260 Works

Editorial

Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Editorial to the Special Issue on Perception of Natural Scenes

Edit Blindness: The relationship between attention and global change blindness in dynamic scenes.

Henderson, John M.; University Of Edinburgh & Smith, Tim J.; University Of Edinburgh
Although we experience the visual world as a continuous, richly detailed space we often fail to notice large and significant changes. Such change blindness has been demonstrated for local object changes and changes to the visual form of whole images, however it is assumed that total changes from one image to another would be easily detected. Film editing presents such total changes several times a minute yet we rarely seem to be aware of them,...

A cheap portable eye-tracker solution for common setups

Ferhat, Onur; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain, Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain & Vilarino, Fernando; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain
We analyze the feasibility of a cheap eye-tracker where the hardware consists of a single webcam and a Raspberry Pi device. Our aim is to discover the limits of such a system and to see whether it provides an acceptable performance. We base our work on the open source Opengazer (Zielinski, 2013) and we propose several improvements to create a robust, real-time system which can work on a computer with 30Hz sampling rate. After assessing...

Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Gaunt, Joshua T.; University Of California, Santa Cruz & Bridgeman, Bruce; University Of California, Santa Cruz
Observers performed working memory tasks at varying retinal eccentricities, fixating centrally while microsaccade rates and directions were monitored. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected memory as well as microsaccade patterns. Average microsaccade rate peaks after appearance of a fixation cross at the start of a trial, and dips at...

Using Eye Tracking to Trace a Cognitive Process: Gaze Behaviour During Decision Making in a Natural Environment

Gidlöf, Kerstin; Lund University, Dewhurst, Richard; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Wallin, Annika; Lund University
The visual behaviour of consumers buying (or searching for) products in a supermarket was measured and used to analyse the stages of their decision process. Traditionally metrics used to trace decision-making processes are difficult to use in natural environments that often contain many options and unstructured information. Unlike previous attempts in this direction (i.e. Russo & Leclerc, 1994), our methodology reveals differences between a decision-making task and a search task. In particular the second (evaluation)...

Effect of Saccadic Adaptation on Sequences of Saccades

Pélisson, Denis; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Panouillères, Muriel; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Urquizar, Christian; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University & Salemme, Roméo; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University
Accuracy of saccadic eye movements is maintained thanks to adaptation mechanisms. The adaptive lengthening and shortening of reactive and voluntary saccades rely on partially separate neural substrates. Although in daily-life we mostly perform sequences of saccades, the effect of saccadic adaptation has been mainly evaluated on single saccades. Here, sequences of two saccades were recorded before and after adaptation of rightward saccades. In 4 separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were adaptively shortened or lengthened....

Abstracts of the 15th European Conference on Eye Movements 2009

Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
Welcome to the 15th European Conference on Eye Movements. The conference will begin with an address by the Mayor of Southampton, followed by a brief welcome from Professor Rudolf Groner. This will then be followed by a packed scientific program of almost 350 presentations. We hope you enjoy both the academic and intellectual aspects of the conference, as well as the social events that we have organised.

Negative versus positive priming: When are distractors inhibited?

Stefan Van Der Stigchel
Visual attention is guided by the history of selections in previous trials, an effect usually referred to as intertrial priming. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such priming in visual search is due to a strengthening of the target signal, or the suppression of the distractor signal. In two experiments, we examined the deviation of saccade endpoints in situations in which the target and distractors were presented in relative close proximity....

“Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors
In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mostly on...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa & Jean-Pierre Du Plessis
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Interference between smooth pursuit and color working memory

Fan, Chenggui; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Zhang, Qian; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Jin, Zhenlan; Key Laboratory For NeuroInformation Of Ministry Of Education, Center For Information In Medicine, School Of Life Science And Technology, University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Li, Ling; Key Laboratory For NeuroInformation Of Ministry Of Education, Center For Information In Medicine, School Of Life Science And Technology, University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China & Yue, Shulin; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China
Spatial working memory (WM) and spatial attention are closely related, but the relationship between non-spatial WM and spatial attention still remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between color WM and smooth pursuit eye movements. A modified delayed-match-to-sample paradigm (DMS) was applied with 2 or 4 items presented in each visual field. Subjects memorized the colors of items in the cued visual field and smoothly moved eyes towards or away from memorized...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

Wang, Zhong I.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA & Dell'Osso, Louis F.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA
We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

ELAN Analysis Companion (EAC): A Software Tool for Time-course Analysis of ELAN-annotated Data

Andersson, Richard; Department Of Philosophy & Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden & Sandgren, Olof; Department Of Logopedics, Phoniatrics And Audiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden
LAN is a widely used and free (in both senses) annotation software for behavioral or other events that unfold over time. We report on and release a stand-alone program that expands on ELAN's capabilities in two ways: 1) it allows the researcher to plot and export time-course analysis data directly from ELAN's native annotation files, allowing for hassle-free data extraction in the time domain, e.g. for visual-world paradigm studies; and 2) it allows the researcher...

Abstracts of the 14th European Conference on Eye Movements 2007

Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam & Engbert, R.; University Of Potsdam
The European Conference on Eye Movements, ECEM2007, is the 14th in a series of international scientific conferences dedicated to transdisciplinary research on eye movements. The series was initiated in 1981 by Rudolf Groner in Bern and is organized every second year by a group of European scientists active in eye movement research. This meeting in Potsdam is the third one in Germany, after Göttingen in 1987 and Ulm in 1997. The broad range of topics...

Implicit prosody and contextual bias in silent reading

Kentner, Gerrit; University Of Frankfurt, Germany, McCurdy, Kate; University Of Potsdam, Germany & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
Eye-movement research on implicit prosody has found effects of lexical stress on syntactic ambiguity resolution, suggesting that metrical well-formedness constraints interact with syntactic category assignment. Building on these findings, the present eyetracking study investigates whether contextual bias can modulate the effects of metrical structure on syntactic ambiguity resolution in silent reading. Contextual bias and potential stress-clash in the ambiguous region were crossed in a 2 2 design. Participants read biased context sentences followed by temporarily...

Increased microsaccade rate in individuals with ADHD traits

Stafford, Tom; The University Of Sheffield, Overton, Paul; The University Of Sheffield & Panagiotidi, Maria; Staffordshire University
Microsaccades are involuntary, small, jerk-like eye-movements with high-velocity that are observed during fixation. Abnormal microsaccade rates and characteristics have been observed in a number of psychiatric and developmental disorders. In this study, we examine microsaccade differences in 43 non-clinical participants with high and low levels of ADHD-like traits, assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS, Kessler, Adler, et al., 2005). A simple sustained attention paradigm, which has been previously shown to elicit microsaccades, was...

Vergence tracking: a tool to assess oculomotor performance in stereoscopic displays

Roumes, Corinne; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France, Neveu, Pascaline; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France, Fuchs, Philippe; École Des Mines ParisTech, Paris, France, Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France & Philippe, Matthieu; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France
Oculomotor conflict induced between the accommodative and vergence components in stereoscopic displays represents an unnatural viewing condition. There is now some evidence that stereoscopic viewing may induce discomfort and changes in oculomotor parameters. The present study sought to measure oculomotor performance during stereoscopic viewing. Using a 3D stereo setup and an eye-tracker, vergence responses were measured during 20-min exposure to a virtual visual target oscillating in depth, which participants had to track. The results showed...

Different types of sounds influence gaze differently in videos

Granjon, Lionel; LPP, CNRS UMR 8158, Paris Descartes University, France, Song, Guanghan; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of different types of sounds on visual gaze when a person is looking freely at videos, which would be helpful to predict eye position. In order to test the effect of sound, an audio-visual experiment was designed with two groups of participants, with audio-visual (AV) and visual (V) conditions. By using statistical tools, we analyzed the difference between eye position of participants with AV and V conditions....

Repeated Web Page Visits and the Scanpath Theory: A Recurrent Pattern Detection Approach

Burmester, Michael; Stuttgart Media University & Mast, Marcus; Stuttgart Media University
This paper investigates the eye movement sequences of users visiting web pages repeatedly. We are interested in potential habituation due to repeated exposure. The scanpath theory posits that every person learns an idiosyncratic gaze sequence on first exposure to a stimulus and re-applies it on subsequent exposures. Josephson and Holmes (2002) tested the applicability of this hypothesis to web page revisitation but results were inconclusive. With a recurrent temporal pattern detection technique, we examine additional...

Transsaccadic Scene Memory Revisited: A 'Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)' Based Approach to Recognition Memory and Confidence for Objects in Naturalistic Scenes.

Võ, Melissa L.-H.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany, Schneider, Werner X.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany Department Of Psychology, Bielefeld University, Germany & Matthias, Ellen; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
The study presented here introduces a new approach to the investigation of transsaccadic memory for objects in naturalistic scenes. Participants were tested with a whole-report task from which — based on the theory of visual attention (TVA) - processing efficiency parameters were derived, namely visual short-term memory storage capacity and visual processing speed. By combining these processing efficiency parameters with transsaccadic memory data from a previous study, we were able to take a closer look...

Effects of aging on regular and express latencies of vergence

Yang, Qing; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Kapoula, Zoi; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Le, Thanh-Thuan; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Vergence eye movements are frequent in every day life and important for depth perception. Yet, studies of vergence in elderly are rare. We examined convergence and divergence between targets placed along median line at 20, 40 or 150cm. Thirteen elderly (70±11years) and ten young (25±3years) adults participated in the study. The gap paradigm (i.e., the fixed stimulus is extinguished prior to target onset) and the overlap paradigm (the fixed stimulus remains illuminated after target onset)...

Ways of improving the precision of eye tracking data: Controlling the influence of dirt and dust on pupil detection

Dennis Hospach, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Fuhl, Thomas C. Kübler, Kasneci, Enkelejda; University Of Tübingen Department Of Computer Science & Oliver Bringmann
Eye-tracking technology has to date been primarily employed in research. With recent advances in aordable video-based devices, the implementation of gaze-aware smartphones, and marketable driver monitoring systems, a considerable step towards pervasive eye-tracking has been made. However, several new challenges arise with the usage of eye-tracking in the wild and will need to be tackled to increase the acceptance of this technology. The main challenge is still related to the usage of eye-tracking together with...

The effect of magnification and contrast on reading performance in different types of simulated low vision

Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern & Christen, Michael; University Of Bern
Low vision therapy, such as magnifiers or contrast enhancement, is widely used. Scientific evidence proving its efficacy is scarce however. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the benefits of magnification and contrast enhancement depended on the origin of low vision. For this purpose we measured reading speed with artificially induced low vision in 12 healthy subjects in conditions of a simulated central scotoma, blurred vision and oscillopsia. Texts were either blurred, set...

A Skeleton-based Approach to Analyze and Visualize Oculomotor Behavior when Viewing Animated Characters

Thibaut Le Naour & Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; University Of Fribourg
Knowing what people look at and understanding how they analyze the dynamic gestures of their peers is an exciting challenge. In this context, we propose a new approach to quantify and visualize the oculomotor behavior of viewers watching the movements of animated characters in dynamic sequences. Using this approach, we were able to illustrate on a 'heat mesh' the gaze distribution of one or several viewers, i.e., the time spent on each part of the...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

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