303 Works

Economic survey results for United States Virgin Islands commercial fisheries.

Chloe S. Fleming, Ashleigh Armentrout & Scott Crosson

Cyclopean vs. Dominant Eye in Gaze-Interface-Tracking

Wagner, Michael; Ariel University, Botzer, Assaf; Ariel University & Elbaum, Tomer; Ariel University
User-centered design questions in gaze interfaces have been explored in multitude empirical investigations. Interestingly, the question of what eye should be the input device has never been studied. We compared tracking accuracy between the “cyclopean” (i.e., midpoint between eyes) dominant and non-dominant eye. In two experiments, participants performed tracking tasks. In Experiment 1, participants did not use a crosshair. Results showed that mean distance from target was smaller with cyclopean than with dominant or non-dominant...

Sampling rate influences saccade detection in mobile eye tracking of a reading task

Wahl, Siegfried; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Leube, Alexander; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen & Rifai, Katharina; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen
The purpose of this study was to compare saccade detection characteristics in two mobile eye trackers with different sampling rates in a natural task. Gaze data of 11 participants were recorded in one 60 Hz and one 120 Hz mobile eye tracker and compared directly to the saccades detected by a 1000 HZ stationary tracker while a reading task was performed. Saccades and fixations were detected using a velocity based algorithm and their properties analyzed....

Eye-tracking Analysis of Interactive 3D Geovisualization

Herman, Lukas; Masaryk University, Brno, Hejlova, Vendula; Palacky University, Olomouc & Popelka, Stanislav; Palacky University, Olomouc
This paper describes a new tool for eye-tracking data and their analysis with the use of interactive 3D models. This tool helps to analyse interactive 3D models easier than by time-consuming, frame-by-frame investigation of captured screen recordings with superimposed scanpaths. The main function of this tool, called 3DgazeR, is to calculate 3D coordinates (X, Y, Z coordinates of the 3D scene) for individual points of view. These 3D coordinates can be calculated from the values...

Visual Multi-Metric Grouping of Eye-Tracking Data

Netzel, Rudolf; University Of Stuttgart, Weiskopf, Daniel; University Of Stuttgart, Kumar, Ayush; Stony Brook University, New York, Mueller, Klaus; Stony Brook University, New York & Burch, Michael; Eindhoven Uni. Of Tech., Netherlands
We present an algorithmic and visual grouping of participants and eye-tracking metrics derived from recorded eye-tracking data. Our method utilizes two well-established visualization concepts. First, parallel coordinates are used to provide an overview of the used metrics, their interactions, and similarities, which helps select suitable metrics that describe characteristics of the eye-tracking data. Furthermore, parallel coordinates plots enable an analyst to test the effects of creating a combination of a subset of metrics resulting in...

The Effect of Real-time Headbox Adjustments on Data Quality

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
Following a patent owned by Tobii, the framerate of a CMOS camera can be increased by reducing the size of the recording window so that it fits the eyes with minimum room to spare. The position of the recording window can be dynamically adjusted within the camera sensor area to follow the eyes as the participant moves the head. Since only a portion of the camera sensor data is communicated to the computer and processed,...

Using simultaneous scanpath visualization to investigate the influence of visual behaviour on medical image interpretation

Vigo, Markel; University Of Manchester, Jay, Caroline; University Of Manchester, Davies, Alan Richard; University Of Manchester & Harper, Simon; University Of Manchester
In this paper, we explore how a number of novel methods for visualizing and analyzing differences in eye-tracking data, including scanpath length, Levenshtein distance, and visual transition frequency, can help to elucidate the methods clinicians use for interpreting 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs). Visualizing the differences between multiple participants’ scanpaths simultaneously allowed us to answer questions including: do clinicians fixate randomly on the ECG, or do they apply a systematic approach?; is there a relationship between interpretation...

Study of an Extensive Set of Eye Movement Features: Extraction Methods and Statistical Analysis

Komogortsev, Oleg; Texas State University, Rigas, Ioannis; Texas State University & Friedman, Lee; Texas State University
This work presents a study of an extensive set of 101 categories of eye movement features from three types of eye movement events: fixations, saccades, and post-saccadic oscillations. We present a unified framework of methods for the extraction of features that describe the temporal, positional and dynamic characteristics of eye movements. We perform statistical analysis of feature values by employing eye movement data from a normative population of 298 subjects, recorded during a text reading...

When words and graphs move the eyes:The processing of multimodal causal relations

Recio, Inés; Heidelberg University, Julio, Cristóbal; Pontificia Universidad Católica De Valparaíso & Parodi, Giovanni; Pontificia Universidad Católica De Valparaíso
Research on causal relations in multisemiotic texts constituted by words and graphs has been scarce with only a few exceptions. In the current study, eye movement behavior was studied in seventy-six Chilean high school students, who read a set of twelve causally-related economics texts in Spanish in four experimental conditions. The objective is twofold. We aimed, on the one hand, to observe the main effects of the causal discourse marker (DM) por tanto and the statistical...

One page of text: Eye movements during regular and thorough reading, skimming, and spell checking.

Strukelj, Alexander; Centre For Languages And Literature & The Humanities Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Niehorster, Diederick C; The Humanities Laboratory & Department Of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Eye movements during regular reading, thorough reading, skimming, and spell checking of single pages of text were measured, to investigate how high-level reading tasks elicited by instructions affect reading behavior. Word frequency and word length effects were found. All results were compared to regular reading. Thorough reading involved longer total reading times and more rereading, and resulted in higher comprehension scores. Skimming involved longer saccades, shorter average fixation durations, more word skipping, shorter total reading...

Scan path visualization and comparison using visual aggregation techniques

Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; ISAE-Supaéro & Hurter, Christophe; ENAC
We demonstrate the use of different visual aggregation techniques to obtain non-cluttered visual representations of scanpaths. First, fixation points are clustered using the mean-shift algorithm. Second, saccades are aggregated using the Attribute-Driven Edge Bundling (ADEB) algorithm that handles a saccades direction, onset timestamp, magnitude or their combination for the edge compatibility criterion. Flow direction maps, computed during bundling, can be visualized separately (vertical or horizontal components) or as a single image using the Oriented Line...

Does descriptive text change how people look at art? A novel analysis of eye-movements using data-driven Units of Interest

Reani, Manuele; University Of Manchester, Vigo, Markel; University Of Manchester, Grimes, Martin; Manchester City Galleries, Davies, Alan; University Of Manchester, Jay, Caroline; University Of Manchester, Gannaway, Clare; Manchester Art Gallery & Harper, Simon; University Of Manchester
Does reading a description of an artwork affect how a person subsequently views it? In a controlled study, we show that in most cases, textual description does not influence how people subsequently view paintings, contrary to participants’ self-report that they believed it did. To examine whether the description affected transition behaviour, we devised a novel analysis method that systematically determines Units of Interest (UOIs), and calculates transitions between these, to quantify the effect of an...

Uncertainty visualization of gaze estimation to support operator-controlled calibration

Hassoumi, Almoctar; ENAC, Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; ISAE & Hurter, Christophe; ENAC
      In this paper, we investigate how visualization assets can support the qualitative evaluation of gaze estimation uncertainty. Although eye tracking data are commonly available, little has been done to visually investigate the uncertainty of recorded gaze information. This paper tries to fill this gap by using innovative uncertainty computation and visualization. Given a gaze processing pipeline, we estimate the location of this gaze position in the world camera. To do so we developed...

A method to compensate head movements for mobile eye tracker using invisible markers

Osawa, Rie; The University Of Tokyo & Shirayama, Susumu; The University Of Tokyo
Although mobile eye-trackers have wide measurement range of gaze, and high flexibility, it is difficult to judge what a subject is actually looking at based only on obtained coordinates, due to the influence of head movement. In this paper, a method to compensate for head movements while seeing the large screen with mobile eye-tracker is proposed, through the use of NIR-LED markers embedded on the screen. The head movements are compensated by performing template matching...

A Skeleton-based Approach to Analyze and Visualize Oculomotor Behavior when Viewing Animated Characters

Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; University Of Fribourg & Le Naour, Thibaut; University Of Fribourg
Knowing what people look at and understanding how they analyze the dynamic gestures of their peers is an exciting challenge. In this context, we propose a new approach to quantify and visualize the oculomotor behavior of viewers watching the movements of animated characters in dynamic sequences. Using this approach, we were able to illustrate on a 'heat mesh' the gaze distribution of one or several viewers, i.e., the time spent on each part of the...

Eye movement planning on Single-Sensor-Single-Indicator displays is vulnerable to user anxiety and cognitive load

Gray, Rob; Human Systems Engineering Department, Arizona State University, Arizona, USA, Chuang, Lewis; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics,Tübingen, Germany, Allsop, Jonathan; Vision And Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK & Bülthoff, Heinrich; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany And Department Of Brain And Cognitive Engineering Korea University, Seoul Korea
In this study, we demonstrate the effects of anxiety and cognitive load on eye movement planning in an instrument flight task adhering to a single-sensor-single-indicator data visualisation design philosophy. The task was performed in neutral and anxiety conditions, while a low or high cognitive load, auditory n-back task was also performed. Cognitive load led to a reduction in the number of transitions between instruments, and impaired task performance. Changes in self-reported anxiety between the neutral...

Abstracts of the 19th European Conference on Eye Movements 2017

Radach, Ralph; University Of Wuppertal, Vorstius, Christian; University Of Wuppertal, Hofmann (Eds.), Markus J.; University Of Wuppertal & Deubel, Heiner; University Of Munich
This document contains all abstracts of the 19th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 20-24, 2017, in Wuppertal, Germany

A comparison of eye movement measures across reading efficiency quartile groups in elementary, middle, and high school students in the U.S.

Spichtig, Alexandra; Reading Plus, Ferrara, John; Reading Plus, Vorstius, Christian; Bergische Universität Wuppertal & Pascoe, Jeffrey; Reading Plus
This cross-sectional study examined eye movements during reading across grades in students with differing levels of reading efficiency. Eye-movement recordings were obtained while students in grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 silently read normed grade-leveled texts with demonstrated comprehension. Recordings from students in each reading rate quartile at each grade level were compared to characterize differences in reading rate, number of fixations, number of regressions, and fixation durations. Comparisons indicated that students in...

Using smooth pursuit calibration for difficult-to-calibrate participants

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
Although the 45-dots calibration routine of a previous study (Blignaut, 2016) provided very good accuracy, it requires intense mental effort and the routine proved to be unsuccessful for young children who struggle to maintain concentration. The calibration procedures that are normally used for difficult-to-calibrate participants, such as autistic children and infants, do not suffice since they are not accurate enough and the reliability of research results might be jeopardised.Smooth pursuit has been used before for...

Less users more confidence: How AOIs don’t affect scanpath trend analysis

Eraslan, Sukru; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus, Yesilada, Yeliz; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, United Kingdom
User studies are typically difficult, recruiting enough users is often problematic and each experiment takes a considerable amount of time to be completed. In these studies, eye tracking is increasingly used which often increases time, therefore, the lower the number of users required for these studies the better for making these kinds of studies more practical in terms of economics and time expended. The possibility of achieving almost the same results with fewer users has...

Probabilistic approach to robust wearable gaze tracking

Kristian Lukander, Toivanen, Miika; University Of Helsinki & Kai Puolamäki
This paper presents a method for computing the gaze point using camera data captured with a wearable gaze tracking device. The method utilizes a physical model of the human eye, advanced Bayesian computer vision algorithms, and Kalman filtering, resulting in high accuracy and low noise. Our C++ implementation can process camera streams with 30 frames per second in realtime. The performance of the system is validated in an exhaustive experimental setup with 19 participants, using...

Gaze Self-Similarity Plot - A New Visualization Technique

Kasprowski, Pawel; Silesian University Of Technology & Katarzyna Harezlak
Eye tracking has become a valuable way for extending knowledge of human behavior based on visual patterns. One of the most important elements of such an analysis is the presentation of obtained results, which proves to be a challenging task. Traditional visualization techniques such as scan-paths or heat maps may reveal interesting information, nonetheless many useful features are still not visible, especially when temporal characteristics of eye movement is taken into account. This paper introduces...

A Quality-Centered Analysis of Eye Tracking Data in Foveated Rendering

Hinkenjann, André; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences, Slusallek, Philipp; Saarland University Intel Visual Computing University German Research Centre For Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Weier, Martin; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences Saarland University, Li, Yongmin; Brunel University London & Roth, Thorsten; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences Brunel University London
This work presents the analysis of data recorded by an eye tracking device in the course of evaluating a foveated rendering approach for head-mounted displays (HMDs). Foveated ren- dering methods adapt the image synthesis process to the user’s gaze and exploiting the human visual system’s limitations to increase rendering performance. Especially, foveated rendering has great potential when certain requirements have to be fulfilled, like low-latency rendering to cope with high display refresh rates. This is...

Visual Analytics of Gaze Data with Standard Multimedia Player

Gundler, Christopher; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, Schöning, Julius; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, Krumnack, Ulf; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, Heidemann, Gunther; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University & König, Peter; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University
With the increasing number of studies, where participants’ eye movements are tracked while watching videos, the volume of gaze data records is growing tremendously. Unfortunately, in most cases, such data are collected in separate files in custom-made or proprietary data formats. These data are difficult to access even for experts and effectively inaccessible for non-experts. Normally expensive or custom-made software is necessary for their analysis. We address this problem by using existing multimedia container formats...

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