10,882 Works

The Horizon 2020 Project SURE: Deliverable 7.2 - Report on Laterals Stability Modelling

John-Paul Latham, Ado Farsi, Jiansheng Xiang & Bin Chen
In this deliverable, the objectives of the Imperial College team are to consider jetted boreholes in the context of conventional borehole wall-rock stability analysis and to utilise an in-house advanced combined finite-discrete element code to examine the wall-rock failure process for jetted holes. The geomechanical modelling of Lateral Stability in D7.2 presented here is in addition to the main focus on modelling the water-jetting breakdown of the rock itself, reported in D7.1.

Towards the Total Synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxylumisterol

Alan Partridge
This thesis is divided into three chapters. The first chapter provides a brief review on recent work in the application of cascade cyclisations to the total synthesis of natural products. This is followed by a review of the decarboxylative Claisen rearrangement (dCr), a novel variant of the Ireland-Claisen reaction in which tosylacetic esters of allylic alcohols are transformed into homoallylic sulfones using BSA and potassium acetate, and its applications. The second chapter discusses the results...

Hypothalamic control of body temperature and sleep

Edward Harding
The role of sleep is not understood but it is essential for life. The sleep cycle is highly correlated to the circadian control of core temperature which, in mammals, is lower during the sleep phase. General anaesthetics induce sedation with sleep-like features, but this often comes with hypothermia. The preoptic hypothalamus seems key to the successful regulation of sleep and thermoregulation. We hypothesise a convergence of neuronal circuits that regulate sleep and temperature regulation in...

The geology & surface mineralogy of Mars; using Martian meteorites as a ground-truth for spacecraft data

Natasha Rachel Stephen
The surface of Mars has been characterised by interpreting data from orbiting satellites and severalplanetary landers and rovers for many decades; however, there are now ~70 meteorites in collections that are believed to have originated on the surface of Mars. These meteorites provide the only in situ opportunity to study true Martian material and could serve as a ground-truth for spacecraft data. This research investigates the hypothesis that meteorite-derived, extra-terrestrial mineral spectra provide a better...

Improving engine efficiency via polymer shear thinning

Nigel Marx
This thesis investigates the extent to which viscosity modifier additive shear thinning can be used to reduce hydrodynamic friction and thus improve engine efficiency while not impacting too greatly on hydrodynamic film thickness. Novel experimental techniques are developed to measure shear-dependent viscosity over a large shear rate range. A model hydrodynamic lubricated contact is established using a steel ball rolling/sliding against a polymer disc. This enables low contact pressures, thus avoiding significant piezoviscous effects. Novel...

Quantum optical measurements for practical estimation and information thermodynamics

Mihai-Dorian Vidrighin
The implementation of optical quantum technologies requires precise and complete characterisation tools for multi-mode nonclassical states of light. In this thesis, we propose and we implement experimentally three applications of optical quantum measurements, which combine aspects of light that are described by both discrete and continuous variables. In the rst part of this thesis, we present a new scheme for interferometric phase estimation, which uses double homodyne measurements as an alternative to photon counting. We...

Experimental investigation of supersonic plasma jets colliding with thin metallic foils

Louisa Alyce Pickworth
An experimental investigation of collisions between supersonic plasma jets with metal foils and head-on collisions of two jets will be presented. The jets are produced by ablation of thin aluminium foils driven by 1.4MA, 250ns current pulse in a radial foil Z-pinch configuration. The jets propagate with velocity of 50-100km/s, showing a high degree of collimation (opening angle 2 [degrees] to 5 [degrees]) and are radiatively cooled (cooling time << hydrodynamic times). Collisions of the...

Early detection of decompensation of chronic heart failure using a non-contact monitor of nocturnal respiratory patterns

Henry Oluwasefunmi Savage
Heart failure affects 1-2% of the adult population in the United Kingdom and accounts for the majority of hospitalisations in patients with cardiovascular disease. The financial implications are enormous as it consumes 1-2% of the national health care budget with 70% of these costs relating to hospitalisation expenses. Prevention of these admissions may be possible by detecting early signs of decompensation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and instituting interventions that may steer the...

Gauge theory on G2–manifolds

Thomas Walpuski
In their seminal paper [DT98] Donaldson–Thomas pointed out the possibility of an enumerative invariant for G2–manifolds obtained by counting certain connections, called G2– instantons. This putative invariant is sometimes referred to as the G2 Casson invariant, since it should be formally similar to the Casson invariant for 3–manifolds. In this thesis I prove existence results for G2–instantons on G2–manifolds arising from Joyce’s generalised Kummer construction [Joy96b, Joy00] as well as the twisted connected sum construction...

A personalised and adaptive insulin dosing decision support system for type 1 diabetes

Peter Pesl
People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) rely on exogenous insulin to maintain stable glucose levels. Despite the advent of diabetes technologies such as continuous glucose monitors and insulin infusion pumps, the majority of people with T1D do not manage to bring back glucose levels into a healthy target after meals. In addition to patient compliance, this is due to the complexity of the decision-making on how much insulin is required. Commercial insulin bolus calculators exist...

Generation and characterisation of anti-dengue monoclonal antibodies in a case of severe primary dengue infection

Catherine Roberts
Introduction Dengue is one of the most important emerging infections with 50% of the world’s population living in dengue endemic countries. The clinical spectrum of disease can range from asymptomatic to a severe haemorrhagic illness. Those with secondary infection with a second serotype are most at risk of severe disease. This has lead to the theory that a primed immune response ineffectively clears a secondary infection and enhances infection. Teasing out immunology to dengue has...

The role of the Toll-like receptors in systemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery

Hatam Naase
Background: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can lead to a spectrum of post-operative complications as a result of activation of systemic inflammatory responses. Cellular injury can lead to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), which act as a ligand activating leukocytes and endothelial cells via innate immunity receptors such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the contributions of DAMPs to inflammatory responses to CPB are unknown. Aim: This...

Cosmochemistry of iron meteorites; trace element composition of metal and sulfide phases

Marlene Leclerc
Trace elements composition of the metal and sulfide phases in iron meteorites have been studied in 42 iron meteorites and 2 pallasites. 19 iron meteorites thick sections containing sulfide inclusions have been mapped and their mineralogy, tex- ture and major and minor element compositions analyzed by SEM and EPMA and their trace elements composition measured using LA-ICP-MS. A highly homoge- neous fragment of Cape York troilite has been found suitable to be used as a...

New ultimetallic assemblies as photoluminescent materials

Andre Duerrbeck
During the last few decades significant progress has been made in the area of supramolecular polymers, where monomers are held together by non-covalent interactions. In particular, the formation of macromolecular assemblies by employing a metal-ion induced self-assembly process in solution is of significant interest. These supramolecular metallo-polymers combine common features of traditional covalently-bound polymers with the unique characteristics introduced by metal ions. So far, the research in this area has mainly focused on the metal-induced...

Tobacco shoot regeneration from calli in temporary immersion culture for biosynthesis of heterologous biopharmaceuticals

Sherwin Savio Barretto
‘Molecular farming’, the use of transgenic plants to produce biopharmaceutical proteins is emerging as a new biotechnological paradigm. Transgenic plants offer several advantages over conventional microbial and mammalian cell host technologies. In particular, transplastomic plants, with transformed plastid genomes, are capable of massive expression of foreign proteins and represent a promising platform for biopharmaceutical synthesis. The main theme of this PhD thesis is the investigation of in vitro regeneration of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) shoots from...

Functionalised silica nanoparticles for biomedical imaging

Sarah Jane Percival
Magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most widely used diagnostic techniques in the clinic as it affords many of the attributes sought from a non-invasive imaging modality. The main limitation of MRI is its inherent insensitivity, and as a result only large-scale abnormalities can be detected from a scan. With an increasing demand for earlier cancer diagnosis there has been a move towards imaging the molecular biomarkers that are present from the beginning of...

All-scale structural analysis of biomolecules through dynamical graph partitioning

Antoine Pierre Valere Delmotte
From femtosecond bond vibrations to millisecond domain motions, the dynamics of biomolecules spans a wide range of time and length scales. This hierarchy of overlapping scales links the molecular and biophysical details to key aspects of their functionality. However, the span of scales combined with their intricate coupling rapidly drives atomic simulation methods to their limits, thereby often resulting in the need for coarse-graining techniques which cannot take full account of the biochemical details. To...

Reservoir Condition Pore Scale Imaging of Multiphase Flow using X-Ray Microtomography

Matthew Andrew
This thesis presents the first method for the imaging of multiple fluid phases at conditions representative of subsurface flow by the use of X-ray micro-CT, focussing on four principal applications: (1) Capillary Trapping; (2) Ganglion Snap-off and remobilization; (3) Contact angle measurement; and (4) Dynamic phenomena associated with CO2 drainage. Firstly the pore-scale arrangement of CO2 after drainage and imbibition was imaged in three carbonates and two sandstones. In each sample substantial amounts of CO2...

The Limits of Bioenergy : A Complex Systems Approach to Land Use Dynamics and Constraints

Alexandre Betinardi Strapasson
This thesis aims to use a novel methodology to obtain an understanding of the potential limits of bioenergy by using a complex systems approach for assessing land use dynamics and constraints. Although bioenergy is classified as a renewable energy source, land is a finite resource and its expansion limited. The anthropogenic demands on land result from a combination of multiple provisioning services. These include global food consumption, dietary preference, crop and livestock yields, land use...

Modelling of gas-solid flows with non-spherical particles

Fan Zhao
Dispersed multiphase flows are common in nature and industry and are governed by complex physical phenomena. The complex features of the turbulence continuity carrier phase and the dispersed phase make the problem of a dispersed multiphase flow much more complex than a single phase flow. This research work focuses on modelling and analysing one type of dispersed multiphase flows: solid particles suspended in a turbulent channel flow. The aim of this thesis is to numerically...

Differential tumour necrosis factor signalling in human models of acute lung injury

Alastair Proudfoot
Numerous clinical and experimental studies have implicated tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as a central mediator of acute lung injury (ALI). TNF signals through two cell surface receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which initiate distinct signalling pathways and cellular responses. Using a novel, highly selective TNFR1 domain antibody GSK1995057 allied with TNF-receptor (TNFR) specific muteins, the work in this thesis investigated the roles of differential TNFR signalling in a range of human in vitro models of ALI...

The epidemiology and prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus

Mahlatse Makgoba
Objectives To examine the relationship between particular traditional risk factors and their effect on the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and birthweight (Part 1) as well as to assess first trimester maternal biochemical predictors of development of GDM (Part 2). Methods Part 1. A retrospective study of prospectively collected data from fifteen maternity units in North West London between 1988-2000- the St Mary‘s Maternity Information System (SMMIS) dataset. The dataset was modified to include...

The application of smoothed particle hydrodynamics to the simulation of multiphase flows through packed beds

Daniel James Barker
Heap leaching is an important hydrometallurgical minerals processing technique, which involves the irrigation of leaching solution through a packed bed of ore particles. It is a complex process governed by the precise chemistry of the ores and leaching solution, the biological action of bacteria that live on the rocks, and the multiphase fluid flow through and around the rocks. In order to improve the predication of recovery and the performance of the operations, a better...

A novel synthetic approach to the fasicularin family of marine alkaloids

Joseph Marshall
This thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter comprises an introduction to the fasicularin family of marine alkaloids, and a review of previous total syntheses of the members of this class of compounds. This chapter also covers the previous work by Craig et al. on the synthesis of (±)-lepadiformine, and how this influenced our initial approach to the enantioselective synthesis of (–)-lepadiformine. The second chapter details the first part of our investigation into...

MicroRNA mediated biological effects in response to bariatric surgery

Qianxin Wu
Bariatric surgery offers sustained dramatic weight loss and remission of diabetes, yet the mechanisms of these health benefits are not clear. In the present study, I profiled circulating and colorectal miRNAome in response to bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). Indeed, the response of circulating and colorectal miRNA profiles to RYGB were striking and selective. Fourteen circulating microRNA and thirteen colorectal microRNA exhibited significantly alteration post RYGB. Interestingly, circulating miR-122 decreased dramatically (56 fold) post RYGB...

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