14,462 Works

An Assemblage of Lava Flow Features on Mercury

Paul K. Byrne, Christian Klimczak, David A. Williams, Debra M. Hurwitz, Sean C. Solomon, James W. Head, Frank Preusker & Jurgen Oberst
In contrast to other terrestrial planets, Mercury does not possess a great variety of volcanic features, its history of volcanism instead largely manifest by expansive smooth plains. However, a set of landforms at high northern latitudes on Mercury resembles surface flow features documented on Earth, the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The most striking of such landforms are broad channels that host streamlined islands and that cut through the surrounding intercrater plains. Together with narrower, more...

Innovation and Morality in Economics

Edmund S. Phelps
The issue of morality in economics is neither the fairness of income distribution nor the stability of financial systems. It is how human institutions can be shaped to correspond to human nature—to man’s nature as an innovator.

Speech–Language Pathology Evaluation and Management of Hyperkinetic Disorders Affecting Speech and Swallowing Function

Julie M Barkmeier-Kraemer & Heather M Clark
Background: Hyperkinetic dysarthria is characterized by abnormal involuntary movements affecting respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory structures impacting speech and deglutition. Speech–language pathologists (SLPs) play an important role in the evaluation and management of dysarthria and dysphagia. This review describes the standard clinical evaluation and treatment approaches by SLPs for addressing impaired speech and deglutition in specific hyperkinetic dysarthria populations. Methods: A literature review was conducted using the data sources of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar....

From at-risk to disconnected: Federal youth policy from 1973 to 2008

Rachel Bork
Traditionally youth policy has been studied from a psycho-social perspective that treats the concept of youth as a natural developmental stage. This dissertation adopts a political perspective and analyzes how political actors shape the social construction of youth. It documents the extent to which five sub-issues of youth policy--education, criminal justice, public health, social services, and workforce development--were present on the congressional agenda from 1973-2008. This research question is addressed through an analysis of congressional...

The Functional Relation Between the Onset of Naming and the Joining of Listener to Untaught Speaker Responses

Lisa Dawn Tullo
In Experiment I, the experimenter selected 13 developmentally delayed preschool students without Naming to test for speaker and listener vocabularies. This affirmed the independence of speaker and listener vocabularies, as evidenced by a significantly larger listener vocabulary than speaker vocabulary. Six participants were selected from Experiment I to participate in Experiment II. None of the participants had the full Naming capability at the onset of the study. Multiple exemplar instruction across speaker and listener responses...

The Effects of Conflict on Fertility Desires and Behavior in Rwanda

Therese J. McGinn
Rwanda experienced genocide from April to July 1994 during which over 800,000 people were murdered. Among the far-reaching changes that followed this event among individuals and in society overall, the Rwandan Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) showed that contraceptive prevalence declined from 13% in 1992 to 4% in 2000 among married women of reproductive age. This dissertation has two hypotheses concerning Rwandan women's fertility preferences and behavior following the genocide. It is hypothesized that, first,...

Sentence Fusion for Multidocument News Summarization

Kathleen McKeown & Regina Barzilay
A system that can produce informative summaries, highlighting common information found in many online documents, will help Web users to pinpoint information that they need without extensive reading. In this article, we introduce sentence fusion, a novel text-to-text generation technique for synthesizing common information across documents. Sentence fusion involves bottom-up local multisequence alignment to identify phrases conveying similar information and statistical generation to combine common phrases into a sentence. Sentence fusion moves the summarization field...

Experimental study of attenuation and dispersion over a broad frequency range: 1. The apparatus

Yasuko Takei, Kazuhiro Fujisawa & Christine McCarthy
We have developed a new experimental method to investigate the anelasticity of a polycrystalline solid at high homologous temperature (T/Tm = 0.6–0.7). By using a rock analogue (borneol polycrystals) and a partially molten rock analogue (borneol + melt) having low melting and eutectic temperatures (Tm = 204.5°C, Te = 43°C), respectively, testing high homologous temperature can occur near room temperature. An apparatus is described for cyclic compressive, Young's modulus type attenuation experiments over a wide...

The role of Bacterial-based Protist Communities in Aquatic and Soil Ecosystems and the Carbon Biogeochemical Cycle, with Emphasis on Naked Amoebae

O. Roger Anderson
Current research is reviewed on aquatic and soil microbial ecology with attention to the fate of organic carbon in bacterial-based protist food webs, including some new data. Particular attention is given to the effects of pulsed sources of low-molecular weight organic sources of carbon on soil respiration, changes in bacterial, nanoflagellate, and naked amoeba C-biomass, and evidence for throughput of carbon in microbial food webs in Arctic and some low-latitude, temperate soil environments. The proportion...

The Immigrant Plight / Immigration Law: A Study in Intractibility

Robert A. Ferguson
Intractable problems, ones that defy solution because of conflicting lines of force, almost always require an outside catalyst for any movement toward an answer. This Essay explores intractability through two parallel historical moments of conflict: debate over slavery in ante-bellum America and debate over aliens in current America. Severe discrimination (based on difference, racial prejudice, communal identity formation, and larger psychological needs) deprives these disadvantaged groups of human rights and the protection of law. Nineteenth-century...

Morphological Description of Telaepolella tubasferens n. g., n. sp., Isolate ATCC© 50593™, a Filose Amoeba in the Gracilipodida, Amoebozoa

Daniel J. G. Lahr, O. Roger Anderson, Gabriela M. Kubik, Jessica Grant, Anastasia L. Gant & Laura A. Katz
We describe the amoeboid isolate ATCC© 50593™ as a new taxon, Telaepolella tubasferens n. gen. n. sp. This multinucleated amoeba has filose pseudopods and is superficially similar to members of the vampyrellids (Rhizaria) such as Arachnula impatiens Cienkowski, 1876, which was the original identification upon deposition. However, previous multigene analyses place this taxon within the Gracilipodida Lahr and Katz 2011 in the Amoebozoa. Here, we document the morphology of this organism at multiple life history...

Greater supply of Patagonian-sourced detritus and transport by the ACC to the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during the last glacial period

Taryn L. Noble, Alexander M. Piotrowski, Laura F. Robinson, Jerry F. McManus, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand & Aloys Jean-Mathias Bory
Reconstructing past detrital flux and provenance in the Southern Ocean provides information about changes in source regions associated with climate variations and transport pathways. We present a Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Holocene comparison of 230Th normalised fluxes combined with sediment provenance data (Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes) from a latitudinal core transect in the eastern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (ODP Leg 177 cores). We compare the radiogenic isotopic composition (IC) of detritus...

Can we predict the duration of an interglacial?

P. C. Tzedakis, E. W. Wolff, L. C. Skinner, V. Brovkin, D. A. Hodell, Jerry F. McManus & D. Raynaud
Differences in the duration of interglacials have long been apparent in palaeoclimate records of the Late and Middle Pleistocene. However, a systematic evaluation of such differences has been hampered by the lack of a metric that can be applied consistently through time and by difficulties in separating the local from the global component in various proxies. This, in turn, means that a theoretical framework with predictive power for interglacial duration has remained elusive. Here we...

Capabilities of the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory in situ¹⁴C extraction laboratory updated

Brent M. Goehring, Irene Lois Schimmelpfennig & Joerg M. Schaefer
We report on the status and capabilities of the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory in situ¹⁴C extraction laboratory. In late 2006 we began, in collaboration with the AMS group at the University of Arizona, construction of a new laboratory to extract in situ cosmogenic ¹⁴C from terrestrial silicates. Long-term measurements of the process blank over the last two years give an arithmetic mean and standard deviation of 125 ± 43 × 10³ atoms ¹⁴C (n = 9)...

Recent trends in Inner Asian forest dynamics to temperature and precipitation indicate high sensitivity to climate change

Benjamin Poulter, Neil Pederson, Hongyan Liu, Zaichun Zhu, Rosanne Dorothy D'Arrigo, Philippe Ciais, Nicole K. Davi, David Frank, Caroline Wogan Leland, Ranga Myeni, Shilong Piao & Tao Wang
Semi-arid ecosystems play an important role in regulating global climate with the fate of these ecosystems in the Anthropocene depending upon interactions among temperature, precipitation, and CO₂. However, in cool-arid environments, precipitation is not the only limitation to forest productivity. Interactions between changes in precipitation and air temperature may enhance soil moisture stress while simultaneously extending growing season length, with unclear consequences for net carbon uptake. This study evaluates recent trends in productivity and phenology...

The Future Landscape of E-Book Programs at Columbia University Libraries

Jeffrey D. Carroll & Melissa J. Goertzen
The poster presents a graphical time-line for an ambitious assessment project aimed at gathering essential data to help drive the development of policies and strategies related to CUL E-Book Development Program.

Measuring Scholarly Impact: The Influence of 'Altmetrics'

"Altmetrics" refers to methods of measuring scholarly impact using Web-based social media. Why does it matter? In many academic fields, attaining scholarly prestige means publishing research articles in important scholarly journals. However, many in the academic community consider a journal's prestige, which is determined by a metric calculated using the number of citations to the journal, to be a poor proxy for the quality of the individual author's work. At the same time, hiring and...

Effects of PCSK9 Inhibition With Alirocumab on Lipoprotein Metabolism in Healthy Humans

Gissette Soffer, Marianna Pavlyha, Colleen I. Ngai, Tiffany Thomas, Stephen F. Holleran, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Wahida Karmally, Renu Nandakumar, Nelson Fontanez, Joseph Obunike, Santica M. Marcovina, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Nirupa R. Matthan, James Matta, Magali Maroccia, Frederic Becue, Franck Poitiers, Brian Swanson, Lisa Cowan, William J. Sasiela, Howard K. Surks & Henry N. Ginsberg
BACKGROUND: Alirocumab, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), lowers plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB). Although studies in mice and cells have identified increased hepatic LDL receptors as the basis for LDL lowering by PCSK9 inhibitors, there have been no human studies characterizing the effects of PCSK9 inhibitors on lipoprotein metabolism. In particular, it is not known whether inhibition of PCSK9 has any effects on very low-density lipoprotein...

Multi-scale standardized spectral mixture models

Christopher Small & Cristina Milesi
Linear spectral mixture models can be standardized by using endmembers that span the global mixing space. By combining the benefits of location-specific mixture models with standardized spectral indices, standardized mixture models offer consistency, simplicity, inclusivity and applicability. We construct a globally representative mixing space using a spectrally diverse collection of 100 Landsat ETM+ (Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper +) subscenes. Global composites of 100,000,000 Landsat spectra, constructed from both exoatmospheric reflectance and atmospherically corrected...

Characterization and application of methane cometabolism for methanol production in ammonia oxidizing bacteria

Yu-Chen Su
The requirement of external carbon for conventional biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process has stimulated research on more resource-efficient treatment technologies. Bioconversion of methane to methanol using ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), a process relies on the activity of ammonia monooxygenase expressed by AOB, offers an alternative and sustainable carbon source as all the components (ammonia, AOB, and methane) are often available within the water resource recovery facilities. Though the concept of biomethanol production using AOB has...

Re-examining the Role of University Libraries in the Service of Tibetan Studies

Lauran R. Hartley
The founding and growth of Tibetan Studies in North America would provide an apt case to study the historical link between university library collections and academic programs. The receipt of Tibetan language materials through the PL480-authorized acquisitions program coordinated by the Library of Congress closely correlates with those schools where sizable amounts of Tibetan research and instruction eventually took hold, and in most instances pre-dated the first hiring of Tibetan Studies faculty. While this direct...

Still Bound for Disappointment? Another Look at Faculty and Library Journal Collections

Jennifer Anne Rutner & Jim Self
After the publication of "Bound for Disappointment: Faculty and Journals at Research Institutions" by Jim Self in 2008, academic libraries found new insights into one particularly frustrating piece of data. LibQUAL+ survey results have consistently shown that faculty at institutions with ARL libraries report negative perceptions of library service regarding journal collections. One key finding of Self's study was the strong correlation between satisfaction with journal collections and overall satisfaction with library services for faculty....

Supporting Humanities Doctoral Student Success: A Collaborative Project between Cornell University Library and Columbia University Libraries

Gabriela Castro Gessner, Damon E. Jaggars, Jennifer Anne Rutner & Kornelia Tancheva
In recent years there have been a number of major, large-scale studies in the United States on the high attrition rates for doctoral students in the humanities. The results of these studies reveal a significant gap between the humanities and other disciplines. None of the studies consulted has specifically considered the role of the library in supporting doctoral program completion, even though it is often characterized as the humanist‘s equivalent to the scientific laboratory. This...

CCLIP: Updates from the DSC

Jeffrey R. Lancaster
This presentation was shared with the Committee of Columbia Library and Information Professionals on May 10, 2013, as an update from the Digital Science Center in the Science and Engineering Libraries.

Data Services in the DSSC: Increasing Our Depth and Breadth

Ashley R. Jester
A review of the history of the development of the Digital Social Science Center (DSSC) followed by a discussion of new service development.

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