A synthesis of several approaches to quantifying land–atmosphere interactions is presented. These approaches use data from observations or atmospheric reanalyses applied to atmospheric tracer models and stand-alone land surface schemes. None of these approaches relies on the results of general circulation model simulations. A high degree of correlation is found among these independent approaches, and constructed here is a composite assessment of global land–atmosphere feedback strength as a function of season. The composite combines the...
Role of conventional ultrasonography and color flow-doppler sonography in predicting malignancy in 'cold' thyroid nodulesT Rago, P Vitti, L Chiovato, S Mazzeo, A De Liperi, P Miccoli, P Viacava, F Bogazzi, E Martino & A Pinchera
The aim of the present study was to establish the usefulness of conventional thyroid ultrasonography (US) and color flow-doppler (CFD) sonography in the assessment of 'cold' thyroid nodules. One hundred and four consecutive patients with thyroid nodules who were to undergo surgery were examined by US and CFD before thyroidectomy. Conventional US evaluated the presence of a halo sign, hypoechogenicity and microcalcifications. The vascular pattern on CFD was classified as follows: Type I, absence of...
Correlation of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Solitary Thyroid NoduleManoj Gupta, Savita Gupta & Ved Bhushan Gupta
. Fine needle aspiration cytology is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a cost effective procedure that provides specific diagnosis rapidly with minimal complications. Based on the cytology findings, patients can be followed in cases of benign diagnosis and subjected to surgery in cases of malignant diagnosis thereby decreasing the rate of unnecessary surgery. Purpose of the present study was to correlate the fine...
Cis- and trans-acting elements involved in the regulation of the erythroid promoter of the human porphobilinogen deaminase geneV Mignotte, J F Eleouet, N Raich & P H Romeo
Two cis-acting sequences, recognized by two erythroid-specific trans-acting factors, are involved in the regulation of the erythroid promoter of the human gene coding for porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The first region, located at -70, binds the erythroid factor NF-E1, and point mutations within this region abolish the induction of transcription of this promoter during murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cell differentiation. The second region, located at -160, binds the erythroid-specific factor NF-E2 and the ubiquitous factor AP1. Using...
Review of progress in the introduction of management strategy evaluation (MSE) approaches in Australia's South East FisheryAndré E. Punt, Anthony D. M. Smith & Gurong Cui
The MSE approach provides a simulation-based framework within which harvest strategies, stock assessment methods, performance indicators and research programmes can be compared. This approach has been used in the Australian South East Fishery (SEF) to assess harvest strategies for the over-exploited eastern gemfish resource and to compare different levels of discard monitoring for blue grenadier. The main challenges to use of the MSE approach in the SEF are poorly specified management objectives and the lack...
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