62,945 Works

Fluxing of mantle carbon as a physical agent for metallogenic fertilization of the crust

Daryl E. Blanks, David A. Holwell, Marco L. Fiorentini, Marilena Moroni, Andrea Giuliani, Santiago Tassara, José M. González-Jiménez, Adrian J. Boyce & Elena Ferrari
Magmatic systems play a crucial role in enriching the crust with volatiles and elements that reside primarily within the Earth’s mantle, including economically important metals like nickel, copper and platinum-group elements. However, transport of these metals within silicate magmas primarily occurs within dense sulfide liquids, which tend to coalesce, settle and not be efficiently transported in ascending magmas. Here we show textural observations, backed up with carbon and oxygen isotope data, which indicate an intimate...

Applications and Limitations of Elastic Thermobarometry: Insights From Elastic Modeling of Inclusion-Host Pairs and Example Case Studies

Miguel Cisneros & Kenny S. Befus
Elastic thermobarometry can be used to constrain the pressure and temperature conditions of mineral crystallization by exploiting the difference in the elastic evolution of a mineral inclusion and its host during cooling and decompression. In this work we examine the pressure-temperature sensitivity of >5,000 untested inclusion-host pairs. Hosts such as diamond and zircon are ideal host minerals because their low compressibility makes them rigid containment vessels. Highly compressible inclusions such as albite, graphite, and quartz...

How to Meter Agricultural Pumping at Numerous Small-Scale Wells?-An Indirect Monitoring Method Using Electric Energy as Proxy

Lu Wang, Wolfgang Kinzelbach, Huaixian Yao, Jakob Steiner & Haijing Wang
The large number of users and the small scale of wells greatly complicate monitoring of groundwater abstraction in areas of intensive pumping by numerous smallholders such as in the North China Plain. This paper presents a study in a typical county in the North China Plain. It discusses the application and challenges of an indirect, energy-based approach to groundwater abstraction monitoring. Intensive field experiments at individual wells were carried out to provide a basis for...

Satisfaction of scientists during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Isabel J. Raabe, Alexander Ehlert & David Johann
The discussion of the social, political and economic consequences of the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic mainly revolves around negative effects. This study exploits a unique opportunity and analyses data from a survey (N = 13,316) that happened to be in the field in the months of the development and eventual manifestation of the COVID-19 pandemic. It documents slightly higher levels of average general life satisfaction as well as of satisfaction with various specific aspects...

A telemonitoring and hybrid virtual coaching solution “CAir” for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Christoph Gross, Dario Kohlbrenner, Christian F. Clarenbach, Adam Ivankay, Thomas Brunschwiler, Yves Nordmann & Florian Von Wangenheim
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common disorders in the world. COPD is characterized by airflow obstruction, which is not fully reversible. Patients usually experience breathing-related symptoms with periods of acute worsening and a substantial decrease in the health-related quality-of-life. Active and comprehensive disease management can slow down the progressive course of the disease and improve patients’ disabilities. Technological progress and digitalization of medicine have the potential to make elaborate...

Bright Blue and Green Luminescence of Sb(III) in Double Perovskite Cs2MInCl6 (M = Na, K) Matrices

Agnieszka Noculak, Viktoriia Morad, Kyle M. McCall, Sergii Yakunin, Yevhen Shynkarenko, Michael Wörle & Maksym V. Kovalenko
The vast structural and compositional space of metal halides has recently become a major research focus for designing inexpensive and versatile light sources; in particular, for applications in displays, solid-state lighting, lasing, etc. Compounds with isolated ns2-metal halide centers often exhibit bright broadband emission that stems from self-trapped excitons (STEs). The Sb(III) halides are attractive STE emitters due to their low toxicity and oxidative stability; however, coupling these features with an appropriately robust, fully inorganic...

Systematic review on the application of wearable inertial sensors to quantify everyday life motor activity in people with mobility impairments

Fabian M. Rast & Rob Labruyère
Background Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies enable objective and long-term monitoring of motor activities in a patient’s habitual environment. People with mobility impairments require appropriate data processing algorithms that deal with their altered movement patterns and determine clinically meaningful outcome measures. Over the years, a large variety of algorithms have been published and this review provides an overview of their outcome measures, the concepts of the algorithms, the type and placement of required sensors...

Attention-Driven Cropping for Very High Resolution Facial Landmark Detection

Prashanth Chandran, Derek Bradley, Markus Gross & Thabo Beeler
Facial landmark detection is a fundamental task for many consumer and high-end applications and is almost entirely solved by machine learning methods today. Existing datasets used to train such algorithms are primarily made up of only low resolution images, and current algorithms are limited to inputs of comparable quality and resolution as the training dataset. On the other hand, high resolution imagery is becoming increasingly more common as consumer cameras improve in quality every year....

Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

Patrick Eggenberger, Vera Schumacher, Marius Angst, Nathan Theill & Eling D. De Bruin
Background: Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods: Seniors, older than 70 years, without...

A randomised controlled trial investigating motor skill training as a function of attentional focus in old age

Eling D. De Bruin, Jaap Swanenburg, Elsbeth Betschon & Kurt Murer
Background Motor learning research has had little impact on clinical applications and rarely extended to research about how older adults learn motor skills. There is consistent evidence that motor skill performance and learning can be enhanced by giving learners instructions that direct their attention. The aim of this study was to test whether elderly individuals that receive an external focus instruction during training of dynamic balance skills would learn in a different manner compared to...

Bond Dissociation Energies in the Gas Phase for Large Molecular Ions by Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation Experiments: Stretching the Limits

Marek Bot, Vladimir Gorbachev, Alexandra Tsybizova & Peter Chen
Accurate bond dissociation energies for large molecules are difficult to obtain by either experimental or computational methods. The former methods are hampered by a range of physical and practical limitations in gas-phase measurement techniques, while the latter require incorporation of multiple approximations whose impact on accuracy may not always be clear. When internal benchmarks are not available, one hopes that experiment and theory can mutually support each other. A recent report found, however, a large...

Preliminary inconclusive results of a randomised double blinded cross-over pilot trial in long-term-care dwelling elderly assessing the feasibility of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration

Slavko Rogan, Lorenz Radlinger, Dietmar Schmidtbleicher, Rob A. De Bie & Eling D. De Bruin
Background This randomised double-blinded controlled cross-over pilot study examined feasibility and preliminary effects of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training applied in long term care elderly. Findings Nine long term care elderly were recruited and randomized to group A (6 Hz, Noise 4 SR-WBV/ Sham) or B (Sham / 1 Hz, Noise 1 SR-WBV). Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rate, attrition, adherence and safety. Physical performance outcomes focused on the Expanded Timed Get Up-and-Go (ETGUG) test, the...

Oxidative degradation of archaeological wood and the effect of alum, iron and calcium salts

Caitlin M.A. McQueen, Martin N. Mortensen, Francesco Caruso, Sara Mantellato & Susan Braovac
Oxygen consumption measurement was used to study potential oxidative degradation reactions occurring in wooden artefacts from the Viking age Oseberg collection in Norway. Model samples of fresh birch were impregnated with iron, calcium and alum salts to mimic concentrations of such compounds found in Oseberg artefacts and to assess their effect on oxygen consumption rates. The results showed that heated impregnation with alum salt (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) significantly increased the rate of oxygen consumption, confirming a previously...

Cardiovascular rehabilitation soon after stroke using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: study protocol of a randomised controlled pilot trial

Oliver Stoller, Eling D. De Bruin, Corina Schuster-Amft, Matthias Schindelholz, Rob A. De Bie & Kenneth J. Hunt
Background After experiencing a stroke, most individuals also suffer from cardiac disease, are immobile and thus have low endurance for exercise. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in these individuals and does not reach reasonable levels after conventional rehabilitation programmes. Cardiovascular exercise is beneficial for improvement of aerobic capacity in mild to moderate stroke. However, less is known about its impact on aerobic capacity, motor recovery, and quality-of-life in severely impaired individuals. The aim of this...

Systematic Review: Anaesthetic Protocols and Management as Confounders in Rodent Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (BOLD fMRI)–Part A: Effects of Changes in Physiological Parameters

Aline R. Steiner, Frédérik Rousseau-Blass, Aileen Schroeter, Sonja Hartnack & Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger
Background: To understand brain function in health and disease, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely used in rodent models. Because animals need to be immobilised for image acquisition, fMRI is commonly performed under anaesthesia. The choice of anaesthetic protocols and may affect fMRI readouts, either directly or via changing physiological balance, and thereby threaten the scientific validity of fMRI in rodents. Methods: The present study systematically reviewed the literature investigating the influence of different...

Translation and validation of the vertigo symptom scale into German: A cultural adaption to a wider German-speaking population

Thomas Gloor-Juzi, Annette Kurre, Dominik Straumann & Eling D. De Bruin
Background Dizziness and comorbid anxiety may cause severe disability of patients with vestibulopathy, but can be addressed effectively with rehabilitation. For an individually adapted treatment, a structured assessment is needed. The Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS) with two subscales assessing vertigo symptoms (VSS-VER) and associated symptoms (VSS-AA) might be used for this purpose. As there was no validated VSS available in German, the aim of the study was the translation and cross-cultural adaptation in German (VSS-G)...

Reliability of movement control tests in the lumbar spine

Hannu Luomajoki, Jan Kool, Eling D. De Bruin & Olavi Airaksinen
Background Movement control dysfunction [MCD] reduces active control of movements. Patients with MCD might form an important subgroup among patients with non specific low back pain. The diagnosis is based on the observation of active movements. Although widely used clinically, only a few studies have been performed to determine the test reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-observer reliability of movement control dysfunction tests of the lumbar spine. Methods...

Movement control tests of the low back; evaluation of the difference between patients with back pain and healthy controls

Hannu Luomajoki, Jan Kool, Eling D. De Bruin & Olavi Airaksinen
Background To determine whether there is a difference between patients with low back pain and healthy controls in a test battery score for movement control of the lumbar spine. Methods This was a case control study, carried out in five outpatient physiotherapy practices in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Twelve physiotherapists tested the ability of 210 subjects (108 patients with non-specific low back pain and 102 control subjects without back pain) to control their movements...

Observation of plaquette fluctuations in the spin-1/2 honeycomb lattice

Christian Wessler, Bertrand Roessli, Karl W. Krämer, Bernard Delley, Oliver Waldmann, Lukas Keller, Denis Cheptiakov, Hans B. Braun & Michel Kenzelmann
Quantum spin liquids are materials that feature quantum entangled spin correlations and avoid magnetic long-range order at T = 0 K. Particularly interesting are two-dimensional honeycomb spin lattices where a plethora of exotic quantum spin liquids have been predicted. Here, we experimentally study an effective S = 1/2 Heisenberg honeycomb lattice with competing nearest and next-nearest-neighbour interactions. We demonstrate that YbBr3 avoids order down to at least T = 100 mK and features a dynamic...

Acoustic spin-Chern insulator induced by synthetic spin–orbit coupling with spin conservation breaking

Weiyin Deng, Xueqin Huang, Jiuyang Lu, Valerio Peri, Feng Li, Sebastian D. Huber & Zhengyou Liu
Topologically protected surface modes of classical waves hold the promise to enable a variety of applications ranging from robust transport of energy to reliable information processing networks. However, both the route of implementing an analogue of the quantum Hall effect as well as the quantum spin Hall effect are obstructed for acoustics by the requirement of a magnetic field, or the presence of fermionic quantum statistics, respectively. Here, we construct a two-dimensional topological acoustic crystal...

A simplified classification of the relative tsunami potential in swiss perialpine lakes caused by subaqueous and subaerial mass-movenments

Michael Strupler, Frederic M. Evers, Katrina Kremer, Carlo Cauzzi, Paola Bacigaluppi, David F. Vetsch, Robert M. Boes, Donat Fäh, Flavio S. Anselmetti & Stefan Wiemer
Historical reports and recent studies have shown that tsunamis can also occur in lakes where they may cause large damages and casualties. Among the historical reports are many tsunamis in Swiss lakes that have been triggered both by subaerial and subaqueous mass movements (SAEMM and SAQMM). In this study, we present a simplified classification of lakes with respect to their relative tsunami potential. The classification uses basic topographic, bathymetric, and seismologic input parameters to assess...

Hand-held dynamometry in patients with haematological malignancies: Measurement error in the clinical assessment of knee extension strength

Ruud H. Knols, Geert Aufdemkampe, Eling D. De Bruin, Daniel Uebelhart & Neil K. Aaronson
Background Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of intra and inter-observer strength measurements with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Methods Two observers performed maximum...

Handgrip force steadiness in young and older adults: A reproducibility study

Andreas W. Blomkvist, Fredrik Eika, Eling D. De Bruin, Stig Andersen & Martin Jorgensen
Background: Force steadiness is a quantitative measure of the ability to control muscle tonus. It is an independent predictor of functional performance and has shown to correlate well with different degrees of motor impairment following stroke. Despite being clinically relevant, few studies have assessed the validity of measuring force steadiness. The aim of this study was to explore the reproducibility of handgrip force steadiness, and to assess age difference in steadiness. Method: Intrarater reproducibility (the...

The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

Agnes Zijlstra, Eling D. De Bruin, Nienke Bruins & Wiebren Zijlstra
This study evaluated the step length–frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64–69, 70–74, 75–79 and 80–85 year olds, participated in the study. Subjects walked at five different self-selected speeds and while simultaneously performing an additional cognitive and/or upper-extremity motor task. Gait parameters were determined from forward accelerations measured...

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