5 Works

Body temperature and thermal imaging

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, Malcolm Mitchell & Richard Dewhurst
Body temperature data is often used in cattle to assess different reproductive events such as oestrus and pregnancy or to identify prevalence of various infectious diseases. Therefore, recording body temperature is important when considering both the health and reproductive status of livestock. Body temperature is often measured during experiments with cattle yet there is a lack of introduction and development of tools to measure this parameter consistently and precisely. Core body temperature measurements indicate the...

The gas recovery test of respiratory chambers

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Marcel Heetkamp, Gemma Miller, David Humphries, Frederic Anglard, Yvanne Rochette, Cécile Martin, Tom Gardiner & Marc Coleman
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calorimetry studies, as CH4 is an energy loss. The RC can therefore be used to quantify the CH4 production from animals, and many new RC units have been constructed during the last decades with...

Respiratory chamber facility

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Karen Beauchemin, Cécile Martin, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Gemma Miller, David Humphries & Marcel Heetkamp
This guideline will highlight the key steps required when measuring gas exchange of cattle for the estimation of methane emission and heat production (by estimating the relation of emitted CO2 and CH4 to the consumed O2) via a respiration chamber (RC). The authors acknowledge the variation in RC design in different experimental units, and therefore, the mentioned steps within this guideline are common and essential for all. Note that a CO2 and/or CH4 recovery test...

Ethics in experiments on live cattle: a pragmatic approach

Isabelle Veissier, Véronique Deiss, Mette Herskin, Emer Kennedy & Kenny Rutherford
There are ongoing philosophical, moral, and societal debates about experiments on live animals. Along with a consequentialist approach, it may be considered that an action – here an experiment on live animals – is morally acceptable if the knowledge it aims to produce can result in an overall benefit. In other words, it is acceptable if the constraints imposed on the animals involved are outweighed by the larger benefits expected for others (humans or animals)....

Lying, standing, and eating behaviour

Lene Munksgaard, Emma Ternman, Isabelle Veissier, Carol-Anne Duthie & René Baumont
Standing and lying behaviours are well-defined. Lying is often described as when the flank or sternum of the animal is in contact with the ground, and end of lying when all four legs are perpendicular to the body. The transition from lying to standing and vice versa requires only a few seconds, and therefore differences in the description of lying do not greatly affect the calculation of time spent lying or standing. By contrast, if...

Registration Year

  • 2021
  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Text


  • Scotland's Rural College
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
  • University of Clermont Auvergne
  • Aarhus University
  • Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
  • Wageningen University & Research
  • University of Reading
  • National Physical Laboratory
  • Teagasc - The Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority
  • Clermont Université