31 Works

The 2021 pilot gravity survey of Rongotai Isthmus

Vaughan M. , Jenny Black, Matt P. Hill, Wanda R. Stratford & Brook Tozer
he subsurface of the Rongotai isthmus, the land area of the Rongotai–Miramar region of Wellington, consists of a series of Quaternary sedimentary basins upon which key infrastructure for Wellington City reside. Basin depths and geometries, critical parameters for seismic microzoning and hazard modelling, are currently poorly constrained in this region. In this study, we describe a pilot study where gravity data were acquired in a busy urban environment and modelled to evaluate the method for...

Ash leachate characteristics of the 27 April 2016 and 13 September 2016 eruptions of Whakaari/White Island volcano

Carol Stewart, Geoff N. Kilgour & Michael D. Rosenberg
Volcanic ash samples from the 27 April 2016 and 13 September 2016 eruptions of Whakaari / White Island volcano were collected on-island within 24 hours of each eruption. Water-extractable concentrations of a range of elements were determined in these samples, following the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (IVHHN) protocol. These results are reported here to add to the broader geochemical data series for Whakaari / White Island and because of interest in the 2016 ash...

An experimental study on the potential of Rhenium and Indium as geothermal tracers

Lucjan Sajkowski, A. Kamiya & Bruce W. Mountain
The experiment described in this report tested indium (In) and rhenium (Re) as potential geothermal tracers up to super-hot and supercritical conditions. The results show that Re is potentially a suitable candidate, however, In is not. The flow-through experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 200–400°C, and in presence of a NZ greywacke rock substrate. The results indicate that Re behaves conservatively, in presence of the rock and H2S. But supercritical conditions however, the...

Wellbeing approaches to improved decision making in Aotearoa New Zealand

Robyn Ramsden, Lucy H. Kaiser & A. Lo
This report summarises the findings of a GNS Science and Victoria University of Wellington Summer Internship project investigating the use of wellbeing frameworks (specifically, the Living Standards Framework and He Ara Waiora) by government in Aotearoa New Zealand. Specifically, this project examines the interfaces between wellbeing fundamentals and the way that the New Zealand Treasury’s Living Standards Framework is used by different stakeholders in their decision making, measuring and reporting. (The authors)

Tsunami travel time estimates for local sources for Porirua and Kapiti Coast suburbs

Xiaoming Wang, Biljana Lukovic, Christof Mueller, David W. Heron & William L. Power
In local fault source tsunami events, the effectiveness of self-evacuation planning is constrained by two pieces of timing information: the tsunami travel (arrival) time estimate and evacuation travel time estimate. This study estimates travel times of tsunami from local active fault sources to coastal suburbs of Porirua and Kāpiti Coast in the Greater Wellington region of New Zealand. The estimates include the arrivals of 1.0 m tsunami elevation above local ambient sea condition, i.e. the...

Average coseimic slip profiles

Kiran K.S. Thingbaijam, Russ J. Van Dissen, B. E. Shaw & Matt C. Gerstenberger
Despite the potential impact on earthquake rupture forecasts for seismic hazard analysis, derivation of applicable average coseismic slip profiles has received relatively limited attention. Here, we present improved insight using a set of rupture models of past earthquakes. We find that along-strike slip profiles are well approximated by a power-of-sine function with index = 1/2 (i.e. sinesqrt function), corroborating Biasi and Weldon (2006). However, elongated ruptures (with aspect ratios >5.0) have a flatter profile. Additionally,...

New Zealand Community Fault Model - version 1.0

Hannu Seebeck, Russ J. Van Dissen, Nicola J. Litchfield, P. M. Barnes, Andy Nicol, Rob M. Langridge, David J. A. Barrell, Pilar Villamor, Susan M. Ellis & Mark S. Rattenbury
Fault models developed by the scientific community aim to provide a consistent and broadly agreed-upon representation of faults in a region for such societally important endeavours as seismic hazard assessment (e.g. national seismic hazard models), strong ground-motion predictions and physics-based fault systems modelling. The New Zealand Community Fault Model (NZ CFM) is a two- and three-dimensional representation of fault zones associated with the New Zealand plate boundary for which Quaternary activity has been established (or...

Regional fault orientation and length analysis, Aotearoa New Zealand

Mark S. Rattenbury
Over the past few decades, several faults have been identified in Aotearoa New Zealand only because they ruptured in recent damaging earthquakes. The recognition of these previously unidentified earthquake-generating faults has heightened awareness of seismic hazard that extends beyond Aotearoa New Zealand’s large, but still fragmentary, record of known active faults. This has reinforced how important estimating distributed ‘off-fault’ seismicity is for characterising earthquake hazard. To help quantify aspects of distributed seismicity for the National...

Landslide hazard and risk assessment for the Fox and Franz Josef Glacier valleys

Chris I. Massey, Saskia J. de Vilder, T. Taig, Biljana Lukovic, Garth C. Archibald & Regine Morgenstern
This report has been prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science) for the Department of Conservation (DOC), in response to a request from them for a quantitative assessment of the risk posed by landslides within the Fox and Franz Josef Glacier valleys. The quantitative landslide risk assessment is based on risk-estimation methods that follow appropriate parts of the Australian Geomechanics Society framework for landslide risk management. It provides landslide risk...

New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database: design and overview of version 1.0

Nicola J. Litchfield, Jade Humphrey, Regine Morgenstern, Robert M. Langridge, Genevieve L. Coffey & Russ J. Van Dissen
The New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database (new term, new database) contains paleoseismic data (grouped into Slip Rate, Earthquake [EQ] Timings and Recurrence Interval [RI], and Single-Event Displacement [SED]) collected at specific sites along active faults throughout New Zealand. The database was developed as part of the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model 2022 Revision Project (NSHM 2022). The primary purpose is to compile paleoseismic data at specific sites to be used either as inputs into,...

The 2021 update to New Zealand's National Tsunami Hazard Model

William L. Power, David R. Burbidge & Aditya R. Gusman
The National Tsunami Hazard Model (NTHM) provides estimates of tsunami heights at the shoreline for return periods of up to 2500 years. It is used as a basis for selecting scenarios used for tsunami inundation modelling, which underpins tsunami evacuation zone design, land use planning and risk assessments. The original NTHM was completed in 2013, though it built upon a 2005 study focused only on the main coastal cities. Since 2013, there have been improvements...

Comparison of ammonia-nitrogen measurements between unpreserved and acid-sulfuric preserved groundwater samples

M. Estefania Santamaria Cerrutti & Magali Moreau
In 2016, the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (NGMP) sampling kit was modified by adding a 100 mL sulfuric-acidified sampling bottle for the analysis of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). This change was prompted by a review applying the most recent version of Standard Methods (Rice et al. 2012), which is the basis for the sampling protocol adopted by the programme since 2006. Acidification was recommended to inhibit bacterial activity and prevent salt formation with organic bases. This report...

Understanding the unique environmental attributes and biological materials of Kāwhia - Aotea South

Diane Bradshaw, Karyne M. Rogers & O. McLeod
The Tainui and Aotea waka arrived almost 1000 years ago from Hawaiki, sailing into two harbours at Kaawhia and Aotea, on the west coast of the North Island, New Zealand. These earliest settlers left a legacy of physical evidence from their activities in this region, as well as oral stories, waiata and traditions. During 2020, a project funded by MacDiarmid Institute was undertaken to investigate the material science and geochemical properties of geological taonga held...

Coastal inundation associated with sea-level rise in the Pacific: a review

Shannon A. Bengtson, Elizabeth D Keller & Annemarie Christophersen
This literature review was developed for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) to provide background for the project Probabilistic Assessment of Coastal Inundation in the Pacific. Projected sea-level rise greatly differs depending on future emissions scenarios and ice sheet modelling uncertainties. When considering the impacts of sea-level rise, it is compounding factors, such as high tides, waves generated from tropical cyclones and storm surges, that pose the most significant threat to low-lying communities....

Explainable Artificial Intelligence for unsupervised models

Rob Buxton
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is a branch of Computer Science that is gaining popularity, as it addresses the fundamental concept of ‘trust in AI’ – in other words, when users should trust outputs from Artificial Intelligence (AI) models (Ribeiro et al. 2016). GNS Science has been studying XAI as part of a collaboration with Callaghan Innovation since 2020. Callaghan Innovation’s focus has been on XAI applied to supervised AI models. For the 2020/21 financial year,...

Phase I: Reconnaissance report on landslides caused by the 16-18 July 2021 rainstorm in the Marlborough region

Andrea Wolter, Brenda J. Rosser, Sheng-Lin Lin, Andrew F. Boyes, Dougal B. Townsend, Katie E. Jones & Eunie Choi
An extreme winter storm travelled across New Zealand on the 16th to 18th of July 2021, affecting the Marlborough, Tasman, Nelson, West Coast and Wellington regions. Flooding and landslides resulted in evacuation of numerous communities and damage to transport networks and property in these regions. Multiple roads were closed and houses impacted by landslides, particularly in the Buller River Valley and Marlborough. Following the storm, GNS Science and Marlborough District Council staff completed reconnaissance in...

3D geological model of the Pukekohe urban area [explanatory text]

Katie E. Jones, Dominic P. Strogen & Matt P. Hill

Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: field report on GNSS surveys of the Taupō Volcanic Zone and Hauraki Rift (TVZ2021)

Rory J. A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
During February 2021, a combined team from GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) re-measured a network of 103 geodetic survey markers, using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods, throughout the Taupō Volcanic Zone and Hauraki regions of New Zealand for monitoring regional deformation due to tectonic processes. Previous comprehensive GNSS surveys of these regions have been carried out in 2015 (TVZ2015 [unpublished]), 2011 (2011TARA-TVZ [unpublished]), 2007 (TVZ2007 [unpublished]), 2005 (TVZ2005 [Palmer 2005]), 1995...

Collection and initial assessment of terrestrial heat flux of the Waiotapu Geothermal Field

Anya M. Seward, Thomas Brakenrig, Nick Macdonald & Jackson Shanks
Between 15 and 22 January 2020, stream flow gauging, water sampling, surface calorimeter and temperature-depth profile measurements were undertaken at Waiotapu Geothermal Field (WGF) as part of a surface heat loss assessment. The data summarised in this report will be used to revise an estimate of heat loss from the WGF. This survey was designed in parallel with an aerial thermal infrared (TIR) survey undertaken over the region on 13 April 2019. Water temperatures, flowrates...

Effects of saltwater intrusion on groundwater microbial community diversity

Karen M. Houghton, Magali Moreau & Conny Tschritter
Microbial communities in groundwater carry out biochemical processes that are essential ecosystem functions, such as nutrient cycling and removal of contaminants. These processes play an important role in the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation as well as interconnected surface water. The effects of climate change on these communities, e.g. from increasing salt levels from rising sea levels, or from global temperature increases, are unknown. This study used a combination of culture-dependent (growth...

'Geologic Champagne' voyage report R/V Tangaroa TAN2006: 26 June - 17 July 2020, Wellington-Wellington

Ingo A. Pecher, Jess I. T. Hillman, Bryan W. Davy, A. R. Gorman, Suzi Woelz, D. Andrew, L. Boettger, A. Dalbeth, P. Gerring, J. Hoffman, A. Macnaughtan, P. Oluwunmi, W. Quinn, A. Shorrock & M. Tankersley
Tangaroa voyage TAN2006 took place from 26 June – 17 July 2020, with an unscheduled port call in Wellington from 29 June – 1 July due to equipment problems. The voyage objectives focused on geophysical studies of seafloor pockmarks on the Chatham Rise, as well as possible pockmarks and contourite deposits in the Bounty Trough. We acquired ~800 km of 2D seismic data, ~500 km of which were in a dense grid designed for high-resolution...

Total magnetic intensity grid of Taupo Volcanic Zone

Jenny Barretto & Fabio Caratori Tontini
A procedure for merging gridded airborne and shipborne magnetic data over the upper North Island has been formulated using Geosoft scripts. The two main products are an integrated total magnetic intensity (TMI) Geosoft grid with 100 m cell size and UTM 60S projection on the NZGD2000 datum and a master database containing the data from 37 individual surveys and from a TMI regional drape grid created from three regional grids. The integrated grid preserves the...

Prognoses for two supercritical well designs

Brian S. Carey, Andrew J. Rae, Paul Bixley, Lucy B. Carson, Samantha A. Alcaraz & Isabelle Chambefort
This report has been assembled to provide parameters to assist with the design of geothermal wells that are expected to encounter supercritical geothermal conditions at depth in the Taupō Volcanic Zone (TVZ). To advance well design, two synthetic well prognoses have been developed, structured to define the conditions expected to be encountered and to be contained by a supercritical geothermal well in the TVZ drilled to a depth of ~6 km. Two sites were selected...

Empirical and physics-based runout models

Saskia J. de Vilder, Mark-Andre Brideau & Chris I. Massey
The Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project aims to improve the resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes in response to strong earthquake shaking and significant rain events and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. The SLIDE project’s main objectives are: 1.to establish inventories and data relating to slope processes, and 2.to use these data to underpin landslide hazard and risk...

An investigation of surrogate modelling in multi-hazards

Rob Buxton
The aim of this work is to review the use of surrogate modelling in the field of tsunami modelling or similar fields involving complex non-linear systems such as those involving Computational Fluid Dynamics or Partial Differential Equations. This study discuses some of the main concepts in order to add context but the main part of the work concentrates on publications of interest where the abstract and/or conclusions of the publications are quoted directly for accuracy....

Registration Year

  • 2022
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Affiliations

  • GNS Science
    31
  • Victoria University of Wellington
    2
  • University of Canterbury
    2
  • National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
    2
  • Columbia University
    1
  • University of Otago
    1
  • University of Auckland
    1
  • Massey University
    1