128 Works

Chatham Islands cabled observatory science opportunities: workshop 23–24 February 2021 summary report

Laura M. Wallace, John Townend, Craig Stevens, Richard L. Kellett, Joao De Souza, Giacamo Giorli, Jess I. T. Hillman, Caroline Holden, Bruce Howe, Daniel Leduc, Nate Lindsay, Joshu J. Mountjoy, William L. Power & Emily Warren-Smith
Our ability to address many key questions regarding physical oceanography, plate boundary processes and marine biodiversity, and to undertake geohazards monitoring in the New Zealand region, is greatly hampered by the lack of access to real-time, continuous offshore monitoring of a range of key observables beneath our oceans, which comprises >95% of our Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Developing the ability to monitor geological, biological and oceanographic processes within our EEZ is required to better understand...

Indigenous co-governance of volcanoes

Smrithi Talwar
Westernised nations typically conceptualise nature and landscapes as being subject to property-based ownership. Whether owned by private individual(s) or by the state, the owner has the right to modify its features, to permit its modification by others, and the right to take action against those who modify or impact the resource through their actions. By contrast, traditional or indigenous relationships with nature and landscapes are rooted in a very different paradigm of human-nature relations. This...

Aggregate opportunity modelling for New Zealand

Matthew P. Hill
Efficient utilisation of New Zealand’s aggregate resources is critical to supporting infrastructure development as well as reducing operational and transport costs related to extraction of the raw materials. A mineral potential modelling approach has been used to identify places with opportunity for future hard rock and gravel extraction across New Zealand. Geographic information system (GIS) software has been used to build a spatial model of the critical components of aggregate opportunity using digital geological, land-use,...

It's Our Fault Hikurangi Subduction Zone hazard: south Palliser Bay Holocene marine terraces

Nicola J. LItchfield, Andrew Howell, Kate J. Clark & Genevieve Coffey
The Greater Wellington region sits above a currently locked part of the Hikurangi Subduction Zone (interface) and, to date, no unequivocal evidence for past subduction earthquakes has been found in the region. In this study, we investigate Holocene marine terraces along the south Palliser Bay coast to test if they were uplifted in earthquakes on the Palliser–Kaiwhata Fault in the Pacific Plate or the Hikurangi subduction interface. Up to four low-lying marine terraces were mapped...

The 23rd January 2019 Cape Kidnappers coastal cliff collapse, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand

Saskia J. de Vilder, G. D. Dellow, Garth C. Archibald & Regine Morgenstern
An approximately 25,500 m³ debris avalanche occurred on the 23rd January 2019 from the coastal cliffs of Cape Kidnappers, Hawke’s Bay. The debris avalanche was observed by multiple bystanders, and seriously injured two tourists. The tourists were walking along the beach, which forms the public accessway to the Gannet Colony at Cape Kidnappers – a popular tourist attraction in the Hawke’s Bay. The cliff collapse occurred within a conglomerate unit located in the upper 50...

From rain through river catchment to aquifer: the flow of water through the Wairau hydrologic system

Uwe Morgenstern, P Davidson, Dougal B Townsend, Paul A White, Rob W van der Raaij, Mike K Stewart, Magali Moreau & Chris J Daughney
Groundwater is an important source of water for the Wairau Plain. Concerns about its sustainable yield and contamination from nutrients have prompted several hydrogeological studies over time to better understand the groundwater system. The main aim of this study is the review and consistent interpretation of age-tracer, isotope and chemistry data, collected between 1968 and 2019, to obtain the hydraulic parameters necessary to understand the declining water levels and spring flows and to assess the...

Interpretation of the 2017 groundwater age tracer and isotope results for the Christchurch aquifer system

Mike K. Stewart & Rob W. van der Raaij
This report interprets the results from groundwater age tracer and isotope measurements in the Christchurch aquifer system in 2017. The study included carbon-14, tritium and trace gases measured at GNS, stable isotopes (oxygen-18 and deuterium), and water chemistry measured at the same time (results given in Appendices 1 and 2). The interpreted mean ages and water sources are compared with results from measurements from each decade between 1976 and 2006 to see how the system...

Tsunami threat level database update

Aditya R. Gusman, Xiaoming Wang, William L. Power, Biljana Lukovic, Christof Mueller & David R. Burbidge
GNS Science had previously developed a tsunami scenario database with threat level maps for New Zealand from earthquake sources around the Pacific Ocean that can be used for tsunami early warning purposes. Here we describe the method and assumptions used to create an updated version of the database. One of the main improvements is that we have greatly increased the number of scenarios in the new database. Scenarios now exist down to lower magnitudes for...

Prognoses for two supercritical well designs

Brian S. Carey, Andrew J. Rae, Paul Bixley, Lucy B. Carson, Samantha A. Alcaraz & Isabelle Chambefort
This report has been assembled to provide parameters to assist with the design of geothermal wells that are expected to encounter supercritical geothermal conditions at depth in the Taupō Volcanic Zone (TVZ). To advance well design, two synthetic well prognoses have been developed, structured to define the conditions expected to be encountered and to be contained by a supercritical geothermal well in the TVZ drilled to a depth of ~6 km. Two sites were selected...

Total magnetic intensity grid of Taupo Volcanic Zone

Jenny Barretto & Fabio Caratori Tontini
A procedure for merging gridded airborne and shipborne magnetic data over the upper North Island has been formulated using Geosoft scripts. The two main products are an integrated total magnetic intensity (TMI) Geosoft grid with 100 m cell size and UTM 60S projection on the NZGD2000 datum and a master database containing the data from 37 individual surveys and from a TMI regional drape grid created from three regional grids. The integrated grid preserves the...

Empirical and physics-based runout models

Saskia J. de Vilder, Mark-Andre Brideau & Chris I. Massey
The Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project aims to improve the resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes in response to strong earthquake shaking and significant rain events and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. The SLIDE project’s main objectives are: 1.to establish inventories and data relating to slope processes, and 2.to use these data to underpin landslide hazard and risk...

An investigation of surrogate modelling in multi-hazards

Rob Buxton
The aim of this work is to review the use of surrogate modelling in the field of tsunami modelling or similar fields involving complex non-linear systems such as those involving Computational Fluid Dynamics or Partial Differential Equations. This study discuses some of the main concepts in order to add context but the main part of the work concentrates on publications of interest where the abstract and/or conclusions of the publications are quoted directly for accuracy....

Pre-historic ruptures on 2016 Kaikōura earthquake faults and implications for seismic hazard

Robert L. Langridge, Andy Nicol, David J A Barrell, P Almond, Kate J Clark & Mark W Stirling
The 14 November 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake was one of the largest and most complex on-land earthquakes ever observed globally and ruptured at least 14 faults with displacements of >1.5 m. The earthquake ruptured faults progressively from near the epicentre in the southwest on The Humps Fault in the North Canterbury (NCD) domain, northeast into the Marlborough Fault System (MFS) and on to Cape Campbell, including rupture of submarine faults and extensive uplift of...

Lithostratigraphic framework summary and geological context of the southern Auckland area

Kyle J. Bland, Julie M Lee, Matt P Hill & Katie E. Jones
The geological context and lithostratigraphic framework of southern Auckland are essential components of urban geological maps and for the general understanding of the area’s surface and subsurface earth materials. The composition and stratigraphic relationships of important geological units are described for an 829 km2 area located around the centres of Pukekohe, Papakura, Waiuku, between the southern shoreline of the Manukau Harbour, the Waikato River, Āwhitu Peninsula, and Hunua Ranges. Knowledge of the regional geology will...

Suitability of quantitative volcanic hazard and risk assessment methods and tools for crisis management in Auckland, New Zealand

A. J. Wild, Jan M. Lindsay, M. S. Bebbington, M.A. Clive & T. M. Wilson
In the lead up to the next Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) eruption, it is likely decision-makers will need to determine when and where to call an evacuation. Over the past two decades there has been a growing body of research aimed at exploring the use of quantitative hazard and risk models to support decision-makers. There is a wide range of existing quantitative approaches for assessing risk and its components: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. A detailed...

Spend to save: investigating the property acquisition process for risk reduction in Aotearoa New Zealand

Wendy S. A. Saunders & G. Smith
Limiting development in known high-hazard areas is among one of the most effective tools available to local governments to reduce future hazard risk and increase resilience, and yet, the widespread practice of acquiring hazard-prone properties and converting the land to open space in New Zealand remains highly varied. This report outlines Aotearoa New Zealand examples of hazard-prone housing acquisition (or buyout) processes, based on four legislative mechanisms: special legislation (Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Act 2011), the...

Geochemical characterisation of Māori artefacts from Kawhia Museum, New Zealand using pXRF

Karyne M. Rogers, John Thomson, Hamish J. Campbell, Boss Mahara, Oliver McLeod & Diane Bradshaw
Non-destructive portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF) was used to geochemically characterise 160 indigenous Māori stone artefacts residing in the Kāwhia Museum. Geochemical comparisons were made to determine relationships between artefacts and assign lithology and origin based on their elemental composition. The most abundant artefacts were toki (adzes, 80 samples), made of either argillite (48 samples) or basalt (32 samples) rock, but also included obsidian flakes, sinker stones, patu and patu ōnewa. Key rock types included...

An empirical model for attributing sources of particulate matter

Perry K. Davy & W. B. Trompetter
Airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution is well-known to have significant adverse effects on human health. It also has a range of environmental effects, including local reductions in visibility, effects on the radiative balance and deposition of contaminated material onto land and waterways. Because of these effects, PM concentrations are routinely monitored in numerous countries and managed according to local legislation. In New Zealand, the National Environmental Standard (NES) for PM sets a 24-hour average limit...

New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database: Data Dictionary

Nicola J. Litchfield
The New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database (new term, new database) contains paleoseismic data (grouped into Slip Rate, Earthquake [EQ] Timings and Recurrence Interval [RI], and Single-Event Displacement [SED]) collected at specific sites along active faults throughout New Zealand. The database was developed as part of the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model 2022 Revision Project (NSHM 2022). The primary purpose is to compile paleoseismic data at specific sites to be used either as inputs into,...

Graph Models and explainable AI

Rob Buxton
This work presents a brief review of different graph models and then discusses how they can be utilised as an approach for Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). XAI is a branch of computer science that is gaining in popularity, as it addresses the fundamental concept of ‘trust in AI’ – in other words, when should users trust outputs from Artificial Intelligence (AI) models? GNS Science has been studying XAI as part of a collaboration with Callaghan...

Critical element concentration in high temperature producing geothermal fluids in New Zealand

Lucjan Sajkowski, Rose E. Turnbull, Patrina Dumaru & Karyne M. Rogers
This review compiles and presents a publicly available database on the chemical composition of geothermal waters from wells and springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Ngawha, New Zealand. The purpose of this review is to collate previously dispersed datasets, to enable the typical geothermal reservoir water compositions at various locations around the TVZ (and Ngawha) to be assessed and compared. In addition to the tabulated chemical data, we summarise several elements that occur...

A wellbeing impact assessment framework for the National Seismic Hazard Model

Patrina Dumaru, Adam P. Martin, Smrithi Talwar, Christina Magill & Matt C. Gerstenberger
This report proposes an approach for assessing the impact (a return on investment) of resilience investments on wellbeing and a framework for assessing the impacts of the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) research programme on wellbeing in New Zealand. The NSHM calculates the likelihood and strength of earthquake shaking across New Zealand to inform the design and standards for infrastructure, land-use planning and risk insurance, which affect wellbeing related to housing, safety and basic services,...

5 March 2021 tsunami in Whangarei: post-tsunami field survey and numerical modelling

Jean H. Roger
The 5 March 2021 tsunami triggered by the Mw 8.1 Raoul Island earthquake propagated on a Pacific-wide scale. Being one of the countries closest to the epicentre, New Zealand issued a tsunami warning which was quickly confirmed by the New Zealand DART network and the coastal tsunami gauges. Preliminary modelling of wave propagation showed that some places in the Northland New Zealand, especially along the east coast of the Whangārei District, could have seen wave...

FAIR Principles applied to high-value geoscience datasets

Maria Mavroeidi & Mark S. Rattenbury
The FAIR Principles outline how digital data can be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. GNS Science has committed to achieving compliance with FAIR Principles for its high-value geoscience datasets. Initial assessment and improvement of FAIR compliance of GNS Science’s eight Nationally Significant Collections and Databases (NSCDs) as well as high-value natural hazards datasets has been undertaken. The Findable principle is largely met by GNS Science’s Dataset Catalogue that links metadata to datasets. The metadata registered...

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