62 Works

Fabrication of Functional Silicon Surfaces using Metallic Nanostructures Produced by Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

Li Wang
Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. At the molecular level, self-assembly usually involves non-covalent interactions of various natures, such as van der Waals, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen and coordination bonds. Thus, this process provides one solution to the fabrication of ordered aggregates from components with typical sizes in the submicron scale, which is a key to applications in nanotechnology. The work presented in this thesis aims...

Simulation of Time-Dependent Viscoelastic Fluid Flows by Spectral Elements

Azadeh Jafari
The research work reported in this dissertation is aimed to develop efficient and stable numerical schemes in order to obtain accurate numerical solution for viscoelastic fluid flows within the spectral element context. The present research consists in the transformation of a large class of differential constitutive models into an equation where the main variable is the logarithm of the conformation tensor or a quantity related to it in a simple way. Particular cases cover the...

Single-Photon Techniques for Standard CMOS Digital ICs

Claudio Favi
The advent of single-photon detectors known as Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in standard CMOS technology opened the way to new perspectives in integrating these ultra sensitive light sensors with digital logic. Light has some interesting properties that attracted researchers in computer and electronics for a long time. Its weightlessness nature makes it a candidate to replace electrons when it didn't already do so. This is particularly true for long distance data transfers. However a new trend...

Broadcast Encryption and Traitor Tracing for Conditional Access Systems

Alexandre Karlov
In the context of the thesis we are studying the notions of broadcast encryption and traitor tracing in an industrial framework of conditional access systems related to Pay-TV. Broadcast encryption represents a cryptographic primitive which allows confidential transmission of content on a broadcast channel in such a way that only an authorized subset of users defined by the broadcaster are able to access it. Traitor tracing is a mechanism for identifying rogue sources who shared...

Water Vapor and Heat Exchanges over Lakes

Nikki Vercauteren
Quantifying the interaction of the atmosphere and water surfaces is of great importance for water resources management, climate studies of ocean-atmosphere exchange and regional climate in coastal areas. Atmospheric dynamics over water surfaces have generally received less attention than land-atmosphere interactions due to difficulties in operating field studies. In this research we are trying to improve the physical parameterizations of lake-atmosphere processes by integrating measurements and modeling studies. The Lake-Atmosphere Turbulent EXchanges (LATEX) field measurement...

Influence of Tributary Widening on Confluence Morphodynamics

Marcelo Leite Ribeiro
In alpine regions of Europe, river training works were typically the reason for the transformation of wide and braided rivers into linear river systems with a lack of structural diversity, i.e. gravel banks, islands, woody debris, riffles or pools. These interventions considerably impoverished river ecosystems. From the end of the 20th century, "river rehabilitation" has been a concept commonly used by environmental professionals and river management authorities. The rehabilitation purpose is to recover the vital...

Optogenetic Probing of Cortical Synaptic Circuits Measured Through in Vivo Whole-Cell Recordings in the Mouse Barrel Cortex

Céline Matéo
Although neocortex underlies higher-order brain functions, little is known about the synaptic interactions that drive neocortical microcircuit function in vivo. The neocortex is spontaneously active in vivo so I explored how such spontaneous network activity affects in vivo the interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the barrel cortex. To this aim, I have focused on the layer 2/3 microcircuit of the C2 barrel column driving sensory processing for the C2 whisker, and combined in...

Interactive Surfaces Based on Polymer Brushes

Dusko Paripovic
While the bulk structure of a material determines its mechanical properties, its surface plays a key role when interactions with the environment are important. Nowadays materials in bio- and nanotechnology are required to possess very complex functionalities and to interact specifically to the stimuli they receive from their surroundings. Thus, their surface modifications are becoming very demanding. In recent years surface initiated controlled radical polymerization techniques have emerged as very versatile strategies that provide a...

Proteins Binding to and Regulating Human Telomeric Transcripts

Katarzyna Sikora
Telomere are the protective terminal structures of linear chromosomes. The repetitive TTAGGG sequences are bound by the dedicated shelterin complex, as well as by histones carrying modifications characteristic of silent chromatin. Like the centromeric heterochromatin, telomeres are transcribed, resulting in a heterogenous population of RNAs, containing the unique subtelomeric as well as the common telomeric sequences. The telomeric transcripts, TERRAs, are capped, and a fraction of them is polyadenylated. The presence of the poly(A) tail...

A Framework for Numerical Simulations of Structure Formation

Claude Becker
In the absence of a full analytical treatment of nonlinear structure formation in the universe, numerical simulations provide the critical link between the properties of the underlying model and the features of the observed structures. Currently N-body simulations are the main tool to study structure growth. We explore an alternative framework for numerical simulations of structure formation. The underlying idea is to replace the long-range gravitational force in the Vlasov-Poisson system by a purely local...

Design Methodology and Innovative Device Concept for Acoustic Hearing Implants

Hans Bernhard
Nowadays, hearing impaired people can be treated with a multitude of different devices and surgical interventions that are selected in function of the type and degree of hearing loss of the patient. These known therapies cover the major part of possible hearing losses except severe to profound mixed hearing loss. The present thesis results from an industrial project that aims to develop a dedicated hearing therapy that treats this kind of hearing loss based on...

Characterisation of Living Matter Using Advanced Spectroscopy Techniques

Markus Bonda
In the context of an ageing society neurodegenerative disease have become more and more frequent among humans. Opposing the benefits of a longer life, these diseases have thus triggered research on neurons and how they interact with each other. In vitro as well as in vivo experiments are comparably involved. Due to the complex mechanisms occurring at the neuronal level there is a need for developing suitable techniques. Such techniques are required to provide high...

Genetic Representation of Adaptive Neural Controllers

Peter Dürr
The manual design of adaptive controllers for robotic systems that face unpredictable environmental changes is often challenging. There is thus a growing interest in the development of automatic design tools to assist control engineers. One of the most common approaches in this domain is the evolutionary synthesis of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which allows the automatic design of control systems with little or no human intervention. The performance of evolved neural controllers, however, critically depends...

Epitaxial Piezoelectric MEMS on Silicon

Don Isarakorn
Integration of new functional materials into silicon microsystems is a key factor to enable technology for a wide range of innovative MEMS devices. Piezoelectric materials are of primary interest for integrating sensing and actuation functions in MEMS due to their high forces and high energy densities. The use of PZT thin films in MEMS applications offers the possibility of increasing the sensitivity or actuation capabilities of the devices compared to alternatives such as AlN and...

On the Adaptation of Building Controls to the Envelope and the Occupants

David Daum
The sun is the biggest known source of energy in our solar system. We feel its strength when it gets hot during the the day and we notice its absence during the night when we feel cold. So as to be less dependent on the sun as an energy source, we implemented additional heating and cooling sources to maintain the temperature within a comfortable range. The downside to this is that the majority of energy...

Experimental Contribution to the Mechanics of Herringbone Grooved Journal Air Bearings

Ivan Ognjanovic
Gas Lubricated Herringbone Grooved Journal Bearings (HGJB) have long been used in equipment such as navigation systems, optical scanners for laser printers and high speed cameras and disk spindle for flyhead testers. All such applications are characterized by a relatively small size (journal diameter <10 mm, rotor mass <100 g), benign duty cycle (mainly start-and-stop) and reliance on the inherent high stiffness of HGJB to maintain a stable axis of rotation. The oil lubricated version...

Verkehrssystem, Touristenverhalten und Raumstruktur in alpinen Landschaften: Forschungsbericht NFP 48

Sigrun Beige, Kay W. Axhausen & Martin Tschopp
ISBN:978-3-7281-3294-9

Magnetization Reversal Dynamics in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

Liza Herrera Diez
This thesis is dedicated to the study of the magnetization reversal dynamics in compressively strained (Ga,Mn)As and differently functionalized (Ga,Mn)As materials. In the first part the domain wall dynamics of pure (Ga,Mn)As/GaAs materials is in the focus. The changes in the magnetic anisotropy energy landscape occurring as a function of temperature are monitored in detail by different experimental techniques. These measurements provide the necessary information for the identification of the temperature ranges corresponding to different...

Identification of Signaling Mechanisms Determining the Development of Large Excitatory Synapses in the Lower Auditory System

Le Xiao
In the brainstem auditory circuit of mammals and birds, excitatory synapses with extraordinarily large size have evolved, which ensure fast membrane potential signaling mediated by large, multiquantal excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The so-called "calyx of Held" synapses are formed by the globular bushy cells (GBCs) in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) onto the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) neurons. One the other hand, the spherical bushy cells (SBCs) in the VCN project...

Analysis of Neuronal Microcircuits in L2/3 of Mouse Barrel Cortex

Michael Avermann
Neocortical microcircuits are thought to contribute importantly to the sophisticated processing abilities of the mammalian brain. Neurons within the neocortex communicate with each other through releasing the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate or the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. In order to begin to understand the functional operation of the neocortex, it will clearly be important to establish the basic organizing principles of synaptic connectivity between different classes of cortical neurons. Here I specifically investigate excitatory and GABAergic neuronal...

Force Transmission in Migrating Cells

Maxime Fournier
Ability to migrate is a fundamental property of all animal cells. Cell migration underlies such important physiological and pathological processes as embryonic development, immune response, tissue regeneration and cancer metastasis. As cell migration involves forces and motion, it is ultimately a physical phenomenon that should be understood in terms of fundamental physical laws. Cell migration mechanisms are based on the activity of the cytoskeleton, a system of intracellular filaments and motor proteins. During cell migration,...

Fission Rates Measured Using High-Energy Gamma-Rays from Short Half-Life Fission Products in Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel

Hanna Kröhnert
In recent years, higher discharge burn-ups and initial fuel enrichments have led to more and more heterogeneous core configurations in light water reactors (LWRs), especially at the beginning of cycle when fresh fuel assemblies are loaded next to highly burnt ones. As this trend is expected to continue in the future, the Paul Scherrer Institute has, in collaboration with the Swiss Association of Nuclear Utilities, swissnuclear, launched the experimental programme LIFE@PROTEUS. The LIFE@PROTEUS programme aims...

Étapes marquantes du développement urbain de la Chaux-de-Fonds: les contributions de Moïse Perret-Gentil, de Charles-Henri Junod et de Charles-Frédéric Knab

Tearanel Te
The city planning of La Chaux-de-Fonds, they way we know it today, is the result of a long evolution. It starts the day after a fire which, in 1794, practically devastated the whole village. With the human and material loss which the fire caused, this disaster offered the possibility to reconstruct on a new basis. The fear of fire and the demands of the watch industry, will dictate the policy of city planners and architects....

Three Economic Perspectives on Post - 2012 Global Climate Policy

Ronal Gainza Carmenates
This thesis presents three economic perspectives to moving forward a global climate agreement for post-2012. The first part develops a grading system for assessing thirteen proposals for post-2012 climate policy. The grades are based on four criteria: environmental effectiveness, cost effectiveness, distributional considerations and institutional feasibility. The grades are analyzed using two complementary methods: principal component and cluster analysis. It is shown that the higher the number of policy instruments a proposal comprises, the more...

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