260 Works

Eye Movement Patterns in Solving Science Ordering Problems

Kendhammer, Lisa; The University Of Georgia, Pienta, Norbert J; The University Of Georgia, Moore, James N; The University Of Georgia, Day, Elizabeth; The University Of Georgia, Tang, Hui; The University Of Georgia & Brown, Scott A; The University Of Georgia
Dynamic biological processes, such as intracellular signaling pathways, commonly are taught in science courses using static representations of individual steps in the pathway. As a result, students often memorize these steps for examination purposes, but fail to appreciate either the cascade nature of the pathway. In this study, we compared eye movement patterns for students who correctly ordered the components of an important pathway responsible for vasoconstriction against those who did not. Similarly, we compared...

Eye tracking study of attention to print advertisements: Effects of typeface figuration

Možina, Klementina; University Of Ljubljana, Faculty Of Natural Sciences And Engineering, Department Of Textiles, Graphic Arts And Design, Nedeljković, Uroš; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design, Puškarević, Irma; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design & Dimovski, Vladimir; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design
The use of rhetorical figures has become a widely–accepted method for capturing attention and positively increasing cognitive effort in print advertisements. So far research studies mostly analyzed the effect of rhetorical figures in the written as well as pictorial elements of an ad. However, there have been few studies addressing the effect of rhetorical figuration in the specific area of typeface design. This study analyzes the effects of typeface figuration (i.e., regular vs. irregular stylization...

Effect of memory load on eye movement control: A study using the reading span test

Osaka, Mariko; Osaka University, Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka University, Osaka, Naoyuki; Kyoto University, Yaoi, Ken; Kyoto University & Azuma, Miyuki; Osaka University
We investigated the effect of memory load on attentional control using the Reading Span Test (RST), a task that requires working memory capacity. Previous studies have shown that a shortage of working memory resources leads to a deficit of inhibition of taskirrelevant information and that memory load affects eye movement control. Here, we recorded eye movement and integrated it with RST performance. Total fixation time and the number of regressions showed a memory load effect...

Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements

Lyxell, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Herbert, Nicholas; Institute For Transport Studies, University Of Leeds, UK, Holmqvist, Kenneth; University Of Lund, Sweden, Thorslund, Birgitta; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden, Lidestam, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Peters, Björn; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden & Black, Alexander; School Of Optometry, Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording...

Human-Robot Interaction Based on Gaze Gestures for the Drone Teleoperation

Yu, Mingxin; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, And Northeastern University, USA, Schmidt, David; Northeastern University, USA, Wang, Xiangzhou; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Lin, Yingzi; Northeastern University, USA & Wang, Yu; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China
Teleoperation has been widely used to perform tasks in dangerous and unreachable environments by replacing humans with controlled agents. The idea of human-robot interaction (HRI) is very important in teleoperation. Conventional HRI input devices include keyboard, mouse and joystick, etc. However, they are not suitable for handicapped users or people with disabilities. These devices also increase the mental workload of normal users due to simultaneous operation of multiple HRI input devices by hand. Hence, HRI...

Syntax highlighting as an influencing factor when reading and comprehending source code

Beelders, Tanya R.; University Of The Free State Bloemfontein, South Africa & Jean-Pierre L. Du Plessis
Syntax highlighting or syntax colouring, plays a vital role in programming development environments by colour-coding various code elements differently. The supposition is that this syntax highlighting assists programmers when reading and analysing code. However, academic text books are largely only available in black-and-white which could influence the comprehension of novice and beginner programmers. This study investigated whether student programmers experience more difficulty in reading and comprehending source code when it is presented without syntax highlighting....

Entering PIN codes by smooth pursuit eye movements

Venjakob, Antje Christine; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Roetting, Matthias; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Hofmann, Simon; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Cymek, Dietlind Helene; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Ruff, Stefan; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany & Lutz, Otto Hans-Martin; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany
Despite its potential gaze interaction is still not a widely-used interaction concept. Major drawbacks as the calibration, strain of the eyes and the high number of false alarms are associated with gaze based interaction and limit its practicability for every-day human computer interaction. In this paper two experiments are described which use smooth pursuit eye movements on moving display buttons. The first experiment was conducted to extract an easy and fast interaction concept and at...

Evidence for a Structural Analysis of Target Selection in Picture Viewing

Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee, Scotland & Rasche, Christoph; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
Spontaneous fixations onto shapes are driven by a structural analysis. But is such analysis also carried out during free viewing of real-world scenes? Here, we analyze how fixation locations in such scenes are related to their region using the region's symmetric axes as a reference. Each fixation location is compared with respect to its nearest symmetric-axis segment by a latitude and a longitude measure. Analyzing the distributions for the two measures we find that there...

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Malischke, Susann; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Storch, Alexander; Department Of Neurology, Technische Universitaet Dresden
A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

The effect of expertise in music reading: cross-modal competence

Drai-Zerbib, Véronique; University Of Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France & Baccino, Thierry; University Of Paris 8, France
We hypothesize that the fundamental difference between expert and learner musicians is the capacity to efficiently integrate cross-modal information. This capacity might be an index of an expert memory using both auditory and visual cues built during many years of learning and extensive practice. Investigating this issue through an eye-tracking experiment, two groups of musicians, experts and non-experts, were required to report whether a fragment of classical music, successively displayed both auditorily and visually on...

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

Leeuwen, Cees Van; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics & Nakatani, Chie; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics
Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

Squeezing Uncertainty from Saccadic Compression

Hunt, A. R.; University Of British Columbia, Kingstone, A.; University Of British Columbia & Chapman, C. S.; University Of British Columbia
Brief visual stimuli presented before and during a saccade are often mislocalized due to spatial compression. This saccadic compression effect is thought to have a perceptual basis, and results in visual objects being squeezed together and their number underestimated. Here we show that observers are also uncertain about their visual experiences just before and during a saccade. It is known that responses tend to be biased away from extreme values under conditions of uncertainty. Thus,...

Evidence Supporting Open-Loop Control During Early Vergence

Semmlow, John; Rutgers University, Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Essilor International & Alvarez, Tara; New Jersey Institute Of Technology
Disparity vergence eye movements were analyzed to determine if the early component of this response operates under open-loop, or preprogrammed, control. The analysis compares ratios of peak velocity to response amplitude (i.e., main sequence ratios) for the isolated early component and for the entire disparity vergence response. The stimuli were limited a 4 deg step changes in vergence so that any differences in movement dynamics (i.e., peak velocities) were due only to internal noise. Nine...

Effects of search intent on eye-movement patterns in a change detection task

Kwak, Ho-Wan; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Lee, Sangil; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Chang, Mun-Seon; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Park, Hyeonggyu; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea & Lee, Minho; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea
The goal of the present study was to examine whether intention type affects eye movement patterns in a change detection task In addition, we assessed whether the eye movement index could be used to identify human implicit intent. We attempted to generate three types of intent amongst the study participants, dividing them into one of three conditions; each condition received different information regarding an impending change to the visual stimuli. In the “navigational intent” condition,...

The Effects of Shot Changes on Eye Movements in Subtitling

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Information Processing Institute, Szarkowska, Agnieszka; University Of Warsaw & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities
In this paper we address the question whether shot changes trigger the re-reading of subtitles. Although it has been accepted in the professional literature on subtitling that subtitles should not be displayed over shot changes as they induce subtitle re-reading, support for this claim in eye movement studies is difficult to find. In this study we examined eye movement patterns of 71 participants watching news and documentary clips. We analysed subject hit count, number of...

The Influence of Distractors on Saccade-Target Selection: Saccade Trajectory Effects

Walker, Robin; Royal Holloway, University Of London & McSorley, Eugene; University Of Reading
It has long been known that the path (trajectory) taken by the eye to land on a target is rarely straight (Yarbus, 1967). Furthermore, the magnitude and direction of this natural tendency for curvature can be modulated by the presence of a competing distractor stimulus presented along with the saccade target. The distractor-related modulation of saccade trajectories provides a subtle measure of the underlying competitive processes involved in saccade target selection. Here we review some...

Probabilistic approach to robust wearable gaze tracking

Kristian Lukander, Toivanen, Miika; University Of Helsinki & Kai Puolamäki
This paper presents a method for computing the gaze point using camera data captured with a wearable gaze tracking device. The method utilizes a physical model of the human eye, advanced Bayesian computer vision algorithms, and Kalman filtering, resulting in high accuracy and low noise. Our C++ implementation can process camera streams with 30 frames per second in realtime. The performance of the system is validated in an exhaustive experimental setup with 19 participants, using...

Less users more confidence: How AOIs don’t affect scanpath trend analysis

Eraslan, Sukru; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus, Yesilada, Yeliz; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, United Kingdom
User studies are typically difficult, recruiting enough users is often problematic and each experiment takes a considerable amount of time to be completed. In these studies, eye tracking is increasingly used which often increases time, therefore, the lower the number of users required for these studies the better for making these kinds of studies more practical in terms of economics and time expended. The possibility of achieving almost the same results with fewer users has...

Analysis of eye and head coordination in a visual peripheral recognition task

Altorfer, Andreas; University Of Bern, Schwab, Simon; University Of Bern & Würmle, Othmar; University Of Bern
Coordinated eye and head movements simultaneously occur to scan the visual world for relevant targets. However, measuring both eye and head movements in experiments allowing natural head movements may be challenging. This paper provides an approach to study eye-head coordination: First, we demonstrate the capabilities and limits of the eye-head tracking system used, and compare it to other technologies. Second, a behavioral task is introduced to invoke eye-head coordination. Third, a method is introduced to...

Eye-tracking multi-word units: some methodological questions

Carrol, Gareth; University Of Nottingham & Conklin, Kathy; University Of Nottingham
Eye-tracking in linguistics has focused mainly on reading at the level of the word or sentence. In this paper we discuss how the phenomenon of formulaic language might best be examined using this methodology. Formulaic language is fundamentally multi-word in nature, therefore an approach to eye-tracking that considers the “word” as the basic unit of analysis may require re-evaluation. We review the existing literature on single word and sentence processing, and also those studies that...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Inal, Yavuz; Department Of Information Systems Engineering, Faculty Of Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey.
Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

How form and structure of Chinese characters affect eye movement control

Ma, Min-Yuan; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C) & Chuang, Hsien-Chih; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C)
This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules and identified the correlations between character form and legibility of crossing strokes; and Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective...

Attention distribution and cognitive load in a subtitled academic lecture: L1 vs. L2

Kruger, Jan-Louis; Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, & North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa, Matthew, Gordon; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa & Hefer, Esté; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
In multilingual classrooms, subtitling can be used to address the language needs of students from different linguistic backgrounds. The way students distribute their visual and cognitive resources during a lecture is important in educational design. Students have to shift their attention between sources of information of varying density and relevance. If there is redundancy between these sources, there will be competition and possible cognitive overload. This paper compares visual attention distribution between subtitles and other...

On object selection in gaze controlled environments

Urbina, Mario H.; Bauhaus-Universität Weimar & Huckauf, Anke; Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
In the past twenty years, gaze control has become a reliable alternative input method not only for handicapped users. The selection of objects, however, which is of highest importance and of highest frequency in computer control, requires explicit control not inherent in eye movements. Objects have been therefore usually selected via prolonged fixations (dwell times). Dwell times seemed to be for many years the unique reliable method for selection. In this paper, we review pros...

Eye Pointing in Stereoscopic Displays

Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology & Widyaningrum, Retno; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology
This study investigated eye pointing in stereoscopic displays. Ten participants performed 18 tapping tasks in stereoscopic displays with three different levels of parallax (at the screen, 20 cm and 50 cm in front of the screen). The results showed that parallax had significant effects on hand movement time, eye movement time, index of performance in hand click and eye gaze. The movement time was shorter and the performance was better when the target was at...

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