44,647 Works

Identifying topological states in matter

Dominik Gresch
The rise of topological insulators, semimetals and superconductors established the topology of the electronic band structure as a fundamental material property. Topological materials can realize exotic novel quantum states such as an integer quantum Hall state in the absence of an external magnetic field, quasiparticle states needed for topological quantum computing, and many more. The topological nature of these states makes them insensitive to small perturbations, which has profound practical consequences. Consequently, the ability to...

Many-body physics in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in a cavity: fragmented superradiance and polarization

Axel U.J. Lode, Marios C. Tsatsos, Luca Papariello, Norbert J. Mauser, Fritz S. Diorico, Rui Lin, Camille Leveque, Lukas Exl, Ramasubramanian Chitra, Paolo Molignini & RuGway Wu
We consider laser-pumped one-dimensional two-component bosons in a parabolic trap embedded in a high-finesse optical cavity. Above a threshold pump power, the photons that populate the cavity modify the effective atom trap and mediate a coupling between the two components of the Bose–Einstein condensate. We calculate the ground state of the laser-pumped system and find different stages of self-organization depending on the power of the laser. The modified potential and the laser-mediated coupling between the...

All orders structure and efficient computation of linearly reducible elliptic Feynman integrals

Martijn Hidding & Francesco Moriello
We define linearly reducible elliptic Feynman integrals, and we show that they can be algorithmically solved up to arbitrary order of the dimensional regulator in terms of a 1-dimensional integral over a polylogarithmic integrand, which we call the inner polylogarithmic part (IPP). The solution is obtained by direct integration of the Feynman parametric representation. When the IPP depends on one elliptic curve (and no other algebraic functions), this class of Feynman integrals can be algorithmically...

Estimating the Stoichiometry of HIV Neutralization

Roland R. Regoes & Carsten Magnus
PLoS Computational Biology, 6 (3)

Quality control of CarboEurope flux data – Part 1: Coupling footprint analyses with flux data quality assessment to evaluate sites in forest ecosystems

Mathias Göckede, Thomas Foken, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, João Banza, Christian Bernhofer, Jean Marc Bonnefond, Yves Brunet, Arnaud Carrara, Robert J. Clement, Ebba Dellwik, Jan A. Elbers, Werner Eugster, Jürg Fuhrer, André Granier, Thomas Grünwald, Bernhard Heinesch, Ivan A. Janssens, Alexander Knohl, Renate Koeble, Tuomas Laurila, Bernard Longdoz, Giovanni Manca, Michal V. Marek, Tiina Markkanen … & Dan Yakir
We applied a site evaluation approach combining Lagrangian Stochastic footprint modeling with a quality assessment approach for eddy-covariance data to 25 forested sites of the CarboEurope-IP network. The analysis addresses the spatial representativeness of the flux measurements, instrumental effects on data quality, spatial patterns in the data quality, and the performance of the coordinate rotation method. Our findings demonstrate that application of a footprint filter could strengthen the CarboEurope-IP flux database, since only one third...

Geothermal Power Growth 1995-2013-A Comparison with Other Renewables

Ladislaus Rybach
Based on global statistical data the current status of deep geothermal resource utilization for electricity generation is presented. Particular attention is paid to growth rates. The rates are compared with those of other renewable energies (biomass, hydro, solar photovoltaic (PV), wind). Whereas wind and solar PV exhibit annual growth rates of 25%–30% since 2004, geothermal growth is only about 5% per year. Geothermal electricity production (in TW∙h/yr) was higher until 2011 than from solar PV,...

Copper sulfide nanoparticles as high-performance cathode materials for Mg-ion batteries

Kostiantyn V. Kravchyk, Roland Widmer, Rolf Erni, Romain J.-C. Dubey, Frank Krumeich, Maksym V. Kovalenko & Maryna I. Bodnarchuk
Rechargeable magnesium batteries are appealing as safe, low-cost systems with high-energy-density storage that employ predominantly dendrite-free magnesium metal as the anode. While significant progress has been achieved with magnesium electrolytes in recent years, the further development of Mg-ion batteries, however, is inherently limited by the lack of suitable cathode materials, mainly due to the slow diffusion of high-charge-density Mg-ions in the intercalation-type host structures and kinetic limitations of conversion-type cathodes that often causes poor cyclic...

Subleading BMS charges and fake news near null infinity

Hadi Godazgar, Mahdi Godazgar & C.N. Pope
In this paper we establish a relation between the non-linearly conserved New-man-Penrose charges and certain subleading terms in a large-r expansion of the BMS charges in an asymptotically-flat spacetime. We define the subleading BMS charges by considering a 1/r-expansion of the Barnich-Brandt prescription for defining asymptotic charges in an asymptotically-flat spacetime. At the leading order, i.e. 1/r0, one obtains the standard BMS charges, which would be integrable and conserved in the absence of a flux...

Measurements of Higgs boson properties in the diphoton decay channel in proton-proton collisions at √s=13 TeV

CMS Collaboration, Albert M. Sirunyan, Malte Backhaus, Lukas Bäni, Pirmin Berger, Bruno Casal, Nadezda Chernyavskaya, Günther Dissertori, Michael Dittmar, Mauro Donegà, Christian Dorfer, Christophorus Grab, Constantin Heidegger, Dmitry Hits, Jan Hoss, Thomas Klijnsma, Werner Lustermann, Matthieu Marionneau, Maren T. Meinhard, Daniel Meister, Francesco Micheli, Pasquale Musella, Francesca Nessi-Tedaldi, Joosep Pata, Felicitas Pauss … & Et Al.
Measurements of Higgs boson properties in the H → γγ decay channel are reported. The analysis is based on data collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at s√=13 TeV during the 2016 LHC running period, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1. Allowing the Higgs mass to float, the measurement yields a signal strength relative to the standard model prediction of 1.18 − 0.14 + 0.17  = 1.18 − 0.11 + 0.12 (stat) − 0.07 + 0.09 (syst) − 0.06...

Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

Philipp Schneider, Tobias Vogt, Mario Schirmer, Joseph Doetsch, Niklas Linde, Nicola Pasquale, Paolo Perona & Olaf A. Cirpka
River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution....

Armenia’s Velvet Revolution: Challenges to Regional Foreign Policy

Alexander Markarov, Farid Guliyev, Ghia Nodia, Laure Delcour & Pavel Baev
Caucasus Analytical Digest (CAD), 104

Derandomizing distributed algorithms with small messages: Spanners and dominating set

Mohsen Ghaffari & Fabian Kuhn
This paper presents improved deterministic distributed algorithms, with O(log n)-bit messages, for some basic graph problems. The common ingredient in our results is a deterministic distributed algorithm for computing a certain hitting set, which can replace the random part of a number of standard randomized distributed algorithms. This deterministic hitting set algorithm itself is derived using a simple method of conditional expectations. As one main end-result of this derandomized hitting set, we get a deterministic...

Planning for Autonomous Micro-Aerial Vehicles with Applications to Filming and 3D Modeling

Benjamin Hepp
Camera equipped micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), and in particular multi-copters, have become affordable and abundant in recent years both in the professional and in the consumer sector. They are used in areas as diverse as recreation, filming, structural inspection and monitoring for agriculture. Their success can be attributed to their relatively simple mechanical and electronic design, their flexibility in terms of possible motion and their smooth dynamics which are easy to handle from a control...

Structural estimation and solution of international trade models with heterogeneous firms

Edward J. Balistreri, Russell H. Hillberry & Thomas F. Rutherford
We present an empirical implementation of a general-equilibrium model of international trade with heterogeneous manufacturing firms. The theory underlying our model is consistent with Melitz (2003). A nonlinear structural estimation procedure identifies a set of core parameters and unobserved firm-level trade frictions that best fit the geographic pattern of trade. Once the parameters are identified, we utilize a decomposition technique for computing general-equilibrium counterfactuals. We illustrate this technique using trade and protection data from the...

Long strings and chiral primaries in the hybrid formalism

Lorenz Eberhardt & Kevin Ferreira
We revisit two related phenomena in AdS3 string theory backgrounds. At pure NS-NS flux, the spectrum contains a continuum of long strings which can escape to the boundary of AdS3 at a finite cost of energy. Related to this are certain gaps in the BPS spectrum one computes from the RNS worldsheet description. One expects that both these effects disappear when perturbing slightly away from the pure NS-NS flux background. We employ the hybrid formalism...

Measurement of Higgs boson production and properties in the WW decay channel with leptonic final states

CMS Collaboration, Serguei Chatrchyan, Felix Bachmair, Lukas Bäni, Lorenzo Bianchini, Pierluigi Bortignon, Marco A. Buchmann, Bruno Casal Laraña, Nicolas Chanon, Amanda Deisher, Günther Dissertori, Michael Dittmar, Mauro Donegà, Marc Dünser, Philipp Eller, Christoph Grab, Dmitry Hits, Werner Lustermann, Boris Mangano, Andrea C. Marini, Pablo Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, Daniel Meister, Niklas Mohr, Christoph Nägeli, Pascal Nef … & Et Al.
A search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying to a W-boson pair at the LHC is reported. The event sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb−1 and 19.4 fb−1 collected with the CMS detector in pp collisions at s√ = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. The Higgs boson candidates are selected in events with two or three charged leptons. An excess of events above background is observed, consistent with the expectation from...

Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Tobias Nüesch, Alberto Cerofolini, Giorgio Mancini, Nicolò Cavina, Christopher H. Onder & Lino Guzzella
Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE) of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC) simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the...

The Vilnius Eap Summit and the South Caucasus

Mikhayel Hovhannisyan, Tornike Sharashenidze, Anar Valiyev & Anar Mammadli
Caucasus Analytical Digest (CAD), 58

Planar 3-SAT with a clause/variable cycle

Alexander Pilz
In the Planar 3-SAT problem, we are given a 3-SAT formula together with its incidence graph, which is planar, and are asked whether this formula is satisfiable. Since Lichtenstein's proof that this problem is NP-complete, it has been used as a starting point for a large number of reductions. In the course of this research, different restrictions on the incidence graph of the formula have been devised, for which the problem also remains hard. In...

Search for black holes and sphalerons in high-multiplicity final states in proton-proton collisions at √s=13 TeV

CMS Collaboration, Albert M. Sirunyan, Malte Backhaus, Lukas Bäni, Pirmin Berger, Nadezda Chernyavskaya, Günther Dissertori, Michael Dittmar, Mauro Donegà, Christian Dorfer, Christophorus Grab, Constantin Heidegger, Dmitry Hits, Jan Hoss, Thomas Klijnsma, Werner Lustermann, Riccardo A. Manzoni, Matthieu Marionneau, Maren T. Meinhard, Francesco Micheli, Pasquale Musella, Francesca Nessi-Tedaldi, Joosep Pata, Felicitas Pauss, Gaël Perrin … & Et Al.
A search in energetic, high-multiplicity final states for evidence of physics beyond the standard model, such as black holes, string balls, and electroweak sphalerons, is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1 collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 2016. Standard model backgrounds, dominated by multijet production, are determined from control regions in data without any reliance on...

Search for new physics with jets and missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at s√=7 TeV

CMS Collaboration, Serguei Chatrchyan, Lukas Bäni, Pierluigi Bortignon, Lea Caminada, Nicolas Chanon, Zhiling Chen, Sergio Cittolin, Günther Dissertori, Michael Dittmar, Jürg Eugster, Klaus Freudenreich, Christoph Grab, Wieland Hintz, Pierre Lecomte, Werner Lustermann, Carmelo Marchica, Pablo Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, Predrag Milenovic, Filip Moortgat, Christoph Nägeli, Pascal Nef, Francesca Nessi-Tedaldi, Luc Pape, Felicitas Pauss … & Et Al.
A search for new physics is presented based on an event signature of at least three jets accompanied by large missing transverse momentum, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb−1 collected in proton-proton collisions at s√=7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events is observed above the expected standard model backgrounds, which are all estimated from the data. Exclusion limits are presented for the constrained...

Rapid and Serial Quantification of Adhesion Forces of Yeast and Mammalian Cells

Eva Potthoff, Orane Guillaume-Gentil, Dario Ossola, Jérôme Polesel-Maris, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann, Tomaso Zambelli & Julia A. Vorholt
Cell adhesion to surfaces represents the basis for niche colonization and survival. Here we establish serial quantification of adhesion forces of different cell types using a single probe. The pace of single-cell force-spectroscopy was accelerated to up to 200 yeast and 20 mammalian cells per probe when replacing the conventional cell trapping cantilever chemistry of atomic force microscopy by underpressure immobilization with fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM). In consequence, statistically relevant data could be recorded in...

Evidence for associated production of a Higgs boson with a top quark pair in final states with electrons, muons, and hadronically decaying τ leptons at √s=13 TeV

CMS Collaboration, Albert M. Sirunyan, Malte Backhaus, Lukas Bäni, Pirmin Berger, Bruno Casal, Nadezda Chernyavskaya, Günther Dissertori, Michael Dittmar, Mauro Donegà, Christian Dorfer, Christophorus Grab, Constantin Heidegger, Dmitry Hits, Jan Hoss, Thomas Klijnsma, Werner Lustermann, Matthieu Marionneau, Maren T. Meinhard, Daniel Meister, Francesco Micheli, Pasquale Musella, Francesca Nessi-Tedaldi, Joosep Pata, Felicitas Pauss … & Et Al.
Results of a search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top quark pair (tt¯H) in final states with electrons, muons, and hadronically decaying τ leptons are presented. The analyzed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1 recorded in proton-proton collisions at s√=13 TeV by the CMS experiment in 2016. The sensitivity of the search is improved by using matrix element and machine learning methods to separate the...

Sapwood biomass carbon in northern boreal and temperate forests

Martin Thurner, Christian Beer, Thomas W. Crowther, Daniel Falster, Stefano Manzoni, Anatoly Prokushkin & Ernst-Detlef Schulze
Aim Information on the amount of carbon stored in the living tissue of tree stems (sapwood) is crucial for carbon and water cycle applications. Here, we aim to investigate sapwood‐to‐stem proportions and differences therein between tree genera and derive a sapwood biomass map. Location Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests. Time period 2010. Major taxa studied Twenty‐five common tree genera. Methods First, we develop a theoretical framework to estimate sapwood biomass for a given stem...

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