4,937 Works

Biomechanics of Vascular Wall:the Role of Structural Organization of Elastin and Collagen

Rana Saitta-Rezakhaniha
This thesis contributes to the field of biomechanics of vascular wall. The focus is particularly on the microstructure of vascular elastin and collagen constituents and their contribution to the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the wall. The analysis is done in the framework of continuum mechanics. The work characterizes structural features of elastin and collagen fibers using microscopy techniques and introduces these features to constituent-based constitutive models. The models are applied to the experimental data, derived...

Non-cooperative behavior in wireless networks

Márk Félegyházi
Existing cellular networks are centrally managed and require a tremendous initial investment. With the advancement of new wireless technologies, the operators of traditional networks have to face new competition. New technologies make it possible to provide wireless services with substantially less investment. There are two interdependent trends that enable this progress: the evolution of technology and the evolution of spectrum policy. These two trends point towards a more colorful landscape of wireless communication technologies. In...

Dégénérescence orbitale et ordre magnétique sur le réseau triangulaire:le cas des composés LiNiO2 et NaNiO2

François Vernay
Compounds made of transition metal ions on a triangular lattice may have orbitally degenerate eg states. This is the case for LiNiO2 and NaNiO2 : the Ni3+ ions are in a low-spin state, leaving the last electron of the d-shell in the eg orbitals. In order to understand the magnetic behavior of such systems, we investigate a spin-orbital effective hamiltonian. Using exact diagonalization algorithms of finite clusters and variational approaches we have investigated the phase...

Étapes marquantes du développement urbain de la Chaux-de-Fonds:les contributions de Moïse Perret-Gentil, de Charles-Henri Junod et de Charles-Frédéric Knab

Tearanel Te
The city planning of La Chaux-de-Fonds, they way we know it today, is the result of a long evolution. It starts the day after a fire which, in 1794, practically devastated the whole village. With the human and material loss which the fire caused, this disaster offered the possibility to reconstruct on a new basis. The fear of fire and the demands of the watch industry, will dictate the policy of city planners and architects....

RedOx Stability of Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Antonin Faes
The weakness of nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes is their low ability to withstand re-oxidation at working temperature, especially for the anode-supported cell design. The volume expansion coming along with nickel (Ni) oxidation induces stresses in the layers and cracks especially for the thin supported electrolyte. Standard Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode-supports and half-cells (anode + electrolyte) were studied during repeated reduction and oxidation cycles (RedOx cycles) at different scales and different temperatures. The...

Model Checking of Distributed Algorithm Implementations

Maysam Yabandeh
It is notoriously difficult to develop reliable, high-performance distributed systems that run over asynchronous networks. Even if a distributed system is based on a well-understood distributed algorithm, its implementation can contain errors arising from complexities of realistic distributed environments or simply coding errors. Many of these errors can only manifest after the system has been running for a long time, has developed a complex topology, and has experienced a particular sequence of low-probability events such...

Sediment Evacuation from Reservoirs through Intakes by Jet Induced Flow

Jolanda Maria Isabella Jenzer Althaus
Reservoir sedimentation is worldwide a significant long term problem and requires in view of the current mitigation measures an alternative and more sustainable solution. This challenge motivated the present study with the purpose to develop an alternative efficient method to release sediment out of a reservoir. The concept is based on the release of sediment through the headrace tunnel and turbines whereby a special focus was set on the fine sediment in the area in...

A Far-Infrared Polarimeter Diagnostic for the Measurement of the Poloidal Magnetic Field in the TCV Tokamak

Alexandra Zhuchkova
Information about the poloidal field inside the plasma and about the current density profile is essential for the understanding of the behavior of tokamak plasmas. The poloidal field outside the plasma edge is easily measured by a set of magnetic coils, whereas measurements of the magnetic field distribution inside the plasma requires dedicated and often complex diagnostic systems. One of the methods is polarimetry using beams of electromagnetic waves traversing the plasma. It makes use...

Thermomechanical and Electrochemical Degradation in Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

Arata Nakajo
The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a direct energy conversion device, which allows the production of electricity with high efficiency while maintaining pollutant emissions at a low level. It offers better fuel flexibility and lower vulnerability to impurities in the oxidising and fuel gases than other fuel cells. The lack of reliability and durability of SOFC devices currently impedes their large-scale commercialisation. The mitigation of mechanical and electrochemical degradation that together limit the lifetime,...

Epitaxial Piezoelectric MEMS on Silicon

Don Isarakorn
Integration of new functional materials into silicon microsystems is a key factor to enable technology for a wide range of innovative MEMS devices. Piezoelectric materials are of primary interest for integrating sensing and actuation functions in MEMS due to their high forces and high energy densities. The use of PZT thin films in MEMS applications offers the possibility of increasing the sensitivity or actuation capabilities of the devices compared to alternatives such as AlN and...

Neuromuscular Modeling and Visualization of the Human Lower Extremities

Anders Sandholm
Today the field of neuromuscular simulations is widely used to understand the underlying dynamics of the movement of living beings, from gait research, treatment of patient with gait problems, to the teaching of physicians and the development of ergonomic furniture. During the last years several new platforms have been developed which can provide powerful simulation using complex models. Several new models have been released which has the potential to provide new knowledge. There has also...

Social Network Analysis for Automatic Role Recognition

Sarah Favre
The computing community has shown a significant interest for the analysis of social interactions in the last decade. Different aspects of social interactions have been studied such as dominance, emotions, conflicts, etc. However, the recognition of roles has been neglected whereas these are a key aspect of social interactions. In fact, sociologists have shown not only that people play roles each time they interact, but also that roles shape behavior and expectations of interacting participants....

Single-Photon Techniques for Standard CMOS Digital ICs

Claudio Favi
The advent of single-photon detectors known as Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in standard CMOS technology opened the way to new perspectives in integrating these ultra sensitive light sensors with digital logic. Light has some interesting properties that attracted researchers in computer and electronics for a long time. Its weightlessness nature makes it a candidate to replace electrons when it didn't already do so. This is particularly true for long distance data transfers. However a new trend...

Folding and Structure of the Pore Forming Toxin Aerolysin

Mircea Ioan Iacovache
The first obstacle encountered by a bacterial pathogen once inside the host is the plasma membrane surrounding the target cells. Throughout evolution bacteria has acquired and maintained genes that upon stimulation express proteins capable of damaging the membrane of other cells. Among these proteins pore forming toxins (PFTs) are a major class of bacterial effectors that are upregulated and secreted during bacterial infections. As their name suggests, pore forming toxins are proteins capable of inserting...

Stencil Lithography and Inkjet Printing as New Tools for Life Sciences Research

Kristopher Pataky
This thesis work focuses on applying microtechnology to produce three toolkits for life-sciences research. The first technique presented is nanostencil lithography for patterning cell adhesions. Nanostencil lithography is a shadow-mask micro and nanopatterning technique that was adapted for patterning on silicone rubber (PDMS) in the course of this work. Once a specific material contrast is present on the substrate, the patterns can be functionalized using highly-selective surface modification techniques. In this work, Au micro and...

A Pipeline Based Approach for Experimental Neuroscience Data Management

Muhammad Asif Jan
The field of neuroscience is witnessing a huge influx of experimental data thanks to the improvements in the data acquisition tools and techniques. Most of this data is being collected by thousands of experimenters located in various institutions around the world. There is also a growing interest in using this experimental data for building biologically realistic computational models of the neuronal systems. One such project i.e. the Blue Brain Project is developing a bottom-up neuronal...

Characterisation of Living Matter Using Advanced Spectroscopy Techniques

Markus Bonda
In the context of an ageing society neurodegenerative disease have become more and more frequent among humans. Opposing the benefits of a longer life, these diseases have thus triggered research on neurons and how they interact with each other. In vitro as well as in vivo experiments are comparably involved. Due to the complex mechanisms occurring at the neuronal level there is a need for developing suitable techniques. Such techniques are required to provide high...

Fission Rates Measured Using High-Energy Gamma-Rays from Short Half-Life Fission Products in Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel

Hanna Kröhnert
In recent years, higher discharge burn-ups and initial fuel enrichments have led to more and more heterogeneous core configurations in light water reactors (LWRs), especially at the beginning of cycle when fresh fuel assemblies are loaded next to highly burnt ones. As this trend is expected to continue in the future, the Paul Scherrer Institute has, in collaboration with the Swiss Association of Nuclear Utilities, swissnuclear, launched the experimental programme LIFE@PROTEUS. The LIFE@PROTEUS programme aims...

Subspace Correction Methods in Multivariate Calibration

Pamandeep Singh Gujral
Productivity, quality, safety, and environmental concerns have driven major advancements in the development of process analyzers. Analyzers generate measurement data that are useful for characterizing product and process attributes (key variables), thereby benefiting the drive towards automatic control and optimization. However, these objectives may be severely compromised when key variables are determined at low sampling rates through off-line analysis. It is sometimes possible to relate more easily available secondary measurements (predictors) to key variables (predictands)...

Le vide:nouvelles stratégies urbaines

Stéphanie Bender
Today the question of how to work in the continuous contemporary urban landscape, is a big concern for urban development professionals. Still marked by the modern obsession to define the building forms, a vision influenced by the functionalist movement of the Thirties, these same professionals have lost their means of working sustainably in a contemporary city which is both continuous and fragmented, like an individualised collection of various materials and shapes without urban links, spreading...

Neurobiological Mechanisms Involved in the Establishment and Maintenance of Dominance Hierarchies and its Modulation by Stress in Rats

Marjan Timmer & Carmen Sandi
Stress can have a strong and long lasting effect on the establishment and maintenance of dominance hierarchies in rats. When two rats of a pair have not been stressed (non-stressed pair) before a first social encounter, they establish a dominance hierarchy, but the rank that is obtained during this first encounter is not maintained until a second encounter one week later. When one rat of the pair is stressed (stressed pair) before the first encounter,...

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