28,929 Works

Wars Within Wars: Understanding Inter-rebel Fighting

Costantino Pischedda
Why do rebel groups frequently fight each other rather than cooperating against their common enemy – the state? This dissertation presents a theory of inter-rebel war and tests it with a combination of case studies and statistical analysis. The theory conceives of inter-rebel war as a calculated response by rebel groups to opportunities for expansion and threats generated by the civil war environment in which they operate. Insurgent organizations attack weaker coethnic groups when government...

Enfeeblement in Elders with Essential Tremor: Characterizing the Phenomenon and Its Role in Caregiver Burden

Tess Cersonsky, Daniel Trujillo Diaz, Sarah Kellner, Ruby Hickman, Maria Anna Zdrodowska, Joan Monin & Elan Louis
Background: Individuals with essential tremor (ET), a common movement disorder, experience functional impairment, which contributes to burden experienced by their loved ones and caregivers. Some burdened caregivers report their loved ones as seeming debilitated or prematurely old, a concept that we have called enfeeblement. Using the Essential Tremor Enfeeblement Survey (ETES), we seek to characterize enfeeblement in elders with ET and assess its contribution to caregiver burden. Methods: We administered the ETES (range = 8–40,...

Trans-Science as a Vocation

Gil Eyal
This paper compares Weber’s argument in “Science as a vocation,” with Physicist Alvin Weinberg’s discussion of the distinction between science and “trans-science,” as two contrasting blueprints for boundary-work. It argues that Weber’s empirical reasons for separating the scientific discussion of means and the extra-scientific discussion of ends – namely, the thesis of “disenchantment” – no longer serves as a useful approach to understanding the growth of “trans-science” or “expertise” over the last century. It advances...

Nancy Naumburg

Richard Koszarski
On September 25, 1934, Irving Lerner devoted an entire column in New Masses to “the first [film] to come out of the revolutionary movement,” a “dramatic documentary” on the farm crisis that had just been screened at the headquarters of the radical collective Film & Photo League. Sheriffed was a three-reel 16mm silent motion picture that had been written, directed, and photographed by Nancy Naumburg and James Guy. Lerner was not entirely happy with the...

Zora Neale Hurston

Aimee Dixon
Better known for her work as a novelist, Zora Neale Hurston could be, according to an essay by Gloria Gibson, the first African-American woman filmmaker. The film footage, which includes Children’s Games (1928), Logging (1928), and Baptism (1929), appears to be from her work as a student of anthropology under the tutelage of famed anthropologist, professor and mentor, Dr. Franz Boas. A graduate of Barnard College and a Guggenheim fellow, Hurston traveled to back to...

Yang Naimei

S. Louisa Wei
Born to a wealthy Cantonese merchant father, Yang Naimei was named Yang Lizhu and attended the first girl’s school founded by the Chinese in Shanghai: Wuben. As a student, Yang witnessed Pearl Ing’s stunning appearance in her screen debut—Sea Oath—in 1922. When Star Film Company’s Orphan Rescues Grandfather was playing in theaters in 1923, she was deeply moved by Helen Wang’s role. According to her biographer, Shen Ji, Yang immediately had the urge to perform...

Xie Caizhen

S. Louisa Wei
Caizhen Xie is regarded by several existing sources as the first female director of Chinese cinema who worked in China. (This is, of course, with Marion E. Wong in mind as the first Chinese woman to direct a film anywhere.) As an actress, Caizhen also starred in Dan Duyu’s 1925 film Little Master. Prior to this, Caizhen had co-starred with leading actress Pearl Ing in Dan’s “philosophy film” Some Girl (1925). While Pearl played a...

Ángela Ramos de Rotalde

Mario Lucioni & Irela Núñez
Ángela Ramos de Rotalde was one of Peru’s first journalists, and a progressive who sympathized with the early Peruvian communism of José Carlos Mariátegui. She maintained a strong feminist position that she defended with acute intelligence and a sense of humor. She also participated in Peruvian cinema. In 1927, Italian filmmaker Pedro Sambarino asked Ramos to write the script for a film he planned to direct. Sambarino came from La Paz, where he had directed...

Writing the History of Latin American Women Working in the Silent Film Industry

Joanne Hershfield & Patricia Torres San Martín
The historiography of silent cinema in Latin America tells a story of good fortune in the face of adversity, enterprising individuals, and collective frustrations. Until recently women were virtually absent from published histories, however; this omission from the major works in Latin American film historiography is evidence of the way in which women’s work has been made invisible in the main tradition. Thanks to the interest and persistence of a number of film scholars, however,...

Women as Camera Operators or “Cranks”

Jane Gaines & Michelle Koerner
During the silent era there does not appear to have been much serious thought given to the question of why there might or might not be women working as motion picture camera operators. The handful who did do this work kept a very low profile, and, as a consequence, many in the commercial industry may have thought that there was just no such thing as a female camera operator at all. Even one of the...

Virgínia de Castro e Almeida

Tiago Baptista
Portuguese film pioneer Virgínia de Castro e Almeida is still better known today for her work as an author of children’s books, travel literature, and digests on the history of Portugal. She was married to João da Mota Prego, an agronomist, and lived in France and Switzerland. She took an interest in cinema during the first half of the 1920s, founding the production company Fortuna Films in 1922. The company released two features: A Sereia...

Vera McCord

Christina Lane
Theatrical actress Vera McCord wrote, produced, and directed her one and only independent feature motion picture, the semi-scandalous The Good-Bad Wife, in 1921. She had had a relatively short theatrical career between 1912 and 1914 in Oakland, California, after a seven-year stint on the stage in London before her one producing gamble. What else we know of McCord’s life is that she was born in 1872 in Marshalltown, Iowa. The daughter of the town’s deputy...

Winifred Dunn

James Hansen
Known for being one of the youngest scenario editors, male or female, during the silent era, Winifred Dunn, like Anita Loos, started writing at a young age. As a girl in Chicago, Dunn discovered her skills as a writer as well as a translator when at the age of eighteen she translated a German play into English and altered the production to fit an American stage. While still in her teens, Dunn began writing two-reel...

Wanda Tuchock

Michelle Koerner
Screenwriter Wanda Tuchock retains a singular role in film history as one of the few women who began her career in the silent era and was able to maintain her career in Hollywood during the early sound years. It is now well known that after the end of the silent era, the number of women directors trickled down to nearly zero. Anthony Slide highlights this for us by pointing out that screenwriter Wanda Tuchock was...

Winnifred Eaton

Vito Adriaensens
Winnifred Eaton is best known for her success as a novelist under the pseudo-Japanese pen name Onoto Watanna, but she also worked as a screenwriter, title writer, literary advisor, and scenario editor for Universal and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer between 1921 and 1930, and wrote a number of poignant articles on both the profession of the Hollywood screenwriter and the Asian-American experience. Eaton was born to a British father and a Chinese mother who left England for Hudson,...

Valda Valkyrien

Jia Jia Liu
Named after the Valkyrie of Wagnerian lore, the martial warrior maiden who led warriors into battle, Valda Valkyrien herself emerges from the Hollywood press glowing with a mythical aura. Distinguishing between the real Valkyrien and Valkyrien the Hollywood myth is key to a profile of the star.

Viola Lawrence

Kristen Hatch
Viola Lawrence is often credited as Hollywood’s first female film cutter. She began working in film at the age of twelve when she held title cards at the Vitagraph studio in Flatbush. Six years later, she edited her first film, a Vitagraph three-reeler, O’Henry (1912). In 1917, Lawrence moved to Hollywood, where she worked at Universal, First National, and Gloria Swanson Productions before arriving at Columbia Pictures, where in 1925 she became the supervising editor,...

Tsuru Aoki

Sara Ross
Tsuru Aoki is best remembered as the wife of Sessue Hayakawa, and certainly Aoki’s role as adoring wife on- and off-screen was extremely important to the remarkable success of Hayakawa as a romantic lead in the teens and early twenties. Hayakawa’s popularity rested on the assurance that his exotic and inscrutable Oriental exterior hid a soft and romantic side, proof of which was his “little wife.” But her star image was complex, erasing her immigrant...

Thea von Harbou

Brigitta B. Wagner
In his 1928 book on film directing and screenwriting, Russian filmmaker Vsevolod Pudovkin notes that many literary figures had difficulty adjusting to “the optically expressive form” of film (110). Thea von Harbou, one of three German screenwriters who Pudovkin singles out, stands alongside Carl Mayer as one of the most influential film figures in Weimar German cinema, which spanned the years 1919 to 1933. Including an excerpt from Harbou’s script for Spione (1928), an espionage...

Tressie Souders

Kyna Morgan
It was in 1922 that the Black press named the filmmaker Tressie Souders the first African American woman director. Her film, A Woman’s Error (1922), was distributed by the Afro-American Film Exhibitors’ Company based in Kansas City, Missouri. The company seems to have handled only two titles about African Americans, one of them A Woman’s Error. To date, the one source that has led scholars to Souders and her film is Henry T. Sampson’s Blacks...

Thea Červenková

Jindřiška Bláhová
When Thea (Terezie) Červenková left Czechoslovakia in 1923 to start a new life with her brother in Latin America, her passport stated that she was a writer and a journalist. However, she was more than that. At the age of forty-one she was leaving behind at least two careers—one in writing and a shorter, but no less prolific career in the film industry, where she worked as a director, a screenwriter, a journalist, and, most...

The McDonagh Sisters

Rebecca Barry
Isabel, Phyllis, and Paulette McDonagh were sisters, business partners, and creative collaborators who made films in Sydney, Australia, in the 1920s and 1930s. Isabel, the eldest, was the actress and star of all their films under the name Marie Lorraine. Phyllis took on the role of art director, publicist, and producer. Paulette, the youngest of the three, was the writer and director of all their films. The sisters grew up in the upper middle class...

The Talmadge Sisters

Greta De Groat
The Talmadge sisters were two of the most beloved stars of the silent era. At first glance, they could hardly seem more different. Norma was a slight, soulful-eyed brunette beauty adept at “emotional” roles while Constance was a tall, gawky blond, not particularly pretty but with a face full of mischief. Yet they were bound together closely in their professional careers and linked in publicity as well as in their personal lives. Their films were...

The Egede-Nissen Sisters

Gunnar Iversen
During the 1910s and 1920s, Aud Egede-Nissen and her sisters Gerd and Ada made a name for themselves in the Nordic and German film industries as actors, producers, and directors. Like many female pioneers in the film industry, their work has been neglected. The contribution of the Egede-Nissen sisters, especially Aud, to silent film in the 1910s is remarkable given the odds they had to overcome as female producers in a male-dominated industry and the...

Texas Guinan

Corey K. Creekmur
Texas Guinan’s lasting fame derives from her reign as New York City’s Prohibition-era “queen of the nightclubs,” who greeted patrons with the famous cry, “Hello, sucker!” This is the persona displayed in Incendiary Blonde (1945), the flashy Hollywood biopic about Guinan starring Betty Hutton, and by Guinan playing herself in a few early Talkies, including the now-lost Queen of the Night Clubs (1929). But Guinan, born in Waco, Texas, obviously the source of her nickname,...

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