282 Works

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis & Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Eye-tracking Study of Reading Speed from LCD Displays: Influence of Type Style and Type Size

Podlesek, Anja; University Of Ljubljana, Možina, Klementina; University Of Ljubljana & Franken, Gregor; University Of Ljubljana
Increasing amounts of text are read from various types of screens. The shape and the size of a typeface determine the legibility of texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the legibility of different typefaces displayed on LCD screens. Two typefaces (Georgia and Verdana), designed for screen renderings were analyzed by eye-tracking technology in 8 different sizes. Regardless of the font size, the texts set in Verdana were read faster. For both typefaces...

Control of Visual Selection during Visual Search in the Human Brain

Brandt, Stephan A.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin, Donner, Tobias H.; Center For Neural Science And Department Of Psychology, New York University & Olma, Manuel C.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin
How do we find a target object in a cluttered visual scene? Targets carrying unique salient features can be found in parallel without directing attention, whereas targets defined by feature conjunctions or non-salient features need to be scrutinized in a serial attentional process in order to be identified. In this article, we review a series of experiments in which we used fMRI to probe the neural basis of this active search process in the human...

Orienting during gaze guidance in a letter-identification task

Rasche, Christoph; Bucharest Politechnica University, Romania & Gegenfurtner, Karl; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
The idea of gaze guidance is to lead a viewer’s gaze through a visual display in order to facilitate the viewer’s search for specific information in a least-obtrusive manner. This study investigates saccadic orienting when a viewer is guided in a fast-paced, low-contrast letter identification task. Despite the task’s difficulty and although guiding cues were ad-justed to gaze eccentricity, observers preferred attentional over saccadic shifts to obtain a letter identification judgment; and if a saccade...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

Saß, Steffani; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Strobel, Benjamin; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Lindner, Marlit Annalena; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel & Köller, Olaf; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel
Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

Conditional co-occurrence probability acts like frequency in predicting fixation durations

Ong, James K. Y.; Upper Austria University Of Applied Sciences & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The predictability of an upcoming word has been found to be a useful predictor in eye movement research, but is expensive to collect and subjective in nature. It would be desirable to have other predictors that are easier to collect and objective in nature if these predictors were capable of capturing the information stored in predictability. This paper contributes to this discussion by testing a possible predictor: conditional co-occurrence probability. This measure is a simple...

A cheap portable eye-tracker solution for common setups

Ferhat, Onur; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain, Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain & Vilarino, Fernando; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain
We analyze the feasibility of a cheap eye-tracker where the hardware consists of a single webcam and a Raspberry Pi device. Our aim is to discover the limits of such a system and to see whether it provides an acceptable performance. We base our work on the open source Opengazer (Zielinski, 2013) and we propose several improvements to create a robust, real-time system which can work on a computer with 30Hz sampling rate. After assessing...

Binocular coordination during smooth pursuit in dyslexia: a multiple case study

Bucci, Maria-Pia; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoe; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Smooth pursuit (SP) was explored in dyslexics and non-dyslexics. Dyslexic children show similar gain of SP, and number and amplitude of catch-up saccades (CUS) as non-dyslexic children. The quality of binocular coordination is good for both groups; the only significant exception is for pursuit to the right for both smooth phase and CUS; dyslexics show higher disconjugacy. Decrement of binocular control during rightward pursuit only could reflect immaturity of oculomotor learning mechanisms needed to optimize...

Ways of improving the precision of eye tracking data: Controlling the influence of dirt and dust on pupil detection

Dennis Hospach, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Fuhl, Thomas C. Kübler, Kasneci, Enkelejda; University Of Tübingen Department Of Computer Science & Oliver Bringmann
Eye-tracking technology has to date been primarily employed in research. With recent advances in aordable video-based devices, the implementation of gaze-aware smartphones, and marketable driver monitoring systems, a considerable step towards pervasive eye-tracking has been made. However, several new challenges arise with the usage of eye-tracking in the wild and will need to be tackled to increase the acceptance of this technology. The main challenge is still related to the usage of eye-tracking together with...

When East meets West: gaze-contingent Blindspots abolish cultural diversity in eye movements for faces

He, Lingnan; Sun Yat-Sen University, Miellet, Sébastien; University Of Fribourg, Caldara, Roberto; University Of Fribourg, Lao, Junpeng; University Of Glasgow & Zhou, Xinyue; Sun Yat-Sen University
Culture impacts on how people sample visual information for face processing. Westerners deploy fixations towards the eyes and the mouth to achieve face recognition. In contrast, Easterners reach equal performance by deploying more central fixations, suggesting an effective extrafoveal information use. However, this hypothesis has not been yet directly investigated, i.e. by providing only extrafoveal information to both groups of observers. We used a parametric gaze-contingent technique dynamically masking central vision - the Blindspot –...

Probing Bottom-up Processing with Multistable Images

Mannan, Sabira; Imperial College London, Broomhead, David S.; University Of Manchester, Akman, Ozgur E.; University Of Edinburgh, Moorhead, Ian; QinetiQ, Clement, Richard A.; University College London & Wilson, Hugh R.; York University
The selection of fixation targets involves a combination of top-down and bottom-up processing. The role of bottom-up processing can be enhanced by using multistable stimuli because their constantly changing appearance seems to depend predominantly on stimulusdriven factors. We used this approach to investigate whether visual processing models based on V1 need to be extended to incorporate specific computations attributed to V4. Eye movements of 8 subjects were recorded during free viewing of the Marroquin pattern...

Eye movement planning on Single-Sensor-Single-Indicator displays is vulnerable to user anxiety and cognitive load

Allsop, Jonathan; Vision And Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK, Gray, Rob; Human Systems Engineering Department, Arizona State University, Arizona, USA, Bülthoff, Heinrich; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany And Department Of Brain And Cognitive Engineering Korea University, Seoul Korea & Chuang, Lewis; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics,Tübingen, Germany
In this study, we demonstrate the effects of anxiety and cognitive load on eye movement planning in an instrument flight task adhering to a single-sensor-single-indicator data visualisation design philosophy. The task was performed in neutral and anxiety conditions, while a low or high cognitive load, auditory n-back task was also performed. Cognitive load led to a reduction in the number of transitions between instruments, and impaired task performance. Changes in self-reported anxiety between the neutral...

Error Correction in Vergence Eye Movements: Evidence Supporting Hering’s Law

Semmlow, John L.; Rutgers University, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology & Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Essilor International
In pure symmetrical vergence eye movements, a fusion initiating component quickly brings the eyes close to the desired position. A small error usually remains after this response which must be corrected to attain the small final vergence error (i.e., fixation disparity). Error correction will usually involve both version and version movements so possible mechanisms include: small saccades, smooth pursuit, symmetrical vergence, or some combination. Alternatively, an asymmetrical vergence or uniocular slow eye movement could be...

Eye tracking study of attention to print advertisements: Effects of typeface figuration

Možina, Klementina; University Of Ljubljana, Faculty Of Natural Sciences And Engineering, Department Of Textiles, Graphic Arts And Design, Nedeljković, Uroš; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design, Puškarević, Irma; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design & Dimovski, Vladimir; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design
The use of rhetorical figures has become a widely–accepted method for capturing attention and positively increasing cognitive effort in print advertisements. So far research studies mostly analyzed the effect of rhetorical figures in the written as well as pictorial elements of an ad. However, there have been few studies addressing the effect of rhetorical figuration in the specific area of typeface design. This study analyzes the effects of typeface figuration (i.e., regular vs. irregular stylization...

Does descriptive text change how people look at art? A novel analysis of eye-movements using data-driven Units of Interest

Reani, Manuele; University Of Manchester, Vigo, Markel; University Of Manchester, Grimes, Martin; Manchester City Galleries, Davies, Alan; University Of Manchester, Jay, Caroline; University Of Manchester, Gannaway, Clare; Manchester Art Gallery & Harper, Simon; University Of Manchester
Does reading a description of an artwork affect how a person subsequently views it? In a controlled study, we show that in most cases, textual description does not influence how people subsequently view paintings, contrary to participants’ self-report that they believed it did. To examine whether the description affected transition behaviour, we devised a novel analysis method that systematically determines Units of Interest (UOIs), and calculates transitions between these, to quantify the effect of an...

Autobiographical recall triggers visual exploration

Delerue, Céline; University Of Lille, Mohamad El Haj, Boucart, Muriel; University Of Lille, Omigie, Diana; University Of Lille, Antoine, Pascal; University Of Lille & Nandrino, Jean Louis; University Of Lille
Autobiographical recall is thought to rely on the ability to generate a visual image of the remembered event. Neuropsychological studies suggest a relationship between deterioration in visual mental imagery and autobiographical distortions, while neuroimaging data similarly implicate visual brain areas in autobiographical recall. However, neither whether autobiographical retrieval is associated with visual exploration, or not. Our paper aimed to provide such evidence one way or the other. Using an eye tracking system, we recorded eye...

How a distractor influences fixations during the exploration of natural scenes

Nathalie Guyader, Devillez, Hélène; Université De Grenoble-Alpes, France & Anne Guérin-Dugué
The distractor effect is a well-established means of studying different aspects of fixation pro-gramming during the exploration of visual scenes. In this study, we present a task-irrelevant distractor to participants during the free exploration of natural scenes. We investigate the con-trol and programming of fixations by analyzing fixation durations and locations, and the link between the two. We also propose a simple mixture model evaluated using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to test the distractor effect on...

Using smooth pursuit calibration for difficult-to-calibrate participants

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
Although the 45-dots calibration routine of a previous study (Blignaut, 2016) provided very good accuracy, it requires intense mental effort and the routine proved to be unsuccessful for young children who struggle to maintain concentration. The calibration procedures that are normally used for difficult-to-calibrate participants, such as autistic children and infants, do not suffice since they are not accurate enough and the reliability of research results might be jeopardised.Smooth pursuit has been used before for...

Visual search without central vision – no single pseudofovea location is best

Lingnau, Angelika; University Of Trento, Italy, Albrecht, Thorsten; Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany, Vorberg, Dirk; Westfälische Wilhems-Universität Münster, Germany & Schwarzbach, Jens; University Of Trento, Italy
We typically fixate targets such that they are projected onto the fovea for best spatial resolution. Macular degeneration patients often develop fixation strategies such that targets are projected to an intact eccentric part of the retina, called pseudofovea. A longstanding debate concerns which pseudofovea-location is optimal for non-foveal vision. We examined how pseudofovea position and eccentricity affect performance in visual search, when vision is restricted to an off-foveal retinal region by a gaze-contingent display that...

Children’s attention to online adverts is related to low-level saliency factors and individual level of gaze control

Sandberg, Helena; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Holmberg, Nils; Lund University
Twenty-six children in 3rd grade were observed while surfing freely on their favourite websites. Eye movement data were recorded, as well as synchronized screen recordings. Each online advert was analyzed in order to quantify low-level saliency features, such as motion, luminance and edge density. The eye movement data were used to register if the children had attended to the online adverts. A mixed-effects multiple regression analysis was performed in order to test the relationship between...

Visualizing the Reading Activity of People Learning to Read

Špakov, Oleg; University Of Tampere, Siirtola, Harri; University Of Tampere, Räihä, Kari-Jouko; University Of Tampere & Istance, Howell; University Of Tampere
Several popular visualizations of gaze data, such as scanpaths and heatmaps, can be used independently of the viewing task. For a specific task, such as reading, more informative visualizations can be created. We have developed several such techniques, some dynamic and some static, to communicate the reading activity of children to primary school teachers. The goal of the visualizations was to highlight the reading skills to a teacher with no background in the theory of...

Parsing eye movement analysis of scanpaths of naïve viewers of art: How do we differentiate art from non-art pictures?

Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Neuroophthalmology Unit, Department Of Neurology, University Hamburg, FRG & Privitera, Claudio; Dept. Of Physiological Optics And Optometry, UC Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Relating to G. Buswell’s early work we posed the questions: How do art-naïve people look at pairs of artful pictures and similarly looking snapshots? Does the analysis of their eye movement recordings reveal a difference in their perception? Parsing eye scanpaths using string editing, similarity coefficients can be sorted out and represented for the two measures ‘Sp’ (Similarities of position) and ‘Ss’ (Similarities of sequences). 25 picture pairs were shown 5 times to 7 subjects...

Tracking Visual Scanning Techniques in Training Simulation for Helicopter Landing

Robinski, Maxi; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine & Stein, Michael; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine
Research has shown no consistent findings about how scanning techniques differ between experienced and inexperienced helicopter pilots depending on mission demands. To explore this question, 33 military pilots performed two different landing maneuvers in a flight simulator. The data included scanning data (eye tracking) as well as performance, workload, and a self-assessment of scanning techniques (interviews). Fifty-four percent of scanning-related differences between pilots resulted from the factor combination of expertise and mission demands. A comparison...

Culture shapes how we look: Comparison between Chinese and African university students

Duan, Zhaohui; Central China Normal University, Wang, Fuxing; Central China Normal University & Hong, Jianzhong; Central China Normal University
Previous cross-cultural studies find that cultures can shape how we look during scene perception, but don’t mention its condition and limited to the East and West. This study recruited Chinese and African students to testify the cultural effects on two phases. In free-viewing phase: Africans fixated more on the focal objects than Chinese, while Chinese payed more attention to the backgrounds than Africans especially on the first fourth and fifth fixations. In recognition phase, there...

Parsing costs as predictors of reading difficulty: An evaluation using the Potsdam Sentence Corpus

Hale, John; Cornell University, Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Cornell University, Patil, Umesh; University Of Potsdam, Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The surprisal of a word on a probabilistic grammar constitutes a promising complexity metric for human sentence comprehension difficulty. Using two different grammar types, surprisal is shown to have an effect on fixation durations and regression probabilities in a sample of German readers’ eye movements, the Potsdam Sentence Corpus. A linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the effect of surprisal while taking into account unigram frequency and bigram frequency (transitional probability), word length, and...

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