441 Works

Development of Process Routes for Synthetic Biofuels from Biomass (BTL)

G. Weber, A. Potetz, R. Rauch & H. Hofbauer
In Güssing a nearly nitrogen free product gas can be provided by the Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed (FICFB) – gasification system. The main components of the product gas are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). A Fischer – Tropsch (FT­) trial plant uses the product gas components H2 and CO in an exothermic, catalytic reaction to produce hydrocarbon chains. Catalysts based on iron and cobalt are used for the...

The Cultivation of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L) Moench) Biomass for Energy as a Second Crop in Mediterranean Environment

A.A. Saita, S.L. Cosentino & S. Scandurra
A research was carried out in a plain area of South Italy (Sicily), with the aim of evaluating the crop productivity of sweet and fiber Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in terms of biomass, when cultivated as second crop in the Mediterranean environment. Twenty genotypes in all were sown on the 13th of July, 2009, and among fiber and sweet types in three different levels of Evapotraspiration (ETc) restoration: 100, 50 or 0% (I100 =...

Utilization of Olive Pomace for Energy Purposes in Tuscany: a Spatially Explicit Approach Applied to Estimating Potentials of Local Bioenergy Chains

R. Villani, G. Ragaglini, D. Poli & E. Bonari
In Tuscany, approximately 83,000 t/year of crude olive cake are produced as a by-product of the olive oil industry. Part of this by-product is currently conveyed from 450 olive mills to two olive-pomace oil extraction plants where crude pomace oil is produced and dried pomace is used as biomass fuel. In the present work, the energy potential of the crude olive cake produced in Tuscany is assessed and made geographically explicit. Due to differences in...

Aactor !GT©: Power from Lean Landfill Gas and Industrial Waste Heat or Off-Gases

M. Schmid, M. Voegeli & M.A. Sattler
For the power generation from the flaring of lean gases or hot gases, being emitted from land fill sites, bio-refineries and from heat of other industrial processes or concentrated solar radiation, a small micro turbine is being developed. Compared to existing micro-turbines, Aactor !GT can directly burn the gases at atmospheric pressure, and does not need any fuel pre-treatment, such as drying, de-sulfurisation, nor compression. After successful testing in the labs in 2009, a first...

Ammonia Content of Bottom Phase Liquid from Pyrolyisis of Sewage Sludge in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

M. Azuara, J. Abrego, I. Fonts, G. Gea & M.B. Murillo
A distinctive feature of sewage sludge pyrolysis liquids is the existence of three different phases (namely top, middle and bottom phase). Unlike the others, the bottom phase, has high water content and is not suitable for fuel purposes. Instead, it could be used as fertiliser due to its high content in nitrogen compounds. In this work two different sewage sludge samples have been pyrolyzed and the changes on the relative distribution of each phase have...

Who Wins the Race for Market Implementation of Renewable Transportation Fuels - Biofuels, Renewable Hydrogen or Renewable Electricity?

G. Jungmeier, M. Beermann, J. Pucker, K. Könighofer, L. Canella & A. Wenzel
This work analysis the different renewable transport fuels regarding technology, necessary infrastructure, local and global environmental aspects, costs, raw material potentials, market implementation and consumer habits and behaviors as well as future R&D demand. The key advantages and disadvantages were analyzed and assessed in the Austrian context including possible bottlenecks for the market implementation until 2020. Sustainability is a key issue for all types of renewable transportation fuels, e.g. certified biofuels with no competition with...

Estimation of Biogas Production Potential from Municipal Solid Waste in the Region of Biobio, Chile

A. Bezama, F. Vidal, A. Gordon & C. Bidart
The Biobio Region in Chile is characterized by a population of ca. 1,861,500 inhabitants, and the tradition of being the most industrialized region of the country. It is also characterized by its developed sanitary landfill network, which nowadays concentrates the disposal destination of 88% of the waste generated in the region. Nonetheless, there are still six dumping places operating in the region, and there are over 15 old disposal sites where closure programs are being...

The Development of Production and Use of Reed Canary Grass in Finland

T. Paappanen, T. Lindh, J. Kärki, R. Impola, S. Rinne, T. Lötjönen, A.-M. Kirkkari, R. Taipale & T. Leino
The purpose of the work was to develop the whole production and use chain of reed canary grass (RCG), in order to find out the most efficient and economical production – use chains for different working conditions. Development work was based on combining the present knowledge, experimental studies and calculatory studies. The targets for development were harvesting losses, long­distance transport, crushing of RCG bales, making of fuel mixtures, power plant experiences from the RCG use,...

Future Deployment of Cellulose Based Biofuels: Effect on Worldwide Trade

L. Pelkmans, D. Cuypers & D. Bradley
Future generation biofuels are expected to become commercial in the next 10 to 20 years, and an increasing demand will arise for ligno­cellulosic biomass. With increasing demand, international trade will become more important. The paper shows the results of an exploratory study performed within the framework of IEA Bioenergy Task 40, focusing on trade issues arising from the deployment of ligno­cellulose based biofuels. There are many uncertainties, not in the least in the expectations of...

The Possibility of Substitution of Fossil Fuel with Wood Biomass in the National Parks Kopaonik and Tara

M. Furtula, M. Mandić, G. Danon & V. Bajić
Most of the tourist centers in Serbia are using fossil fuels or electricity for heating, while wood biomass from local forests is only partly used. Using wood biomass from forest as fuel in tourist mountain facilities has ecological and economical benefits. Our aim in this study is to show how wood biomass can replace fossil fuel in the public and tourists facilities in National Parks, which are under state protection. This could motivate other national...

Pyrolysis of Organic Compounds for Energy Production, Materials Recovery and Environmental Safeguards

A. Moriconi
Tecnofin Group Spa (I) developed an innovative combination of technologies, based on slow pyrolysis process on rotating drum, integrated with a combined cycle (gas turbine and steam turbine) at industrial level. Purpose of the work is to demonstrate the reliability of the industrial application of the pyrolysis process to a wide range of organic materials, with the aim of energy production, materials recovery and environmental safeguards. The proven technology has been applied for more than...

Outlook for Sustainable Production of Future Generation Biofuels in Developing Countries

A. Perimenis, J. Giersdorf, T. Breuer & F. Müller-Langer
Following a worldwide trend towards alternative fuels, many developing countries are actively involved in the development of a biofuel sector. Next generation biofuels are expected to minimize the risks associated with current biofuels regarding sustainability of production. Their development, however, is still in pilot and demonstration phase and many questions concerning their implementation are still open. In this study, opportunities and risks for the development of future generation biofuels in selected developing countries, namely Thailand,...

Using Biomass-Based Fuels Including Pyrolysis Liquids for Power and CHP Production

B. Van De Beld, J. Vos, J. Florijn, A. Kronberg, M. Glouchenkov, M. Sprenkeler, D. Chiaramonti, A.M. Rizzo, V. Kirillov, N. Khripach, L. Lezhnev, B. Papkin, A.V. Bridgwater, E. Wylde, A. Alcala & S. Silin
The use of biomass-derived liquids (in short: bioliquids) instead of solid biomass can help overcome some of the barriers hindering a wider use of biomass in smaller-scale CHP systems. Relevant bioliquids included biodiesel, vegetable oils as well straight and upgraded pyrolysis oil. In this joint EU-Russian research project Bioliquids-CHP prime movers (engines and turbines) will be developed and modified so that these can run efficiently on bioliquids. At the same time, bioliquids will be upgraded...

Current Propagation Options to Establish Arundo Donax L. in Mediterranean Environment

V. Copani, S.L. Cosentino, G. Testa, D. Scordia & A.D. Cosentino
The influence of transplanting time of Arundo donax L. in relation to vegetative clone plant propagation systems was studied in 2009 at the Experimental farm of Catania University (Italy). A factorial experiment was carried out combining three times of transplanting (November 5th 2008, March 17th 2009, April 30th 2009), three clone propagation methods (rhizome cuttings, horizontal stem cuttings and vertical stem cuttings ) at two soil water availability (irrigation only at the planting dates and...

Control of Various Sulphur Compounds Emissions During Pyrolysis of Mixtures of Forest and Agricultural Wastes. Effect of Sulphur Concentration on Dioxins Formation

S. Román, T. Miranda, S. Rojas Rodríguez, J.F. González, I. Montero, J.I. Arranz Barriga & S. Nogales
This work aims to study the thermal behaviour of olive pomace (OP), pyrenean oak (PK) and their blends under pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). By coupling mass spectrometric analysis (MS) it was possible to monitorize the emissions released during the process. The OP/PK blends were prepared at five different ratios and experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions in the temperature range 25-750 ºC using Ar as inert gas. Thus, the following species were analysed:...

Buying Behaviour Related to Heating Systems in Germany

T. Decker, M. Zapilko & K. Menrad
The decision for buying a heating system is a long-term one, as many different aspects have an influence on this choice which were analysed in a Germany-wide, written survey. The respondents (only owners of a private house) had to answer questions about their attitude towards e. g. economic, convenience or ecological aspects related to heating systems and the respective combustibles. Using a multinomial logistic regression model the choice of the heating system is mainly explained...

Transforming Polysaccharide Biomass into Thermoplastic Materials for Value-Added Applications

J.H. Wang & B. Shi
This paper describes the research on converting a low-cost polysaccharide biomass into thermoplastic materials intended for high-value, water-dispersible thin film applications. Thermoplastic starch made from native starch is water sensitive but not water dispersible. This research focused on the converting modified starches such as starch esters, pregelatinized Tapioca dextrin, and hydroxyalkylated starch into thermoplastic bioplastics. The rheology of TPMS was found to depend on the type of modified starch, the type of plasticizers, and the...

A Novel Approach to Biomass Gasification in a Downdraft Gasifier

Y. Muilu, K. Pieniniemi, U.-P. Granö & U. Lassi
The purpose of the HighBio is to study input and output flows of the wood chips gasification process in pilot-scale gasifiers. Solid wood based biomass is used as a fuel in the gasification process. It is heated with the amount of air which is insufficient for total combustion in the gasifier, i.e. it gasifies the biomass to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen both 15-20 vol-% (synthesis gas). Pyrolysis equipment consists of the downdraft...

A Catalytic Solution to Reduce Pollutant Emissions Generated by Heating Wood: the ''zero-Co'' Domestic Fireplace

F. Ozil, V. Tschamber, F. Haas & G. Trouvé
Because domestic heating appliances have the advantage to reduce emissions of greenhouse gas, their used greatly increase and is largely recommended by several European governments. However, some recent studies revealed that residential wood stoves and inserts are source of near a hundred of other chemical compounds. The most important of them in terms of emission factor and impact on environment and human health are carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particles. In the aim to reach...

A Novel Process for Biogas Upgrading

T. Mayer, M. Url & H. Hofbauer
This paper presents a novel process for biogas upgrading by means of temperature swing adsorption. First of all, thermo gravimetric analyses were carried out in order to investigate different adsorbents with regard to their adsorption capacity for carbon dioxide and methane, and hence for their suitability for the temperature swing adsorption process. Afterwards, temperature swing adsorption experiments were performed using a laboratory test rig. As a result, breakthrough curves indicate excellent separation performance. During the...

Immobilized Cells of Various Microorganisms in Production of Liquid Biofuels

E. Efremenko, N. Stepanov, A. Nikolskaya, O. Senko, D. Gudkov, O. Spiricheva & S. Varfolomeev
the main purpose of the work is to improve the characteristics of fermentation processes aimed at the production of various biofuels (bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel) and to widen the spectrum of sources that can be used for their production. Different heterogeneous biocatalysts based on various immobilized cells of microorganisms (yeast, bacteria, filamentous fungi) are used in biotechnological processes of biofuel production. Wastes of industry and agriculture are applied as main substrates for immobilized cells of microorganisms....

Catalytic Cracking of Pure Fatty Acids in a Continuous Small Scale Pilot Plant

P. Bielansky, A. Reichhold, C. Schönberger & A. Weinert
Fluid catalytic cracking is one of the most important refinery processes for gasoline production. It could be shown in previous works that vegetable oils are a suitable feedstock for the FCC process. One of the most important criterions for biofuels is its profitability. Due to the high costs of virgin vegetable oils products from a “BIO-FCC” are expected to be considerably more expensive than petrol-derived products. Crude palm oil contains high amounts of free fatty...

Determination of Bridging Properties - Experimental and Model Approach

S. Hinterreiter, H. Hartmann, P. Turowski, M. Kallio, LazdiņŠ, A., A. Zimelis, J. Rathbauer, L. Sulzbacher, K. Sønderstgaard Sørensen & M. Temmerman
A test apparatus enabling to determine the length of a fuel bridge over an opening was developed in order to describe the physical-mechanical fuel characteristic of bridging. Two such testers were applied by 6 European partners who applied a uniform test procedure on a total of 85 large biomass fuel samples of 2 m3 volume. All samples were further analysed for angle of repose, moisture content, bulk density and image analysis parameters (e.g. particle size...

Effects of Particle Size on the Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

R.J.M. Westerhof, X. Wang, D.W.F. Brilman, R.P. Balegedde Ramachandran, W.P.M. Van Swaaij & S.R.A. Kersten
Beech wood particles (cylinders) with varying particle sizes (1.5 ­15 mm) were pyrolyzed in a fed­batch­wise operated fluidized bed reactor. The effects of the particle size on the pyrolysis (conversion) time, char yield and oil (total liquid) yield and composition was studied at pyrolysis reactor temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 oC. It has been observed that with increasing particle size the amount of produced char increases and the oil yield decreases slightly. The oil...

Biomethane Yield from Energy Plants in Latvia

A. Adamovičs, V. Dubrovskis & I. Plume
Introduction of new energy plants for biogas production is necessary for Latvia in renewable energy development. Investigations were provided on sunflower, hemp and sorghum to evaluate its suitability for biomethane production in Latvia. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is used for decades for fodder production. Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) is variety allowed by legislation and was sown on 59 ha in Latvia in 2006. Two varieties were used (local hemp ‘PuriHi’ and Polish variety ‘Bialobrzeskie’)...

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  • 2010
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  • ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
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