282 Works

Gaze Self-Similarity Plot - A New Visualization Technique

Katarzyna Harezlak & Kasprowski, Pawel; Silesian University Of Technology
Eye tracking has become a valuable way for extending knowledge of human behavior based on visual patterns. One of the most important elements of such an analysis is the presentation of obtained results, which proves to be a challenging task. Traditional visualization techniques such as scan-paths or heat maps may reveal interesting information, nonetheless many useful features are still not visible, especially when temporal characteristics of eye movement is taken into account. This paper introduces...

A Quality-Centered Analysis of Eye Tracking Data in Foveated Rendering

Li, Yongmin; Brunel University London, Weier, Martin; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences Saarland University, Slusallek, Philipp; Saarland University Intel Visual Computing University German Research Centre For Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Roth, Thorsten; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences Brunel University London & Hinkenjann, André; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences
This work presents the analysis of data recorded by an eye tracking device in the course of evaluating a foveated rendering approach for head-mounted displays (HMDs). Foveated ren- dering methods adapt the image synthesis process to the user’s gaze and exploiting the human visual system’s limitations to increase rendering performance. Especially, foveated rendering has great potential when certain requirements have to be fulfilled, like low-latency rendering to cope with high display refresh rates. This is...

Visual Analytics of Gaze Data with Standard Multimedia Player

Gundler, Christopher; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, König, Peter; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, Heidemann, Gunther; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, Schöning, Julius; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University & Krumnack, Ulf; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University
With the increasing number of studies, where participants’ eye movements are tracked while watching videos, the volume of gaze data records is growing tremendously. Unfortunately, in most cases, such data are collected in separate files in custom-made or proprietary data formats. These data are difficult to access even for experts and effectively inaccessible for non-experts. Normally expensive or custom-made software is necessary for their analysis. We address this problem by using existing multimedia container formats...

Pupil response as an indicator of hazard perception during simulator driving

Kasneci, Enkelejda; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Kübler, Thomas Christian; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen & Vintila, Florentin; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen
We investigate the pupil response to hazard perception during driving simulation. Complementary to gaze movement and physiological stress indicators, pupil size changes can provide valuable information on traffic hazard perception with a relatively low temporal delay. We tackle the challenge of identifying those pupil dilation events associated with hazardous events from a noisy signal by a combination of wavelet transformation and machine learning. Therefore, we use features of the wavelet components as training data of...

Visualizing the Reading Activity of People Learning to Read

Räihä, Kari-Jouko; University Of Tampere, Špakov, Oleg; University Of Tampere, Siirtola, Harri; University Of Tampere & Istance, Howell; University Of Tampere
Several popular visualizations of gaze data, such as scanpaths and heatmaps, can be used independently of the viewing task. For a specific task, such as reading, more informative visualizations can be created. We have developed several such techniques, some dynamic and some static, to communicate the reading activity of children to primary school teachers. The goal of the visualizations was to highlight the reading skills to a teacher with no background in the theory of...

Simulations of Ideal Assistive Devices for Four Subjects

Christopher Dembia
OpenSim simulations of male subjects walking while carrying heavy load and wearing hypothetical ideal assistive devices. The simulations examined 7 massless devices that each provided unrestricted torque at one degree of freedom and in one direction: hip abduction, hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, knee extension, ankle plantarflexion, and ankle dorsiflexion. The simulations were used to estimate the optimal device torques, and the devices' effect on metabolic cost and muscle activity.

Simulations of Ideal Assistive Devices for Three Subjects

Christopher Dembia
OpenSim simulations of male subjects walking while carrying heavy load and wearing hypothetical ideal assistive devices. The simulations examined 7 massless devices that each provided unrestricted torque at one degree of freedom and in one direction: hip abduction, hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, knee extension, ankle plantarflexion, and ankle dorsiflexion. The simulations were used to estimate the optimal device torques, and the devices' effect on metabolic cost and muscle activity.

Software Release Guidelines

Michelle Guy, Eric M. Martinez & Lynda A. Lastowka
In the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) software often supports our science and data. Just as the science and data are reviewed and made publicly available, our software should be as well. In October 2016, the USGS issued an Instructional Memoranda (IM) on Software Releases. While the IM is an interim document and subject to change, it outlines some best practices that can be described in an example workflow of a software release. Software spans a...

Developing Clinically Practical Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocols to Improve Saccadic Eye Movement Control

Chen, Po Ling; University Of Otago & Machado, Liana; University Of Otago
Recent research indicates that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the frontal eye field (FEF) can be used to improve saccadic eye movement control in healthy young adults. The current research set out to replicate these findings using a clinically practical protocol, to test whether tDCS applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) might also afford benefits, and to determine whether benefits extend to older adults, who are known to suffer from saccadic...

Ways of improving the precision of eye tracking data: Controlling the influence of dirt and dust on pupil detection

Dennis Hospach, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Fuhl, Thomas C. Kübler, Kasneci, Enkelejda; University Of Tübingen Department Of Computer Science & Oliver Bringmann
Eye-tracking technology has to date been primarily employed in research. With recent advances in aordable video-based devices, the implementation of gaze-aware smartphones, and marketable driver monitoring systems, a considerable step towards pervasive eye-tracking has been made. However, several new challenges arise with the usage of eye-tracking in the wild and will need to be tackled to increase the acceptance of this technology. The main challenge is still related to the usage of eye-tracking together with...

An inverse-linear logistic model of the main sequence

Niedzielska, Anna; National Information Processing Institute, Biele, Cezary; National Information Processing Institute, Schönenberg, Michael; University Of Tübingen, Duchowski, Andrew; Clemson University, Giannopoulos, Ioannis; ETH Zürich, Gehrer, Nina; University Of Tübingen, Krejtz, Krzysztof; SWPS University Of Psychology & Kiefer, Peter; ETH Zürich
A model of the main sequence is proposed based on the logistic function. The model’s fit to the peak velocity-amplitude relation resembles an S curve, simulta- neously allowing control of the curve’s asymptotes at very small and very large amplitudes, as well as its slope over the mid amplitude range. The proposed inverse-linear logistic model is also able to express the linear relation of duration and amplitude. We demonstrate the utility and robustness of the...

Estimation of overlapped Eye Fixation Related Potentials: The General Linear Model, a more flexible framework than the ADJAR algorithm

Kristensen, Emmanuelle; University Grenoble Alpes, Rivet, Bertrand; University Grenoble Alpes & Guérin-Dugué, Anne; University Grenoble Alpes
The Eye Fixation Related Potential (EFRP) estimation is the average of EEG signals across epochs at ocular fixation onset. Its main limitation is the overlapping issue. Inter Fixation Intervals (IFI) - typically around 300 ms in the case of unrestricted eye movement- depend on participants’ oculomotor patterns, and can be shorter than the latency of the components of the evoked potential. If the duration of an epoch is longer than the IFI value, more than...

Interference between smooth pursuit and color working memory

Fan, Chenggui; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Zhang, Qian; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Jin, Zhenlan; Key Laboratory For NeuroInformation Of Ministry Of Education, Center For Information In Medicine, School Of Life Science And Technology, University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Li, Ling; Key Laboratory For NeuroInformation Of Ministry Of Education, Center For Information In Medicine, School Of Life Science And Technology, University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China & Yue, Shulin; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China
Spatial working memory (WM) and spatial attention are closely related, but the relationship between non-spatial WM and spatial attention still remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between color WM and smooth pursuit eye movements. A modified delayed-match-to-sample paradigm (DMS) was applied with 2 or 4 items presented in each visual field. Subjects memorized the colors of items in the cued visual field and smoothly moved eyes towards or away from memorized...

W4M00007_Coffea-leaves

Cédric Delporte & Florence Souard
Study: Characterization of the coffee leaves metabolome composition in 9 species of Coffea (Rubiaceae) collected at 5 dates in 2016 (January – March - July- September – December) after aqueous extraction. A total of 169 samples (including 147 individual samples, 8 blanks and 14 QC pools) were analysed by reversed-phase (C18) liquid chromatography (LCMS) coupled to high-resolution mass. Dataset: In this study, a metabolomics analysis was conducted on 9 species of Coffea leaves using LC-HRMS...

Capillary blood collection via finger-prick

Vernon Coffey & Katsu Shike

The effect of magnification and contrast on reading performance in different types of simulated low vision

Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern & Christen, Michael; University Of Bern
Low vision therapy, such as magnifiers or contrast enhancement, is widely used. Scientific evidence proving its efficacy is scarce however. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the benefits of magnification and contrast enhancement depended on the origin of low vision. For this purpose we measured reading speed with artificially induced low vision in 12 healthy subjects in conditions of a simulated central scotoma, blurred vision and oscillopsia. Texts were either blurred, set...

Negative versus positive priming: When are distractors inhibited?

Stefan Van Der Stigchel
Visual attention is guided by the history of selections in previous trials, an effect usually referred to as intertrial priming. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such priming in visual search is due to a strengthening of the target signal, or the suppression of the distractor signal. In two experiments, we examined the deviation of saccade endpoints in situations in which the target and distractors were presented in relative close proximity....

How a distractor influences fixations during the exploration of natural scenes

Nathalie Guyader, Devillez, Hélène; Université De Grenoble-Alpes, France & Anne Guérin-Dugué
The distractor effect is a well-established means of studying different aspects of fixation pro-gramming during the exploration of visual scenes. In this study, we present a task-irrelevant distractor to participants during the free exploration of natural scenes. We investigate the con-trol and programming of fixations by analyzing fixation durations and locations, and the link between the two. We also propose a simple mixture model evaluated using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to test the distractor effect on...

Mobile eye tracking during real-world night driving: A selective review of findings and recommendations for future research

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna & Grüner, Markus; University Of Vienna
We exhaustively review the published research on eye movements during real-world night driving, which is an important field of research as fatal road traffic accidents at night outnumber fatal accidents during the daytime. Eye tracking provides a unique window into the underlying cognitive processes. The studies were interpreted and evaluated against the background of two descriptions of the driving task: Gibson and Crooks’ (1938) description of driving as the visually guided selection of a driving...

Using coefficient K to distinguish ambient/focal visual attention during map viewing

Niedzielska, Anna; National Information Processing Institute, Poland, Krejtz, Krzysztof; SWPS University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Coltekin, Arzu; Department Of Geography, University Of Zurich & Duchowski, Andrew; Clemson University
We demonstrate the use of the ambient/focal coecient K for studying the dynamics of visual behavior when performing cartographic tasks. Participants viewed a cartographic map and satellite image of Barcelona while performing a number of map-related tasks. Cartographic maps can be viewed as summary representations of reality, while satellite images are typically more veridical, and contain considerably more information. Our analysis of traditional eye movement metrics suggests that the satellite representation facilitates longer fixation durations,...

Role of expectation and working memory constraints in Hindi comprehension: An eyetracking corpus analysis

Agrawal, Arpit; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi, Agarwal, Sumeet; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi & Husain, Samar; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi
We used the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi eye-tracking corpus to investigate the role of word-level and sentence-level factors during sentence comprehension in Hindi. Extending previous work that used this eye-tracking data, we investigate the role of surprisal and retrieval cost metrics during sentence processing. While controlling for word-level predictors (word complexity, syllable length, unigram and bigram frequencies) as well as sentence-level predictors such as integration and storage costs, we find a significant effect of surprisal on first-pass...

Topology for gaze analyses - Raw data segmentation

Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Neurological University Clinic Hamburg & Hein, Oliver; University Hamburg
Recent years have witnessed a remarkable growth in the way mathematics, informatics,and computer science can process data. In disciplines such as machine learning,pattern recognition, computer vision, computational neurology, molecular biology,information retrieval, etc., many new methods have been developed to cope with theever increasing amount and complexity of the data. These new methods offer interestingpossibilities for processing, classifying and interpreting eye-tracking data. Thepresent paper exemplifies the application of topological arguments to improve theevaluation of eye-tracking data....

Reading English-Language Haiku: Processes of Meaning Construction Revealed by Eye Movements

Geyer, Thomas; LMU Munich, Germany, Kacian, Jim; The Haiku Foundation, Winchester, VA, USA, Mueller, Hermann J; LMU Munich, Germany, Pierides, Stella; The Haiku Foundation, Winchester, VA, USA & Günther, Franziska; LMU Munich, Germany
In the present study, poets and cognitive scientists came together to investigate the construction of meaning in the process of reading normative, 3-line English-language haiku (ELH), as found in leading ELH journals. The particular haiku which we presented to our readers consisted of two semantically separable parts, or images, that were set in a ‘tense’ relationship by the poet. In our sample of poems, the division, or cut, between the two parts was positioned either...

Where did I come from? Where am I going? Functional influences on visual search fixation duration

Greene, Harold H.; University Of Detroit Mercy & James M. Brown
Real time simulation of visual search behavior can occur only if the control of fixation durations is sufficiently understood.  Visual search studies have typically confounded pre- and post-saccadic influences on fixation duration.  In the present study, pre- and post-saccadic influences on fixation durations were compared by considering saccade direction. Novel use of a gaze-contingent moving obstructer paradigm also addressed relative contributions of both influences to total fixation duration.   As a function of saccade direction, pre-saccadic...

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