included risk perception, weather and flood warnings, evacuation, impacts and demographics. Of...

Modelling fire following earthquake for multiple scenarios affecting Wellington City

Finn R. Scheele, Biljana Lukovic, Jose Moratalla, Alexandre Dunant & Nick A. Horspool
Fires are a common secondary hazard following earthquakes and, on rare occasions, can develop into major events with severe consequences. Wellington City has many characteristics that make it susceptible to fire following earthquake (FFE), including the potential for conflagrations and significant losses (e.g. property, infrastructure and casualties). Through the ‘It’s Our Fault’ (IOF) research programme, we are revisiting FFE modelling for Wellington City, building on the previous models developed by Cousins et al. (2002). Previous...

Clyde Dam seismic hazard reassessment, phase 3: seismic hazard analysis

Mark W. Stirling, Nicola J. Litchfield, David A. Rhoades, Graeme H. McVerry & Russ J. Van Dissen

Earthquake-Induced Landscape Dynamics (EILD) end-user and stakeholder tools engagement plan

Philip J. Glassey & Wendy S. A. Saunders
The 14 November 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake generated thousands of landslides, hundreds of significant landslide dams and damaged hillslopes that are now susceptible to failure during rainstorms and aftershocks. This debris, when further mobilised, will create new hazards, including further landslides, dams, rapid aggradation and formation of alluvial fans and floodplains, and increased river channel instability as the debris cascades from hillslope to sea. These hazards can persist for decades, requiring active management by...

Comparison of ammonia-nitrogen measurements between unpreserved and acid-sulfuric preserved groundwater samples

M. Estefania Santamaria Cerrutti & Magali Moreau
In 2016, the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (NGMP) sampling kit was modified by adding a 100 mL sulfuric-acidified sampling bottle for the analysis of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). This change was prompted by a review applying the most recent version of Standard Methods (Rice et al. 2012), which is the basis for the sampling protocol adopted by the programme since 2006. Acidification was recommended to inhibit bacterial activity and prevent salt formation with organic bases. This report...

Cascading hazard and risk framework for Hikurangi Flagship project

David R. Burbidge, Alex Dunant, Jose Moratalla, Vinod K. Sadashiva, S. R. Uma & Annemarie Christophersen

Explainable Artificial Intelligence for unsupervised models

Rob Buxton
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is a branch of Computer Science that is gaining popularity, as it addresses the fundamental concept of ‘trust in AI’ – in other words, when users should trust outputs from Artificial Intelligence (AI) models (Ribeiro et al. 2016). GNS Science has been studying XAI as part of a collaboration with Callaghan Innovation since 2020. Callaghan Innovation’s focus has been on XAI applied to supervised AI models. For the 2020/21 financial year,...

Coastal inundation associated with sea-level rise in the Pacific: a review

Shannon A. Bengtson, Elizabeth D Keller & Annemarie Christophersen
This literature review was developed for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) to provide background for the project Probabilistic Assessment of Coastal Inundation in the Pacific. Projected sea-level rise greatly differs depending on future emissions scenarios and ice sheet modelling uncertainties. When considering the impacts of sea-level rise, it is compounding factors, such as high tides, waves generated from tropical cyclones and storm surges, that pose the most significant threat to low-lying communities....

The 2021 update to New Zealand's National Tsunami Hazard Model

William L. Power, David R. Burbidge & Aditya R. Gusman
The National Tsunami Hazard Model (NTHM) provides estimates of tsunami heights at the shoreline for return periods of up to 2500 years. It is used as a basis for selecting scenarios used for tsunami inundation modelling, which underpins tsunami evacuation zone design, land use planning and risk assessments. The original NTHM was completed in 2013, though it built upon a 2005 study focused only on the main coastal cities. Since 2013, there have been improvements...

Understanding the unique environmental attributes and biological materials of Kāwhia - Aotea South

Diane Bradshaw, Karyne M. Rogers & O. McLeod
The Tainui and Aotea waka arrived almost 1000 years ago from Hawaiki, sailing into two harbours at Kaawhia and Aotea, on the west coast of the North Island, New Zealand. These earliest settlers left a legacy of physical evidence from their activities in this region, as well as oral stories, waiata and traditions. During 2020, a project funded by MacDiarmid Institute was undertaken to investigate the material science and geochemical properties of geological taonga held...

Evacuation time estimates for local source tsunami for Porirua and Kapiti suburbs

David W. Heron, Biljana Lukovic, Xiaoming Wang & William L. Power
Porirua and the Kapiti Coast are in an active earthquake region. Both areas sit above the Hikurangi Subduction Interface and are cut by or close to a number of major local faults (e.g. the Fisherman Fault, Manaota Fault, Mascarin Fault, Ohariu Fault, Okupe Fault, Onepoto Fault, offshore Rangitikei Fault and Wairau Fault). Modelling of the tsunami generated by these local major faults was completed as a separate piece of research and for the scenarios undertaken,...

CSEM, TOPAS and Echo Sounder survey of the Southern Hikurangi Margin 1st – 13th November: RV Tangaroa TAN2012 voyage report

Peter Kannberg, Karsten F. Kroeger, Ingo A. Pecher, Chris Armerding, Jake Perez, Suzi Woelz, Chris Ray, Roz King, Laurenz Boettger, Francesco Turco & Tayla Hill
The TAN2012 voyage took place between the 1st and 13th of November 2020 aboard RV Tangaroa. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data, multibeam bathymetry, single beam echo sounder, water column and TOPAS sub-bottom profile data were collected at the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction margin. CSEM profiles were collected along existing regional 2D reflection seismic lines to characterise and quantify gas and gas hydrate accumulations in the sub-seafloor. Multibeam bathymetry and water column data, as...

Geological mapping and structural analysis from combined field mapping, GPS surveying, photogrammetry and 3D modelling at Crawford Knob, Franz Josef, New Zealand

Matthew P. Hill, Susan M. Ellis, Timothy A. Little & Kirby R. D. MacLeod
Survey work using real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS in tandem with a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) has resulted in detailed surface and structural models of a glaciated outcrop at Crawford Knob near Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Crawford Knob is located ~8 km from Franz Josef township on the north-eastern side of the Franz Josef Glacier and exposes structures that were interpreted to have been deformed at ~20 km depth...

Analysing processes of inclusion and use of natural hazard information in iwi and hapū management plans: case studies from the Bay of Plenty

Wendy S. A. Saunders & Lucy H. Kaiser
This report provides case studies of iwi and hapū management plan's (IHMPs) inclusion of natural hazard information in the Bay of Plenty region by addressing the relationship between IHMPs, council policies and actions, and the accessibility of science knowledge to inform IHMPs. This report consists of three components, the fist provides an outline of th research methodologies, kaupapa Māori research principles, project design, participants and research questions (section two). The second, (section three) summarises the...

Seismogenesis at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE) Report of RV Tangaroa cruise TAN1710, 23 Oct-20 Nov 2017

Dan H.N. Barker, Harm J.A. van Avendonk & G. Fujie
In October and November 2017, The R/V Tangaroa was engaged in a large onshore-offshore seismic experiment on the Hikurangi margin of North Island, New Zealand, with a team of scientists from New Zealand, the United States, and Japan. This data acquisition campaign was part of the SHIRE project (“Seismogenesis at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment”). The goals of this Earth science project were: 1) to obtain constraints on the deep structure of the Hikurangi margin, with...

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