282 Works

Music sight-reading expertise, visually disrupted score and eye movements

Blom, Diana; School Of Communication Arts (Music) University Of Western Sydney, Australia, Arthur, Patricia; School Of Optometry And Vision Science University Of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia & Khuu, Sieu; School Of Optometry And Vision Science University Of New South Wales Sydney, Australia
Previous studies have shown that performance at a defined level of music sight reading for pianists (6th Grade) is predictive of eye movement patterns (Waters, 1998) and that such patterns resemble those of text reading experts (Furneaux & Land, 1999; Sloboda, 1974; Truitt, 1997; Wolf, 1976). However, little is known about how expertise might affect eye movement patterns when the score has been visually disrupted using notational features that are unexpected or outside conventional presentation.The...

Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Gaunt, Joshua T.; University Of California, Santa Cruz & Bridgeman, Bruce; University Of California, Santa Cruz
Observers performed working memory tasks at varying retinal eccentricities, fixating centrally while microsaccade rates and directions were monitored. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected memory as well as microsaccade patterns. Average microsaccade rate peaks after appearance of a fixation cross at the start of a trial, and dips at...

A Skeleton-based Approach to Analyze and Visualize Oculomotor Behavior when Viewing Animated Characters

Thibaut Le Naour & Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; University Of Fribourg
Knowing what people look at and understanding how they analyze the dynamic gestures of their peers is an exciting challenge. In this context, we propose a new approach to quantify and visualize the oculomotor behavior of viewers watching the movements of animated characters in dynamic sequences. Using this approach, we were able to illustrate on a 'heat mesh' the gaze distribution of one or several viewers, i.e., the time spent on each part of the...

Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects

Traxler, Matthew J.; University Of California Davis, Long, Debra L.; University Of California Davis, Tooley, Kristen M.; University Of California Davis, Jonathan, Eunike; University Of California Davis, Johns, Clinton L.; University Of California Davis & Zirnstein, Megan; University Of California Davis
Mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner et al., 2006). We focus in this article on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush &...

Effects of search intent on eye-movement patterns in a change detection task

Kwak, Ho-Wan; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Lee, Sangil; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Chang, Mun-Seon; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Park, Hyeonggyu; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea & Lee, Minho; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea
The goal of the present study was to examine whether intention type affects eye movement patterns in a change detection task In addition, we assessed whether the eye movement index could be used to identify human implicit intent. We attempted to generate three types of intent amongst the study participants, dividing them into one of three conditions; each condition received different information regarding an impending change to the visual stimuli. In the “navigational intent” condition,...

High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control systems under Reading Span Test

Azuma, Miyuki; Osaka University, Osaka, Naoyuki; Kyoto University, Minamoto, Takehiro; Kyoto University, Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka University & Osaka, Mariko; Osaka University
Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due to a methodological issue including the predictability of target location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so that more efficient attentional...

Audio-visual integration during overt visual attention

Quigley, Cliodhna; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Onat, Selim; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Cooke, Martin; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield, König, Peter; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck & Harding, Sue; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield
How do different sources of information arising from different modalities interact to control where we look? To answer this question with respect to real-world operational conditions we presented natural images and spatially localized sounds in (V)isual, Audio-visual (AV) and (A)uditory conditions and measured subjects' eye-movements. Our results demonstrate that eye-movements in AV conditions are spatially biased towards the part of the image corresponding to the sound source. Interestingly, this spatial bias is dependent on the...

Conditional co-occurrence probability acts like frequency in predicting fixation durations

Ong, James K. Y.; Upper Austria University Of Applied Sciences & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The predictability of an upcoming word has been found to be a useful predictor in eye movement research, but is expensive to collect and subjective in nature. It would be desirable to have other predictors that are easier to collect and objective in nature if these predictors were capable of capturing the information stored in predictability. This paper contributes to this discussion by testing a possible predictor: conditional co-occurrence probability. This measure is a simple...

Cyclopean vs. Dominant Eye in Gaze-Interface-Tracking

Wagner, Michael; Ariel University, Botzer, Assaf; Ariel University & Elbaum, Tomer; Ariel University
User-centered design questions in gaze interfaces have been explored in multitude empirical investigations. Interestingly, the question of what eye should be the input device has never been studied. We compared tracking accuracy between the “cyclopean” (i.e., midpoint between eyes) dominant and non-dominant eye. In two experiments, participants performed tracking tasks. In Experiment 1, participants did not use a crosshair. Results showed that mean distance from target was smaller with cyclopean than with dominant or non-dominant...

Do you look where I look? Attention shifts and response preparation following dynamic social cues

Walker, Robin; Department Of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University Of London, UK, & Hermens, Frouke; Department Of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University Of London & University Of Aberdeen, UK
Studies investigating the effects of observing a gaze shift in another person often apply static images of a person with an averted gaze, while measuring response times to a peripheral target. Static images, however, are unlike how we normally perceive gaze shifts of others. Moreover, response times might only reveal the effects of a cue on covert attention and might fail to uncover cueing effects on overt attention or response preparation. We therefore extended the...

Did Javal measure eye movements during reading?

Wade, Nicholas J.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Louis-Émile Javal is widely credited as the first person to record eye movements in read-ing. This is so despite the fact that Javal himself never made that claim but it is perpetu-ated in contemporary text books, scientific articles and on the internet. Javal did coin the term ‘saccades’ in the context of eye movements during reading but he did not measure them. In this article we suggest that a misreading of Huey’s (1908) book on...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

Saß, Steffani; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Köller, Olaf; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Strobel, Benjamin; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel & Lindner, Marlit Annalena; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel
Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

The effect of expertise in music reading: cross-modal competence

Drai-Zerbib, Véronique; University Of Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France & Baccino, Thierry; University Of Paris 8, France
We hypothesize that the fundamental difference between expert and learner musicians is the capacity to efficiently integrate cross-modal information. This capacity might be an index of an expert memory using both auditory and visual cues built during many years of learning and extensive practice. Investigating this issue through an eye-tracking experiment, two groups of musicians, experts and non-experts, were required to report whether a fragment of classical music, successively displayed both auditorily and visually on...

Schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Groner, Marina; University Of Bern, Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, P., P; Suri, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This document contains the schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 14-18 2005 in Bern, Switzerland

Eye movements as a window to cognitive processes

Wilming, Niklas; U. Osnabrück, Germany; U. Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany, Kietzmann, Tim C.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Jose P. Ossandón, Ehinger, Benedikt V.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Kaspar, Kai; U. Osnabrück; U. Cologne; Germany, Gameiro, Ricardo R.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, König, Peter; Universität Osnabrück & Onat, Selim; U. Osnabrück; U. Medical Center, Hamburg; Germany
Eye movement research is a highly active and productive research field. Here we focus on how the embodied nature of eye movements can act as a window to the brain and the mind. In particular, we discuss how conscious perception depends on the trajectory of fixated locations and consequently address how fixation locations are selected. Specifically, we argue that the selection of fixation points during visual exploration can be understood to a large degree based...

The effect of a temporary absence of target velocity information on visual tracking

Bedell, Harold E.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Kasthurirangan, Sanjeev; Abbott Medical Optics, Cisarik, Patricia M.; Southern College Of Optometry, Stevenson, Scott B.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Raghunandan, Avesh; Ferris State University, Michigan & Jr., Frank E. Visco; University Of Houston College Of Optometry
Experiments with the Rashbass ‘step-ramp’ paradigm have revealed that the initial catchup saccade that occurs near pursuit onset uses target velocity as well as position information in its programming. Information about both position and motion also influences smooth pursuit. To investigate the timing of velocity sampling near the initiation of saccades and smooth pursuit, we analyzed the eye movements made in nine ‘step-ramp’ conditions, produced by combining –2, 0 and +2 deg steps with –8,...

Time Course and Hazard Function: A Distributional Analysis of Fixation Duration in Reading

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
Reading processes affect not only the mean of fixation duration but also its distribution function. This paper introduces a set of hypotheses that link the timing and strength of a reading process to the hazard function of a fixation duration distribution. Analyses based on large corpora of reading eye movements show a surprisingly robust hazard function across languages, age, individual differences, and a number of processing variables. The data suggest that eye movements are generated...

Scan path visualization and comparison using visual aggregation techniques

Hurter, Christophe; ENAC & Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; ISAE-Supaéro
We demonstrate the use of different visual aggregation techniques to obtain non-cluttered visual representations of scanpaths. First, fixation points are clustered using the mean-shift algorithm. Second, saccades are aggregated using the Attribute-Driven Edge Bundling (ADEB) algorithm that handles a saccades direction, onset timestamp, magnitude or their combination for the edge compatibility criterion. Flow direction maps, computed during bundling, can be visualized separately (vertical or horizontal components) or as a single image using the Oriented Line...

Influence of number, location and size of faces on gaze in video

Houzet, Dominique; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France, Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France & Rahman, Anis; National University Of Sciences And Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan
Many studies have reported the preference for faces and influence of faces on gaze, most of them in static images and a few in videos. In this paper, we study the influence of faces in complex free-viewing videos, with respect to the effects of number, location and size of the faces. This knowledge could be used to enrich a face pathway in a visual saliency model. We used eye fixation data from an eye movement...

Increased microsaccade rate in individuals with ADHD traits

Stafford, Tom; The University Of Sheffield, Overton, Paul; The University Of Sheffield & Panagiotidi, Maria; Staffordshire University
Microsaccades are involuntary, small, jerk-like eye-movements with high-velocity that are observed during fixation. Abnormal microsaccade rates and characteristics have been observed in a number of psychiatric and developmental disorders. In this study, we examine microsaccade differences in 43 non-clinical participants with high and low levels of ADHD-like traits, assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS, Kessler, Adler, et al., 2005). A simple sustained attention paradigm, which has been previously shown to elicit microsaccades, was...

Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

Humphrey, Katherine; University Of Nottingham & Underwood, Geoffrey; University Of Nottingham
Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition...

Comparing scanpaths during scene encoding and recognition: A multi-dimensional approach

Jarodzka, Halszka; Centre For Learning Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands, Dewhurst, Richard; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden, Nyström, Marcus; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden, Johansson, Roger; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden, Underwood, Geoffrey; School Of Psychology, University Of Nottingham, UK, Foulsham, Tom; Department Of Psychology, University Of Essex, UK & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden
Complex stimuli and tasks elicit particular eye movement sequences. Previous research has focused on comparing between these scanpaths, particularly in memory and imagery research where it has been proposed that observers reproduce their eye movements when recognizing or imagining a stimulus. However, it is not clear whether scanpath similarity is related to memory performance and which particular aspects of the eye movements recur. We therefore compared eye movements in a picture memory task, using a...

Localizing the Neural Substrate of Reflexive Covert Orienting

Hwang, Joshua R.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University, Higenell, Valerie; Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University & White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University
The capture of covert spatial attention by salient visual events influences subsequent gaze behavior. A task irrelevant stimulus (cue) can reduce (Attention capture) or prolong (Inhi-bition of return) saccade reaction time to a subsequent target stimulus depending on the cue-target delay. Here we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the sensory-based account of AC/IOR by manipulating the visual processing stage where the cue and target interact. In Experiment 1, liquid crystal shutter goggles were used to...

It's all about the transient: Intra-saccadic onset stimuli do not capture attention

Theeuwes, Jan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam & Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
An abrupt onset stimulus was presented while the participants' eyes were in motion. Because of saccadic suppression, participants did not perceive the visual transient that normally accompanies the sudden appearance of a stimulus. In contrast to the typical finding that the presentation of an abrupt onset captures attention and interferes with the participants' responses, we found that an intra-saccadic abrupt onset does not capture attention: It has no effect beyond that of increasing the set-size...

Heterophoria: Vergence stability and visual acuity after asymmetric saccades

Blum, Bernhard M.; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Kirchhoff, Daniel; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Ehrt, Oliver; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Eggert, Thomas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Bickmann, Alexander; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich & Straube, Andreas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich
Many patients with heterophoria report on symptoms related to impaired vision. To investigate whether these symptoms are provoked by saccades this study examines whether in heterophoria effects on intrasaccadic and postsaccadic vergence movements are linked to effects on visual performance. Visual acuity was measured in 35 healthy subjects during fixation and immediately after asymmetric diverging saccades. Binocular position traces were recorded by video-oculography. Subjects with exophoria showed larger intrasaccadic divergence amplitudes, which in turn led...

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